Abstract

The U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring Program measures ultraviolet light at seven wavelengths from 300 to 368 nm with an ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UV-MFRSR) at 25 sites across the United States, including Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Column ozone has been retrieved under all-sky conditions near Boulder, Colorado (40.177 °N, 105.276 °W), from global irradiances of the UV-MFRSR 332- and 305-nm channels (2 nm FWHM) using lookup tables generated from a multiple-scattering radiative transfer code suitable for solar zenith angles (SZA’s) up to 90°. The most significant sources of error for UV-MFRSR column ozone retrievals at SZA’s less than 75° are the spectral characterizations of the filters and the absolute calibration uncertainty, which together yield an estimated uncertainty in ozone retrievals of ±4.0%. Using model sensitivity studies, we determined that the retrieved column ozone is relatively insensitive (<±2%) to typical variations in aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, surface pressure, stratospheric temperature, and surface albedo. For 5 months in 1996–1997 the mean ratio of column ozone retrieved by the UV-MFRSR divided by that retrieved by the collocated Brewer was 1.024 and for the UV-MFRSR divided by those from a nearby Dobson was 1.025. The accuracy of the retrieval becomes unreliable at large SZA’s of more than 75° as the detection limit of the 305-nm channel is reached and because of overall angular response errors. The UV-MFRSR advantages of relatively low cost, unattended operation, automated calibration stability checks using Langley plots, and minimal maintenance make it a unique instrument for column ozone measurement.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. D. Bojkov, V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,537–16,551 (1995).
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  4. D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. E. Basher, W. A. Matthews, “Problems in the use of interference filters for spectrophotometric determination of total ozone,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 795–802 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. E. Flynn, G. J. Labow, M. A. Rawlins, R. A. Beach, C. A. Simmons, C. M. Schubert, “Estimation of ozone with total ozone portable spectroradiometer instruments: I. Theoretical model and error analysis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6076–6083 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation factors for altitudes to 50 km,” (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1968).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. K. F. Evans, “The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 429–446 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. J. Barnett, M. Corney, “Middle atmosphere reference model derived from satellite data,” in Middle Atmospheric Program Handbook, K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnett, B. Edwards, eds. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestral Physics, Urbana, Ill., 1985), Vol. 16.
  39. J. Michalsky, State University of New York, Albany, N.Y. (personal communication, 1998).
  40. D. S. Bigelow, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. (personal communication, 1998).

1998 (5)

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Matzler, N. Kampfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical evidence,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface UV irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols. 1. Cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Evans, “The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 429–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. A. Newman, J. F. Gleason, R. D. McPeters, R. S. Stolarski, “Anomalously low ozone over the Arctic,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2689–2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Fioletov, J. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, “The relationship between total ozone and spectral UV irradiance from Brewer observations and its use for derivation of total ozone for UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2997–3000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

1995 (3)

J. Zeng, R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, “Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,019–23,030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Bojkov, V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,537–16,551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

W. D. Komhyr, C. L. Mateer, R. D. Hudson, “Effective Bass-Paur 1985 ozone absorption coefficients for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 451–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. L. Mateer, J. J. Deluisi, “A new Umkehr inversion algorithm,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 537–556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Stamnes, J. R. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Stamnes, S. Pegau, J. Frederick, “Uncertainties in total ozone amounts inferred from zenith sky observations: implications for ozone trend analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,523–16,528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. VanHoosier, J. Bartoe, G. Brueckner, D. Prinz, “Absolute solar spectral irradiance 120 nm-410 nm (results from the solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor—SUSIM—experiment onboard Spacelab 2),” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 27, 163–167 (1988).

J. B. Kerr, I. A. Asbridge, W. F. J. Evans, “Intercomparison of total ozone measured by the Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers at Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 11,129–11,140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185-350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. D. Komhyr, R. D. Evans, “Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone measurement errors caused by interfering absorbing species such as SO2, NO2, and photochemically produced O3 in polluted air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 157–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. E. Basher, W. A. Matthews, “Problems in the use of interference filters for spectrophotometric determination of total ozone,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 795–802 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

G. M. B. Dobson, “Observers’ handbook for the ozone spectrophotometer,” Ann. Int. Geophys. Year 5, 46–89 (1957).

Ahmad, Z.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, J. Ziemke, Z. Ahmad, D. Larko, “UV-B increases (1979–1992) from decreases in total ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2117–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asbridge, I. A.

J. B. Kerr, I. A. Asbridge, W. F. J. Evans, “Intercomparison of total ozone measured by the Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers at Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 11,129–11,140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, J. J.

J. J. Barnett, M. Corney, “Middle atmosphere reference model derived from satellite data,” in Middle Atmospheric Program Handbook, K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnett, B. Edwards, eds. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestral Physics, Urbana, Ill., 1985), Vol. 16.

