Abstract

We have developed a new method for characterizing the irradiance responsivity of filter radiometers. The method is based on a spatially uniform, known irradiance, generated by combining several identical laser beams. The measurement setup and the experimental demonstration at one wavelength are presented. The diffraction correction related to the generated irradiance is studied experimentally. The uncertainty analysis of the method indicates a relative standard uncertainty of 1 × 10-3. The results with the new method are compared with the characterization measurements based on our present spectral-irradiance scale. The results have a relative deviation of 1 × 10-3, which is well within the combined standard uncertainty of the comparison.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. M. Goodman, P. J. Key, “Radiometric realization of the candela,” Metrologia 25, 29–40 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. K. Tsai, “Developments for a new spectral irradiance scale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 551–558 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Carreras, A. Corrons, “Absolute spectroradiometric and photometric scales based on an electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1174–1177 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. J. Bruening, “Spectral irradiance scales based on filtered absolute silicon photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1051–1057 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. P. Boivin, A. A. Gaertner, D. S. Gignac, “Realization of the new candela (1979) at NRC,” Metrologia 24, 139–152 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. P. Boivin, A. A. Gaertner, “Realization of a spectral irradiance scale in the near infrared at the National Research Council of Canada,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6082–6095 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/96).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Kärhä, P. Toivanen, F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “Development of a detector-based spectral irradiance scale in the 380–900-nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8909–8918 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. White, N. P. Fox, V. E. Ralph, N. J. Harrison, “The characterization of a high-temperature blackbody as the basis for NPL spectral-irradiance scale,” Metrologia 32, 431–434 (1995/96).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lassila, P. Toivanen, E. Ikonen, “An optical method for direct determination of the radiometric aperture area at high accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 973–977 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Ikonen, P. Toivanen, A. Lassila, “A new optical method for high-accuracy determination of aperture area,” Metrologia (to be published).
  13. F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “High accuracy spectrometer for measurement of regular spectral transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3686–3692 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. P. Boivin, “Environmental corrections in absolute radiometry,” in Absolute Radiometry, F. Hengstberger, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), pp. 170–180.
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. K. Tsai, “Developments for a new spectral irradiance scale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 551–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Kärhä, P. Toivanen, F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “Development of a detector-based spectral irradiance scale in the 380–900-nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8909–8918 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lassila, P. Toivanen, E. Ikonen, “An optical method for direct determination of the radiometric aperture area at high accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 973–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

T. M. Goodman, P. J. Key, “Radiometric realization of the candela,” Metrologia 25, 29–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

R. J. Bruening, “Spectral irradiance scales based on filtered absolute silicon photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1051–1057 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Boivin, A. A. Gaertner, D. S. Gignac, “Realization of the new candela (1979) at NRC,” Metrologia 24, 139–152 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Boivin, L. P.

L. P. Boivin, A. A. Gaertner, “Realization of a spectral irradiance scale in the near infrared at the National Research Council of Canada,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6082–6095 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Boivin, A. A. Gaertner, D. S. Gignac, “Realization of the new candela (1979) at NRC,” Metrologia 24, 139–152 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Boivin, “Environmental corrections in absolute radiometry,” in Absolute Radiometry, F. Hengstberger, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), pp. 170–180.
[CrossRef]

Bruening, R. J.

Carreras, C.

Corrons, A.

Cromer, C. L.

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eppeldauer, G.

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fagerlund, H.

E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

M. White, N. P. Fox, V. E. Ralph, N. J. Harrison, “The characterization of a high-temperature blackbody as the basis for NPL spectral-irradiance scale,” Metrologia 32, 431–434 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Gaertner, A. A.

Gignac, D. S.

L. P. Boivin, A. A. Gaertner, D. S. Gignac, “Realization of the new candela (1979) at NRC,” Metrologia 24, 139–152 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, T. M.

T. M. Goodman, P. J. Key, “Radiometric realization of the candela,” Metrologia 25, 29–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hardis, J. E.

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, N. J.

