Abstract

A new method is proposed to derive the optical properties and size distribution of aerosol in an air column from simultaneous measurements of the backscattering coefficient, the optical thickness, and the solar aureole intensity with lidar, a sunphotometer, and an aureolemeter. Inasmuch as the backscattering properties and the optical thickness depend on both the complex refractive index and the size distribution, whereas the forward-scattering properties depend mainly on the size distribution, real and imaginary indices of refraction and size distributions of aerosol are retrieved from these measurements. The real and the imaginary parts of the complex refractive index of an aerosol at a wavelength of 500 nm during the period from November 1991 to March 1992 obtained in Tsukuba, Japan, were estimated to be 1.46–1.48 and 0.005–0.014, respectively. It is inferred from the size distribution and an optical thickness fraction of stratospheric aerosols in the total columnar aerosols that these results reflect the influences of stratospheric aerosols that originated from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  7. M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).
  8. M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. S. Kent, “Deduction of aerosol concentrations from 1.06-µm lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3763–3773 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Hayasaka, Y. Meguro, Y. Sasano, T. Takamura, “Stratification and size distribution of aerosols retrieved from simultaneous measurements with lidar, sunphotometer and aureolemeter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 961–970 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Quantitative analysis of RHI lidar data by an iterative adjustment of the boundary condition term in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 615–616 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).
  22. J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).
  24. T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pnatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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  26. T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).
  27. N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

1998

T. Hayasaka, Y. Meguro, Y. Sasano, T. Takamura, “Stratification and size distribution of aerosols retrieved from simultaneous measurements with lidar, sunphotometer and aureolemeter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 961–970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

1994

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pnatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sunphotometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

1992

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, S. Ohta, M. Tanaka, “Optical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. A 26, 2055–2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

1987

1986

1985

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

1984

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

J. A. Coakley, R. D. Cess, F. B. Yurevich, “The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the energy’s radiation budget: a parameterization for climate models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 116–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

1980

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Ch. Werner, “A joint lidar solar radiometer experiment,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 1649–1655 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

1974

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405–1412 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

Arao, K.

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

Asano, S.

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

Byrne, D. M.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R. D.

J. A. Coakley, R. D. Cess, F. B. Yurevich, “The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the energy’s radiation budget: a parameterization for climate models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 116–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

J. A. Coakley, R. D. Cess, F. B. Yurevich, “The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the energy’s radiation budget: a parameterization for climate models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 116–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cuzzi, J. N.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.-B.

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

Fernald, F. G.

Gerber, H. E.

H. E. Gerber, “Absorption of light by atmospheric aerosol particles: review of instrumentation and measurements,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, eds. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 21–53.

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Harshbadhan,

M. D. King, Harshbadhan, “Comparative accuracy of selected multiple scattering approximations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 784–801 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hashida, G.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pnatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, T.

T. Hayasaka, Y. Meguro, Y. Sasano, T. Takamura, “Stratification and size distribution of aerosols retrieved from simultaneous measurements with lidar, sunphotometer and aureolemeter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 961–970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pnatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sunphotometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, S. Ohta, M. Tanaka, “Optical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. A 26, 2055–2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, B. M.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, N.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pnatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kai, K.

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Ch. Werner, “A joint lidar solar radiometer experiment,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 1649–1655 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, “Deduction of aerosol concentrations from 1.06-µm lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3763–3773 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, Harshbadhan, “Comparative accuracy of selected multiple scattering approximations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 784–801 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Köpp, F.

G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Ch. Werner, “A joint lidar solar radiometer experiment,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 1649–1655 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).

Matsui, I.

Meguro, Y.

Miyake, Y.

Nakajima, T.

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, S. Ohta, M. Tanaka, “Optical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. A 26, 2055–2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

Nakane, H.

Nakanishi, Y.

Niimura, N.

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

Ohta, S.

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, S. Ohta, M. Tanaka, “Optical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. A 26, 2055–2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okada, K.

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

Pollack, J. B.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-lidar aerosol extinction measurements and their relation to measured and calculated albedo changes,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204–1221 (1984).

Sasamoto, K.

Sasano, Y.

Shi, G.-Y.

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

Shimizu, H.

Shiobara, M.

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and influence of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, B. M. Herman, “Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Takahashi, S.

N. Niimura, K. Okada, X.-B. Fan, K. Kai, K. Arao, G.-Y. Shi, S. Takahashi, “Formation of Asian dust-storm particles mixed internally with sea salt in the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 76, 275–288 (1998).

Takamura, T.

T. Hayasaka, Y. Meguro, Y. Sasano, T. Takamura, “Stratification and size distribution of aerosols retrieved from simultaneous measurements with lidar, sunphotometer and aureolemeter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 961–970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sunphotometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

Takeuchi, N.

Takizawa, I.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pnatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Hayasaka, N. Iwasaka, G. Hashida, I. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, “Changes in stratospheric aerosols and solar insolation due to Mt. Pnatubo eruption as observed over the Western Pacific,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1137–1140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, S. Ohta, M. Tanaka, “Optical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. A 26, 2055–2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1272 (1982).

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405–1412 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447–453 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, A.

S. Asano, A. Uchiyama, M. Shiobara, “Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 165–173 (1993).

Werner, Ch.

G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Ch. Werner, “A joint lidar solar radiometer experiment,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 1649–1655 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, G.

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405–1412 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447–453 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurevich, F. B.

J. A. Coakley, R. D. Cess, F. B. Yurevich, “The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the energy’s radiation budget: a parameterization for climate models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 116–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

T. Hayasaka, Y. Meguro, Y. Sasano, T. Takamura, “Stratification and size distribution of aerosols retrieved from simultaneous measurements with lidar, sunphotometer and aureolemeter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 961–970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Quantitative analysis of RHI lidar data by an iterative adjustment of the boundary condition term in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 615–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sunphotometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, “Determination of aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 8, 447–453 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, Y. Miyake, Y. Nakanishi, K. Sasamoto, “Airborne measurements of the optical stratification of aerosols in turbid atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4374–4381 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of the relationship among optical thickness, extinction-to-backscattering ratio S 1, and complex refractive index of aerosols in the air column on 25 November 1991. The optical thickness and S 1 were obtained from the combined measurement with the sunphotometer and lidar. The one solid and two dotted curves indicate the relationship between optical thickness and S 1 and its standard deviation estimated from uncertainties of lidar backscattering measurements. The dotted grid was obtained from analysis of aureolemeter data with various values of real and imaginary indices of refraction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase functions of aerosol at 500 nm retrieved from aureolemeter data analysis on 25 November 1991 with several refractive-index values corresponding to those in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieved volume size distributions of aerosols on 25 November 1991, corresponding to various complex refractive indices shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aerosol size distributions retrieved from aureolemeter measurements corresponding to the dates for refractive-index retrieval listed in Table 1. These size distributions were retrieved for the nearest value of the complex refractive index to those used in the analysis in Fig. 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Real and Imaginary Indices of Refraction, Extinction-to-Backscattering Ratio S1 and Optical Thickness of Aerosol Obtained from Simultaneous Measurements with Lidar, Sunphotometer, and Aureolemeter

Equations (1)

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Rθ=EθmFdΩ,

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