Bartoe, J.

M. E. VanHoosier, J. Bartoe, G. Brueckner, D. Prinz, “Absolute solar spectral irradiance 120 nm-410 nm (results from the solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor—SUSIM—experiment onboard Spacelab 2),” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 27, 163–167 (1988).

Basher, R. E.

R. E. Basher, W. A. Matthews, “Problems in the use of interference filters for spectrophotometric determination of total ozone,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 795–802 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bass, A. M.

A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross sections of ozone. I. The measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 611–617.

Beach, R. A.

Beaubien, A. F.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J.

Bhartia, P. K.

N. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface UV irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols. 1. Cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, J. Ziemke, Z. Ahmad, D. Larko, “UV-B increases (1979–1992) from decreases in total ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2117–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, D. S.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bigelow, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. (personal communication, 1998).

Biggar, S. F.

Bojkov, R. D.

R. D. Bojkov, V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,537–16,551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Booth, C. R.

C. R. Booth, “Synthetic UV spectroradiometry,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 849–852.

Bowen, M.

Brueckner, G.

M. E. VanHoosier, J. Bartoe, G. Brueckner, D. Prinz, “Absolute solar spectral irradiance 120 nm-410 nm (results from the solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor—SUSIM—experiment onboard Spacelab 2),” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 27, 163–167 (1988).

Corney, M.

J. J. Barnett, M. Corney, “Middle atmosphere reference model derived from satellite data,” in Middle Atmospheric Program Handbook, K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnett, B. Edwards, eds. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestral Physics, Urbana, Ill., 1985), Vol. 16.

Dahlback, A.

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Deluisi, J. J.

C. L. Mateer, J. J. Deluisi, “A new Umkehr inversion algorithm,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 537–556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, G. M. B.

G. M. B. Dobson, “Observers’ handbook for the ozone spectrophotometer,” Ann. Int. Geophys. Year 5, 46–89 (1957).

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation factors for altitudes to 50 km,” (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1968).

Evans, K. F.

K. F. Evans, “The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 429–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. D.

W. D. Komhyr, R. D. Evans, “Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone measurement errors caused by interfering absorbing species such as SO2, NO2, and photochemically produced O3 in polluted air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 157–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Evans, NOAA/CMDL, Boulder Colorado (personal communication, 1998).

Evans, W. F. J.

J. B. Kerr, I. A. Asbridge, W. F. J. Evans, “Intercomparison of total ozone measured by the Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers at Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 11,129–11,140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer for measurement of SO2, O3, and aerosols,” in the Proceedings of the WMO/AMS/CMOS Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1983), pp. 470–472.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.

Fioletov, V.

N. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface UV irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols. 1. Cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fioletov, V. E.

V. E. Fioletov, J. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, “The relationship between total ozone and spectral UV irradiance from Brewer observations and its use for derivation of total ozone for UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2997–3000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Bojkov, V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,537–16,551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, L. E.

Frederick, J.

K. Stamnes, S. Pegau, J. Frederick, “Uncertainties in total ozone amounts inferred from zenith sky observations: implications for ozone trend analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,523–16,528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J. H.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J. F.

P. A. Newman, J. F. Gleason, R. D. McPeters, R. S. Stolarski, “Anomalously low ozone over the Arctic,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2689–2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L.

Herman, J. R.

N. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface UV irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols. 1. Cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, J. Ziemke, Z. Ahmad, D. Larko, “UV-B increases (1979–1992) from decreases in total ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2117–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, R. D.

W. D. Komhyr, C. L. Mateer, R. D. Hudson, “Effective Bass-Paur 1985 ozone absorption coefficients for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 451–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ingold, T.

Jayaweera, K.

Kampfer, N.

Kerr, J.

N. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface UV irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols. 1. Cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Fioletov, J. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, “The relationship between total ozone and spectral UV irradiance from Brewer observations and its use for derivation of total ozone for UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2997–3000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

J. B. Kerr, I. A. Asbridge, W. F. J. Evans, “Intercomparison of total ozone measured by the Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers at Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 11,129–11,140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer for measurement of SO2, O3, and aerosols,” in the Proceedings of the WMO/AMS/CMOS Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1983), pp. 470–472.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.

Komhyr, W. D.

W. D. Komhyr, C. L. Mateer, R. D. Hudson, “Effective Bass-Paur 1985 ozone absorption coefficients for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 451–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Komhyr, R. D. Evans, “Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone measurement errors caused by interfering absorbing species such as SO2, NO2, and photochemically produced O3 in polluted air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 157–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Komhyr, “Operations handbook—ozone observations with a Dobson spectrophotometer,” in WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva Switzerland, 1980).

Krotkov, N.

N. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface UV irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols. 1. Cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical evidence,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Labow, G. J.

