Abstract

Antimonide semiconductor laser devices designed for continuous-wave emission in the 3–4-µm spectral range have been investigated with respect to spectroscopic applications. Representative data on the mode structure, output power, noise characteristics, far-field pattern, and modulation response are presented. Selected laser devices have been applied for methane (CH4) and formaldehyde (HCHO) measurements by use of a high-frequency modulated diode laser spectrometer. From an Allan variance analysis of experimental data a detection limit for HCHO of 120 pptv (where 1 pptv = 10-12 volume mixing ratio) with a 40-s integration time and for CH4 of 2 ppbv (where 1 ppbv = 10-9 volume mixing ratio) with 20-s integration time were determined. The results show that, for selected gases, InAsSb lasers can be an alternative to lead-salt diode lasers.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based trace gas analyzers,” Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197–236 (1998) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, “Near-infrared trace gas sensors based on room temperature diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 307–315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  5. A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Tuning and spectral performance of mid-infrared InAsSb lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 46–56 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).
  13. D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Real-time mesurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 339–345 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. A. Rooth, N. V. Kema, “Spectroscopic measurements of the ν2 + 2ν3 band of CH4 with a 1.3 µm InGaAsP diode laser,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 265–273.
  18. D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emission from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Werle, “Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency modulated diode laser spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 499–506 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real time signal processing concepts for trace gas analysis by TDLAS,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3105 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Werle, B. Jänker, “High frequency modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2051–2057 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Werle, F. Slemr, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis in laser absorption spectroscopy using optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 30, 430–434 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. Werle, S. Lechner, “Recent findings and approaches for the suppression of fluctuations and background drifts in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 68–78 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Q. Yang, S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (4)

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based trace gas analyzers,” Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197–236 (1998) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, “Near-infrared trace gas sensors based on room temperature diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Real-time mesurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 339–345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

P. Werle, B. Jänker, “High frequency modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2051–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emission from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency modulated diode laser spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 499–506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real time signal processing concepts for trace gas analysis by TDLAS,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Abeles, J.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, A.

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bechara, J.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Billesbach, D.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carlisle, C. B.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-N. G.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clement, R. J.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conolly, J. C.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. E.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Real-time mesurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 339–345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D’Amato, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, “Near-infrared trace gas sensors based on room temperature diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

den Hartog, G.

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, G. C.

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gabuzov, D. Z.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gilpin, T.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henry, B.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hovde, D. C.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emission from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jänker, B.

P. Werle, B. Jänker, “High frequency modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2051–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kema, N. V.

R. A. Rooth, N. V. Kema, “Spectroscopic measurements of the ν2 + 2ν3 band of CH4 with a 1.3 µm InGaAsP diode laser,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 265–273.

Kidd, G.

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kormann, R.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Lancaster, D. G.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Real-time mesurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 339–345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lancia, T.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, “Near-infrared trace gas sensors based on room temperature diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lechner, S.

P. Werle, S. Lechner, “Recent findings and approaches for the suppression of fluctuations and background drifts in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 68–78 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Malathy Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matt, D. R.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emission from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, K.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Menna, R. J.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, T. P.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emission from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morris, N. A.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, “Near-infrared trace gas sensors based on room temperature diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Tuning and spectral performance of mid-infrared InAsSb lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 46–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Narayan, S. Y.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, H. H.

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, G. H.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parchatka, U.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Pei, S. S.

R. Q. Yang, S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A.

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Tuning and spectral performance of mid-infrared InAsSb lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 46–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Real-time mesurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 339–345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rooth, R. A.

R. A. Rooth, N. V. Kema, “Spectroscopic measurements of the ν2 + 2ν3 band of CH4 with a 1.3 µm InGaAsP diode laser,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 265–273.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schandl, J.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real time signal processing concepts for trace gas analysis by TDLAS,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scheumann, B.

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real time signal processing concepts for trace gas analysis by TDLAS,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Sewell, S.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sherstnev, V.

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Tuning and spectral performance of mid-infrared InAsSb lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 46–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis in laser absorption spectroscopy using optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 30, 430–434 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emission from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thurtell, G. W.

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Real-time mesurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 339–345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trapp, D.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Ullman, F. G.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Verma, S. B.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vermaak, J. S.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Verry, E. S.

