Abstract

The first (to our knowledge) III–V mid-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (λ = 2.9 µm) are demonstrated and show promising characteristics for chemical detection applications. The cw optical-pumping threshold is low (4 mW at 80 K) and efficiency is high (5.6% W/W). Pulsed operation is obtained up to 280 K and cw up to 160 K. Lateral-mode confinement will lead to spectrally pure, single-mode output for chemical identification.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Bauer, M. Kriechbaum, Z. Shi, M. Tacke, “IV–VI quantum wells for infrared lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 283–312 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.
  3. D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, J. C. Graf, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Laser based absorption sensor for trace gas monitoring in a spacecraft environment,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.
  4. T. Töpfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8042–8049 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. U. Martinelli, “Mid-infrared wavelengths enhance trace-gas sensing,” Laser Focus World 32(3) , 77–81 (1996).
  7. E. Hadji, J. Bleuse, N. Magnea, J. L. Pautrat, “Photopumped infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2480–2482 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. R. Ram-Mohan, J. R. Meyer, “Multiband finite element modeling of wavefunction-engineered electro-optical devices,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 191–243 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Mid-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 147–156 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Q. Le, C. W. Turner, J. R. Ochoa, “Turn-key, liquid-nitrogen-cooled 3.9 µm semiconductor laser package with 0.2 W cw output,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2359–2360 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Yang, P. Blood, J. S. Roberts, “Edge-emitting quantum well laser with Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2949–2951 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Mid-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

T. Töpfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8042–8049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. U. Martinelli, “Mid-infrared wavelengths enhance trace-gas sensing,” Laser Focus World 32(3) , 77–81 (1996).

E. Hadji, J. Bleuse, N. Magnea, J. L. Pautrat, “Photopumped infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2480–2482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Le, C. W. Turner, J. R. Ochoa, “Turn-key, liquid-nitrogen-cooled 3.9 µm semiconductor laser package with 0.2 W cw output,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2359–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

F. Yang, P. Blood, J. S. Roberts, “Edge-emitting quantum well laser with Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2949–2951 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bauer, M. Kriechbaum, Z. Shi, M. Tacke, “IV–VI quantum wells for infrared lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 283–312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Ram-Mohan, J. R. Meyer, “Multiband finite element modeling of wavefunction-engineered electro-optical devices,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 191–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aifer, E. H.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, C.

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

Baranov, A. N.

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G.

G. Bauer, M. Kriechbaum, Z. Shi, M. Tacke, “IV–VI quantum wells for infrared lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 283–312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bleuse, J.

E. Hadji, J. Bleuse, N. Magnea, J. L. Pautrat, “Photopumped infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2480–2482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blood, P.

F. Yang, P. Blood, J. S. Roberts, “Edge-emitting quantum well laser with Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2949–2951 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, A.

A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boissier, G.

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, P. D.

R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chow, D. H.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

T. Töpfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8042–8049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, J. C. Graf, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Laser based absorption sensor for trace gas monitoring in a spacecraft environment,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Felix, C. L.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

Gaillard, S.

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Graf, J. C.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, J. C. Graf, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Laser based absorption sensor for trace gas monitoring in a spacecraft environment,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Grech, P.

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hadji, E.

E. Hadji, J. Bleuse, N. Magnea, J. L. Pautrat, “Photopumped infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2480–2482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, C. A.

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

Hui, D.

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

Jundt, D.

Kriechbaum, M.

G. Bauer, M. Kriechbaum, Z. Shi, M. Tacke, “IV–VI quantum wells for infrared lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 283–312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, J. C. Graf, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Laser based absorption sensor for trace gas monitoring in a spacecraft environment,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Le, H. Q.

H. Q. Le, C. W. Turner, J. R. Ochoa, “Turn-key, liquid-nitrogen-cooled 3.9 µm semiconductor laser package with 0.2 W cw output,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2359–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magnea, N.

E. Hadji, J. Bleuse, N. Magnea, J. L. Pautrat, “Photopumped infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2480–2482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

R. U. Martinelli, “Mid-infrared wavelengths enhance trace-gas sensing,” Laser Focus World 32(3) , 77–81 (1996).

Meyer, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Mid-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Ram-Mohan, J. R. Meyer, “Multiband finite element modeling of wavefunction-engineered electro-optical devices,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 191–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. H.

R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mine, Y.

Murry, S. J.

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, J. R.

H. Q. Le, C. W. Turner, J. R. Ochoa, “Turn-key, liquid-nitrogen-cooled 3.9 µm semiconductor laser package with 0.2 W cw output,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2359–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olafsen, L. J.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, T. L.