Larko, D.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, J. Ziemke, Z. Ahmad, D. Larko, “UV-B increases (1979–1992) from decreases in total ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2117–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Madronich, S.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical evidence,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Madronich, “UV radiation in the natural and perturbed atmosphere,” in Environmental Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation, (Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993), pp. 17–69.

Mateer, C. L.

W. D. Komhyr, C. L. Mateer, R. D. Hudson, “Effective Bass-Paur 1985 ozone absorption coefficients for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 451–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Mateer, J. J. Deluisi, “A new Umkehr inversion algorithm,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 537–556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, W. A.

R. E. Basher, W. A. Matthews, “Problems in the use of interference filters for spectrophotometric determination of total ozone,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 795–802 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Matzler, C.

Mayer, B.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical evidence,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, “Retrieving ozone column from spectral direct and global UV irradiance measurements,” presented at the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy, 12–21 September 1996.

McElroy, C. T.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer for measurement of SO2, O3, and aerosols,” in the Proceedings of the WMO/AMS/CMOS Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1983), pp. 470–472.

McKenzie, R.

J. Zeng, R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, “Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,019–23,030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R. D.

P. A. Newman, J. F. Gleason, R. D. McPeters, R. S. Stolarski, “Anomalously low ozone over the Arctic,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2689–2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J.

Molina, L. T.

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185-350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185-350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P. A.

P. A. Newman, J. F. Gleason, R. D. McPeters, R. S. Stolarski, “Anomalously low ozone over the Arctic,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2689–2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olafson, R. A.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.

Paur, R. J.

A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross sections of ozone. I. The measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 611–617.

Pegau, S.

K. Stamnes, S. Pegau, J. Frederick, “Uncertainties in total ozone amounts inferred from zenith sky observations: implications for ozone trend analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,523–16,528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prinz, D.

M. E. VanHoosier, J. Bartoe, G. Brueckner, D. Prinz, “Absolute solar spectral irradiance 120 nm-410 nm (results from the solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor—SUSIM—experiment onboard Spacelab 2),” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 27, 163–167 (1988).

Rawlins, M. A.

Schmid, B.

Schubert, C. M.

Seckmeyer, G.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical evidence,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, “Retrieving ozone column from spectral direct and global UV irradiance measurements,” presented at the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy, 12–21 September 1996.

Sekler, J.

Simmons, C. A.

Slusser, J. R.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. R. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spyak, P. R.

Stamnes, K.

J. Zeng, R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, “Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,019–23,030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. R. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S. Pegau, J. Frederick, “Uncertainties in total ozone amounts inferred from zenith sky observations: implications for ozone trend analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,523–16,528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolarski, R. S.

P. A. Newman, J. F. Gleason, R. D. McPeters, R. S. Stolarski, “Anomalously low ozone over the Arctic,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2689–2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

VanHoosier, M. E.

M. E. VanHoosier, J. Bartoe, G. Brueckner, D. Prinz, “Absolute solar spectral irradiance 120 nm-410 nm (results from the solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor—SUSIM—experiment onboard Spacelab 2),” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 27, 163–167 (1988).

Wardle, D. I.

V. E. Fioletov, J. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, “The relationship between total ozone and spectral UV irradiance from Brewer observations and its use for derivation of total ozone for UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2997–3000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.

Wehrli, C.

Wineland, M.

J. Zeng, R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, “Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,019–23,030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W.

Zeng, J.

J. Zeng, R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, “Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,019–23,030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ziemke, J.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, J. Ziemke, Z. Ahmad, D. Larko, “UV-B increases (1979–1992) from decreases in total ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2117–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Int. Geophys. Year (1)

G. M. B. Dobson, “Observers’ handbook for the ozone spectrophotometer,” Ann. Int. Geophys. Year 5, 46–89 (1957).

Appl. Opt. (9)

B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Matzler, N. Kampfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, “Objective algorithms for the retrieval of optical depths from ground-based measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5126–5132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, J. Berndt, “Automated multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer: an instrument for optical depth and radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5118–5125 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, J. R. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Flynn, G. J. Labow, M. A. Rawlins, R. A. Beach, C. A. Simmons, C. M. Schubert, “Estimation of ozone with total ozone portable spectroradiometer instruments: I. Theoretical model and error analysis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6076–6083 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Labow, L. E. Flynn, M. A. Rawlins, R. A. Beach, C. A. Simmons, C. M. Schubert, “Estimation of ozone with total ozone portable spectroradiometer instruments: II. Practical operation and comparisons,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6084–6089 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. Lett. Commun. (1)

M. E. VanHoosier, J. Bartoe, G. Brueckner, D. Prinz, “Absolute solar spectral irradiance 120 nm-410 nm (results from the solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor—SUSIM—experiment onboard Spacelab 2),” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 27, 163–167 (1988).

