Abstract

We demonstrate a new configuration of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3 with 450-nm femtosecond pulses. The pump beam enters the -c face of the crystal at an acute angle with respect to the +c axis. This geometry is different from all known geometries of self-pumped phase conjugations in BaTiO3. Phase-conjugate reflectivity of 1.7% and a rise time of ∼24 s are obtained at an average pump power of 10 mW. The ability of the phase conjugator to serve phase distortions correctly is demonstrated. We propose that the femtosecond phase conjugator operate with the hologram mechanism sharing as the double phase conjugator. The self-pumped phase-conjugate pulses are analyzed by femtosecond electric-field cross correlation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. X. Dou, H. Gao, J. Zhang, Y. Lian, H. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Studies on formation mechanisms of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce crystals at wavelengths from 570 to 680 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1048–1055 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. B. Danailov, K. Diomande, P. Apai, R. Szipocs, “Phase conjugation of broadband laser pulses in BaTiO3,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 5–9 (1998).
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  18. C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. R. M. Brubaker, Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Bandwidth-limited diffraction of femtosecond pulses from photorefractive quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2150–2158 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J.-C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 2.
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  24. M. Zgonik, K. Nakagawa, P. Gunter, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of photorefractive BaTiO3 and KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1416–1421 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. B. Danailov, K. Diomande, P. Apai, R. Szipocs, “Phase conjugation of broadband laser pulses in BaTiO3,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 5–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. Brignon, J.-P. Huignard, M. H. Garrett, I. Mnushkina, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in rhodium-doped BaTiO3 with 1.06-µm nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 215–217 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Brubaker, Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Bandwidth-limited diffraction of femtosecond pulses from photorefractive quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2150–2158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (5)

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, “Photorefractive properties of Ce:BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 113, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Dou, H. Gao, J. Zhang, Y. Lian, H. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Studies on formation mechanisms of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce crystals at wavelengths from 570 to 680 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1048–1055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, K. Nakagawa, P. Gunter, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of photorefractive BaTiO3 and KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1416–1421 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kröse, R. Scharfschwerdt, O. F. Schirmer, H. Hesse, “Light-induced charge transport in BaTiO3 via three charge states of rhodium,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 1–7 (1995); U. van Stevendaal, K. Buse, S. Kämper, H. Hesse, X. Krätzig, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive barium titanate doped with rhodium and iron,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 315–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (3)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1985 (2)

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherent length operation, and mode-locked pumped in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131–1133 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, R. W. Hellwarth, “Optical phase conjugation by backscattering in barium titanate,” Opt. Lett. 10, 408–410 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, “Self-pumped, continuous-wave phase conjugator using internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 7, 486–488 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chaps. 2 and 3.

Apai, P.

M. B. Danailov, K. Diomande, P. Apai, R. Szipocs, “Phase conjugation of broadband laser pulses in BaTiO3,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 5–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brignon, A.

Brost, G. A.

Brubaker, R. M.

R. M. Brubaker, Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Bandwidth-limited diffraction of femtosecond pulses from photorefractive quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2150–2158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

Chen, J.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with femtosecond pulses by use of BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1168–1170 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, W. W.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

M. Cronin-Golomb, “Almost all transmission gratings self-pumped phase-conjugate mirrors are equivalent,” Opt. Lett. 15, 897–899 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherent length operation, and mode-locked pumped in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131–1133 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Danailov, M. B.

M. B. Danailov, K. Diomande, P. Apai, R. Szipocs, “Phase conjugation of broadband laser pulses in BaTiO3,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 5–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 2.

Ding, Y.

R. M. Brubaker, Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Bandwidth-limited diffraction of femtosecond pulses from photorefractive quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2150–2158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diomande, K.

M. B. Danailov, K. Diomande, P. Apai, R. Szipocs, “Phase conjugation of broadband laser pulses in BaTiO3,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 5–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dou, S. X.

Feinberg, J.

Fisher, B.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

Garrett, M. H.

Gunter, P.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Hesse, H.

H. Kröse, R. Scharfschwerdt, O. F. Schirmer, H. Hesse, “Light-induced charge transport in BaTiO3 via three charge states of rhodium,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 1–7 (1995); U. van Stevendaal, K. Buse, S. Kämper, H. Hesse, X. Krätzig, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive barium titanate doped with rhodium and iron,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 315–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hui, M.

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J.-P.

Jain, R. K.

Kröse, H.

H. Kröse, R. Scharfschwerdt, O. F. Schirmer, H. Hesse, “Light-induced charge transport in BaTiO3 via three charge states of rhodium,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 1–7 (1995); U. van Stevendaal, K. Buse, S. Kämper, H. Hesse, X. Krätzig, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive barium titanate doped with rhodium and iron,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 315–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lam, L. K.

Lian, Y.

Melloch, M. R.

R. M. Brubaker, Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Bandwidth-limited diffraction of femtosecond pulses from photorefractive quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2150–2158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. J.

Mnushkina, I.

Monson, B.

Motes, R. A.