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

Pautrat, J. L.

E. Hadji, J. Bleuse, N. Magnea, J. L. Pautrat, “Photopumped infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2480–2482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S.-S.

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, K.

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

Petrov, K. P.

Ram-Mohan, L. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Mid-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Ram-Mohan, J. R. Meyer, “Multiband finite element modeling of wavefunction-engineered electro-optical devices,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 191–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, J. C. Graf, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Laser based absorption sensor for trace gas monitoring in a spacecraft environment,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Roberts, J. S.

F. Yang, P. Blood, J. S. Roberts, “Edge-emitting quantum well laser with Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2949–2951 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rouillard, Y.

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, A. T.

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

Selvig, E.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

G. Bauer, M. Kriechbaum, Z. Shi, M. Tacke, “IV–VI quantum wells for infrared lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 283–312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tacke, M.

G. Bauer, M. Kriechbaum, Z. Shi, M. Tacke, “IV–VI quantum wells for infrared lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 283–312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

T. Töpfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8042–8049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, J. C. Graf, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Laser based absorption sensor for trace gas monitoring in a spacecraft environment,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

Töpfer, T.

Turner, C. W.

H. Q. Le, C. W. Turner, J. R. Ochoa, “Turn-key, liquid-nitrogen-cooled 3.9 µm semiconductor laser package with 0.2 W cw output,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2359–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Mid-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. G.

R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, P. Blood, J. S. Roberts, “Edge-emitting quantum well laser with Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2949–2951 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-H.

R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

E. Hadji, J. Bleuse, N. Magnea, J. L. Pautrat, “Photopumped infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2480–2482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Felix, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Midinfrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3483–3485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, C. A. Hoffman, F. J. Bartoli, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II quantum-well lasers for the mid-wavelength infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 757–759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Olafsen, E. H. Aifer, I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, D. Zhang, C.-H. Lin, S. S. Pei, “Near-room-temperature mid-IR interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2370–2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Miles, D. H. Chow, Y.-H. Zhang, P. D. Brewer, R. G. Wilson, “Midwave infrared stimulated emission from a GaInSb/InAs superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1921–1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, P. Blood, J. S. Roberts, “Edge-emitting quantum well laser with Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2949–2951 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Q. Le, C. W. Turner, J. R. Ochoa, “Turn-key, liquid-nitrogen-cooled 3.9 µm semiconductor laser package with 0.2 W cw output,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2359–2360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Baranov, Y. Rouillard, G. Boissier, P. Grech, S. Gaillard, C. Alibert, “Sb-based monolithic VCSEL operating near 2.2 µm at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 34, 281–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Mid-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 147–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. L. Felix, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, C.-H. Lin, S. J. Murry, D. Zhang, S.-S. Pei, “High-temperature 4.5 µm type-II quantum well laser with Auger suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 734–736 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, J. R. Meyer, L. Goldberg, J. R. Lindle, D. H. Chow, E. Selvig, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 660–662 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (2)

G. Bauer, M. Kriechbaum, Z. Shi, M. Tacke, “IV–VI quantum wells for infrared lasers,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 283–312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Ram-Mohan, J. R. Meyer, “Multiband finite element modeling of wavefunction-engineered electro-optical devices,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 191–243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World (1)

R. U. Martinelli, “Mid-infrared wavelengths enhance trace-gas sensing,” Laser Focus World 32(3) , 77–81 (1996).

Other (2)

D. J. Bamford, K. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, D. Hui, S. J. Field, “Mid-infrared laser source for gas sensing based on frequency-converted diode lasers,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 117–119.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, J. C. Graf, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Laser based absorption sensor for trace gas monitoring in a spacecraft environment,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 125–127.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

VCSEL power-conversion efficiencies for pulsed (open squares) and cw (filled squares) pumping at λ = 1.06 µm as functions of temperature for a 100-µm-diameter spot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Threshold intensity versus temperature for both pulsed 2.1-µm (open circles) and cw 1.06-µm (filled circles) pumping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power versus pump power at 78 K for 50- and 200-µm spot sizes, for quasi-cw (dashed curves) and cw (solid curves) operations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated cw output power exiting the top mirror of a W interband-cascade VCSEL (ICVCSEL) emitting at λ ≈ 3.0 µm for several operating temperatures. The aperture diameter is 10 µm, the active-region diameter is 20 µm, and the center-to-center element separation is 100 µm.

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