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, J. H. Gibson, “The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601–615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

V. E. Fioletov, J. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, “The relationship between total ozone and spectral UV irradiance from Brewer observations and its use for derivation of total ozone for UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2997–3000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Newman, J. F. Gleason, R. D. McPeters, R. S. Stolarski, “Anomalously low ozone over the Arctic,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2689–2692 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, J. Ziemke, Z. Ahmad, D. Larko, “UV-B increases (1979–1992) from decreases in total ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2117–2120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Komhyr, R. D. Evans, “Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone measurement errors caused by interfering absorbing species such as SO2, NO2, and photochemically produced O3 in polluted air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 157–160 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

R. E. Basher, W. A. Matthews, “Problems in the use of interference filters for spectrophotometric determination of total ozone,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 795–802 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

K. F. Evans, “The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 429–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

C. L. Mateer, J. J. Deluisi, “A new Umkehr inversion algorithm,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 537–556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

W. D. Komhyr, C. L. Mateer, R. D. Hudson, “Effective Bass-Paur 1985 ozone absorption coefficients for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 451–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical evidence,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S. Pegau, J. Frederick, “Uncertainties in total ozone amounts inferred from zenith sky observations: implications for ozone trend analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16,523–16,528 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185-350 nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14,501–14,508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface UV irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols. 1. Cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zeng, R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, “Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23,019–23,030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Bojkov, V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,537–16,551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, I. A. Asbridge, W. F. J. Evans, “Intercomparison of total ozone measured by the Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers at Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 11,129–11,140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

S. Madronich, “UV radiation in the natural and perturbed atmosphere,” in Environmental Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation, (Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993), pp. 17–69.

L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation factors for altitudes to 50 km,” (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1968).

B. Mayer, G. Seckmeyer, “Retrieving ozone column from spectral direct and global UV irradiance measurements,” presented at the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy, 12–21 September 1996.

C. R. Booth, “Synthetic UV spectroradiometry,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 849–852.

A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross sections of ozone. I. The measurements,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 611–617.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer for measurement of SO2, O3, and aerosols,” in the Proceedings of the WMO/AMS/CMOS Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1983), pp. 470–472.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, C. S. Zeferos, A. Ghazi, eds., (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.

R. D. Evans, NOAA/CMDL, Boulder Colorado (personal communication, 1998).

W. D. Komhyr, “Operations handbook—ozone observations with a Dobson spectrophotometer,” in WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva Switzerland, 1980).

J. J. Barnett, M. Corney, “Middle atmosphere reference model derived from satellite data,” in Middle Atmospheric Program Handbook, K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnett, B. Edwards, eds. (Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestral Physics, Urbana, Ill., 1985), Vol. 16.

J. Michalsky, State University of New York, Albany, N.Y. (personal communication, 1998).

D. S. Bigelow, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. (personal communication, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of column ozone retrieved by UV-MFRSR, Dobson, and Brewer for 3 months in 1996 near Boulder, Colorado. The mean ratio of the UV-MFRSR divided by the Dobson was 1.021, and the mean ratio of the UV-MFRSR divided by the Brewer was 1.010.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of column ozone retrieved by the UV-MFRSR, Dobson, and Brewer for May and June 1997. The mean ratio of the UV-MFRSR divided by the Dobson was 1.028 and the mean ratio of the UV-MFRSR and the Brewer was 1.037.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differences in N value (the 332-nm/305-nm ratio) and associated error in retrieved ozone that is due to varying the cloud optical depth for low (1–2-km), middle (4–5-km), and high (9–10-km) clouds. The computations were performed for 300 DU and SZA of 45°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 except the computations were performed for SZA of 70°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time series of the UV-MFRSR global irradiances for 9 May 1997 at Table Mountain, Colorado. At SZA more than 75°, the 305-nm channel has reached its detection limit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time series of UV-MFRSR ozone retrievals for 9 May 1997. At SZA less than 75°, the values are within ±5 DU of the average of the 30°, 25°, 25°, and 30° results. After the detection limit of the 305-nm channel is reached for SZA more than 75°, the ozone retrievals become unreliable. This plot is typical of many other days.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Ozone Retrieval Comparison Results

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sensitivity of the UV-MFRSR Ozone Retrievals to Changes in Atmospheric Propertiesa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Worst-Case Sensitivity of the UV-MFRSR Ozone Retrievals to Change in Cloud Height and Optical Deptha

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of Ozone Absorption Coefficients α used by Dobson and Brewer (Bass and Paur) and UV-MFRSR (Molina and Molina) Averaged over the Filter Bandpass

Tables Icon

Table 5 Effects of Instrument Uncertainties on Ozone Retrievals

Equations (1)

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N= F2λIλdλ F2λdλ F1λIλdλ F1λdλ.

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