Mott, A. G.

Mullen, R. A.

Nakagawa, K.

Nelson, C. C.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

Niu, X.

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

R. M. Brubaker, Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Bandwidth-limited diffraction of femtosecond pulses from photorefractive quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2150–2158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, E. Y.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with femtosecond pulses by use of BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1168–1170 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paslaski, J.

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherent length operation, and mode-locked pumped in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131–1133 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

Rotage, J. R.

Rudolph, W.

J.-C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 2.

Rytz, D.

Salamo, G. J.

Scharfschwerdt, R.

H. Kröse, R. Scharfschwerdt, O. F. Schirmer, H. Hesse, “Light-induced charge transport in BaTiO3 via three charge states of rhodium,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 1–7 (1995); U. van Stevendaal, K. Buse, S. Kämper, H. Hesse, X. Krätzig, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive barium titanate doped with rhodium and iron,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 315–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schartz, R. N.

Schirmer, O. F.

H. Kröse, R. Scharfschwerdt, O. F. Schirmer, H. Hesse, “Light-induced charge transport in BaTiO3 via three charge states of rhodium,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 1–7 (1995); U. van Stevendaal, K. Buse, S. Kämper, H. Hesse, X. Krätzig, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive barium titanate doped with rhodium and iron,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 315–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, E. J.

Stenersen, K.

Szipocs, R.

M. B. Danailov, K. Diomande, P. Apai, R. Szipocs, “Phase conjugation of broadband laser pulses in BaTiO3,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 5–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, D. J.

Wang, H.

Wang, P. J.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with femtosecond pulses by use of BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1168–1170 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wechsler, B. A.

Weiner, A. M.

R. M. Brubaker, Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, A. M. Weiner, “Bandwidth-limited diffraction of femtosecond pulses from photorefractive quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2150–2158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

West, L.

White, J. O.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wood, G. L.

Wu, X.

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, “Photorefractive properties of Ce:BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 113, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Dou, H. Gao, J. Zhang, Y. Lian, H. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Studies on formation mechanisms of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce crystals at wavelengths from 570 to 680 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1048–1055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Dou, H. Gao, J. Zhang, Y. Lian, H. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Studies on formation mechanisms of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce crystals at wavelengths from 570 to 680 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1048–1055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, “Photorefractive properties of Ce:BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 113, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherent length operation, and mode-locked pumped in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131–1133 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced gratings in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yau, H. F.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with femtosecond pulses by use of BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1168–1170 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, P.

Yeh, P.

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, “Photorefractive properties of Ce:BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 113, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, “Coupled mode theory of hologram sharing model of MPPC,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1961–1964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, X.

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

Zhang, J.

S. X. Dou, H. Gao, J. Zhang, Y. Lian, H. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Studies on formation mechanisms of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce crystals at wavelengths from 570 to 680 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1048–1055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, “Photorefractive properties of Ce:BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 113, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, T.

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

S. X. Dou, H. Gao, J. Zhang, Y. Lian, H. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Studies on formation mechanisms of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce crystals at wavelengths from 570 to 680 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1048–1055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, “Photorefractive properties of Ce:BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 113, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, P. Yeh, Y. Zhu, M. Hui, X. Wu, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive properties in cerium-doped BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4323–4330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, C. Yang, M. Hui, X. Niu, J. Zhang, T. Zhou, X. Wu, “Phase conjugation of BaTiO3:Ce by backward stimulated photorefractive scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2341–2343 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Kröse, R. Scharfschwerdt, O. F. Schirmer, H. Hesse, “Light-induced charge transport in BaTiO3 via three charge states of rhodium,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 1–7 (1995); U. van Stevendaal, K. Buse, S. Kämper, H. Hesse, X. Krätzig, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive barium titanate doped with rhodium and iron,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 315–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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Other (3)

J.-C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 2.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chaps. 2 and 3.

See, for example, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I and II, Vol. 62, Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989); P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for femtosecond SPPC in BaTiO3. The pump beam is a 450-nm femtosecond pulse with a duration of 100 fs: BBO, frequency-doubled crystal; BS, beam splitter; F, filter to cut off the fundamental wave of 900 nm; PC, phase-conjugate signal; L1, L2, L3, focusing lenses in which f = 80, 100, 300 mm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light path inside the crystal. The pump pulses enter the crystal from the -c face at an angle with respect to the -c axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Direction of the +c axis and the incident angle in air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steady-state femtosecond SPPC reflectivity versus the average pump intensity I in. θ = 44°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Femtosecond SPPC rise time versus the average pump intensity I in. θ = 44°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Steady-state phase-conjugate reflectivity versus the angle of incident θ. I in = 7.94 W/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Beam profiles: (a) incident beam from the frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser, (b) phase-conjugate beam with no phase aberrator in the optical path, (c) incident beam distorted by introduction of a phase plate aberrator, (d) phase-conjugate beam corrected for aberration caused by the aberrator. There are two images of the input beam because of two reflections from the front and the back surfaces of the beam splitter.

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