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based trace gas analyzers,” Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197–236 (1998) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, “Near-infrared trace gas sensors based on room temperature diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, B. Jänker, “High frequency modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2051–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency modulated diode laser spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 499–506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real time signal processing concepts for trace gas analysis by TDLAS,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis in laser absorption spectroscopy using optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 30, 430–434 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Werle, S. Lechner, “Recent findings and approaches for the suppression of fluctuations and background drifts in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 68–78 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Tuning and spectral performance of mid-infrared InAsSb lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 46–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Wert, B. P.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, Y.

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Tuning and spectral performance of mid-infrared InAsSb lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 46–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

R. Q. Yang, S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

York, P. K.

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zenker, T.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Zitzelsberger, R.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

P. Werle, “Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency modulated diode laser spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 499–506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. D’Amato, T. Lancia, “Near-infrared trace gas sensors based on room temperature diode-lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Real-time mesurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 339–345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “High power InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterostructure lasers for continuous wave operation at 3.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2790–2792 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Relaxation oscillations in single-frequency InAsSb narrow band-gap lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3428–3430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S.-N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “High power mid-infrared (λ ≈ 5 µm) quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680–3682 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

S. B. Verma, F. G. Ullman, D. Billesbach, R. J. Clement, J. Kim, E. S. Verry, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane flux in a northern peatland ecosystem,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 289–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

A. Popov, A. Baranov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, B. Scheumann, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Investigation of the mode structure and noise characteristics of InAsSb/InAsSbP lasers with respect to spectroscopic applications,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Q. Yang, S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

D. C. Hovde, A. C. Stanton, T. P. Meyers, D. R. Matt, “Methane emission from a landfill measured by eddy correlation using a fast response diode laser sensor,” J. Atmos. Chem. 20, 141–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

G. C. Edwards, H. H. Neumann, G. den Hartog, G. W. Thurtell, G. Kidd, “Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES),” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D1) , 1511–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular databases editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, J. Schandl, “Real time signal processing concepts for trace gas analysis by TDLAS,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3093–3105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, B. Jänker, “High frequency modulation spectroscopy: phase noise and refractive index fluctuations in optical multipass cells,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2051–2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A (2)

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based trace gas analyzers,” Spectrochim. Acta A 54, 197–236 (1998) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Single-frequency InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.4 µm,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 863–870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, P. K. York, D. Z. Gabuzov, H. Lee, J. Abeles, N. A. Morris, J. C. Conolly, S. Y. Narayan, J. S. Vermaak, G. H. Olsen, D. E. Cooper, C. B. Carlisle, H. Riris, “Tunable single-frequency III–V semiconductor diode lasers with wavelengths from 0.76 to 2.7 µm,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 2–16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1994).

A. Popov, V. Sherstnev, Y. Yakovlev, R. Mücke, P. Werle, “Tuning and spectral performance of mid-infrared InAsSb lasers,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 46–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Rooth, N. V. Kema, “Spectroscopic measurements of the ν2 + 2ν3 band of CH4 with a 1.3 µm InGaAsP diode laser,” in Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992), pp. 265–273.

R. Kormann, K. Maurer, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, P. Werle, R. Zitzelsberger, U. Parchatka, T. Zenker, D. Trapp, H. Fischer, “Application of two tunable diode laser spectrometers and other chemical sensors in an intercomparison of formaldehyde measurements,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium ’96 by P. M. Borrell et al., eds. (Computational Mechanics, Southhampton, England, 1996), pp. 715–719 (1996).

L. Newman, ed., Measurement Challenges in Atmospheric Chemistry (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, S. Lechner, “Recent findings and approaches for the suppression of fluctuations and background drifts in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” in Application of Tunable Diode Lasers and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Monitoring, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE2834, 68–78 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coverage of the spectral range from the visible to the mid-IR by tunable diode lasers of different material systems. For the antimonide lasers in the 1.8–4-µm range, absorption bands for HCHO and CH4 are plotted together with the absorption band for water vapor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) InAsSb laser in a standard housing, mounted close to the (b) bias T in the Dewar for recording (c) mode maps, output power, wideband noise characteristics, and far-field pattern in a test setup; (d) for analytical measurements the Dewar is moved to the spectrometer. OAP’s, off-axis parabolic mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characteristic results obtained from the laser test setup: (a) mode map, (b) power measurement, (c) relative intensity noise, (d) laser excess noise at a mode-hop position, (e) far-field pattern, (f) the modulation response.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristic results obtained from the spectrometer for HCHO (left-hand side) and CH4 (right-hand side): (a) mode map, (b) direct absorption signals during scan, (c) time-series concentration data, (d) Allan plots19 to characterize system stability. The dashed lines indicate the expected noise reduction for white noise.

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