M. White, N. P. Fox, V. E. Ralph, N. J. Harrison, “The characterization of a high-temperature blackbody as the basis for NPL spectral-irradiance scale,” Metrologia 32, 431–434 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

A. Lassila, P. Toivanen, E. Ikonen, “An optical method for direct determination of the radiometric aperture area at high accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 973–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Kärhä, P. Toivanen, F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “Development of a detector-based spectral irradiance scale in the 380–900-nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8909–8918 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “High accuracy spectrometer for measurement of regular spectral transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3686–3692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ikonen, P. Toivanen, A. Lassila, “A new optical method for high-accuracy determination of aperture area,” Metrologia (to be published).

Kärhä, P.

P. Kärhä, P. Toivanen, F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “Development of a detector-based spectral irradiance scale in the 380–900-nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8909–8918 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Key, P. J.

T. M. Goodman, P. J. Key, “Radiometric realization of the candela,” Metrologia 25, 29–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Larason, T. C.

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lassila, A.

A. Lassila, P. Toivanen, E. Ikonen, “An optical method for direct determination of the radiometric aperture area at high accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 973–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

E. Ikonen, P. Toivanen, A. Lassila, “A new optical method for high-accuracy determination of aperture area,” Metrologia (to be published).

Liedquist, L.

E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Manoochehri, F.

Ohno, Y.

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parr, A. C.

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, V. E.

M. White, N. P. Fox, V. E. Ralph, N. J. Harrison, “The characterization of a high-temperature blackbody as the basis for NPL spectral-irradiance scale,” Metrologia 32, 431–434 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Toivanen, P.

P. Kärhä, P. Toivanen, F. Manoochehri, E. Ikonen, “Development of a detector-based spectral irradiance scale in the 380–900-nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8909–8918 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lassila, P. Toivanen, E. Ikonen, “An optical method for direct determination of the radiometric aperture area at high accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 973–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Ikonen, P. Toivanen, A. Lassila, “A new optical method for high-accuracy determination of aperture area,” Metrologia (to be published).

Tsai, B. K.

B. K. Tsai, “Developments for a new spectral irradiance scale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 551–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, M.

M. White, N. P. Fox, V. E. Ralph, N. J. Harrison, “The characterization of a high-temperature blackbody as the basis for NPL spectral-irradiance scale,” Metrologia 32, 431–434 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (2)

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, Y. Ohno, A. C. Parr, “The NIST detector-based luminous intensity scale,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 109–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Tsai, “Developments for a new spectral irradiance scale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 551–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Lassila, P. Toivanen, E. Ikonen, “An optical method for direct determination of the radiometric aperture area at high accuracy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 973–977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (4)

T. M. Goodman, P. J. Key, “Radiometric realization of the candela,” Metrologia 25, 29–40 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Boivin, A. A. Gaertner, D. S. Gignac, “Realization of the new candela (1979) at NRC,” Metrologia 24, 139–152 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. White, N. P. Fox, V. E. Ralph, N. J. Harrison, “The characterization of a high-temperature blackbody as the basis for NPL spectral-irradiance scale,” Metrologia 32, 431–434 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

E. Ikonen, P. Kärhä, A. Lassila, F. Manoochehri, H. Fagerlund, L. Liedquist, “Radiometric realization of the candela with a trap detector,” Metrologia 32, 689–692 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Ikonen, P. Toivanen, A. Lassila, “A new optical method for high-accuracy determination of aperture area,” Metrologia (to be published).

L. P. Boivin, “Environmental corrections in absolute radiometry,” in Absolute Radiometry, F. Hengstberger, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), pp. 170–180.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Regular positioning of the laser beams. (b) Irradiance profile in the case of a spacing of w between the laser beams. (c) Irradiance profile in the case of a spacing of 0.63w between the laser beams. Parameter 2w is equal to the 1/e 2 diameter of the beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement setup for characterizing the filter radiometer.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty Budget of the Irradiance Responsivity Measurement

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results of Measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=REλEeλ,
Eeλ=nxnyPLnxΔx nyΔy=PLΔxΔy.
I=j=1nxk=1ny Ij,k.
REλ=j=1nxk=1ny Ij,kΔxΔyPL.

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