Abstract

Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) has been used to detect atomic and molecular species in various environments. LIBS has the capability to be used as a continuous-emission monitor to monitor toxic-metal concentrations in stack emissions. Recently a mobile LIBS system was calibrated in our laboratory and tested as a multimetal continuous-emission monitor during a joint U.S. Department of Energy–Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test. LIBS measurements were performed with three sets of metal concentrations at the EPA Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator. The LIBS system successfully measured concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd, and Be in near real time in this test. Real-time LIBS data were averaged and compared with data obtained from an EPA reference method that was conducted concurrently with LIBS. The details of the LIBS calibration and results of these LIBS measurements are described.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1997

R. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hahn, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, “Discrete particle detection and metal emissions monitoring using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1836–1844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, R. L. Cook, “Study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a process monitor and control tool for hazardous waste remediation,” Process Control Qual. 10, 247–258 (1997).

1996

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, K. P. Carney, “Investigation of the effects of atmospheric conditions on the quantification of metal hydrides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 764–773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Yalcin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, G. W. Faris, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser-produced plasmas for in-situ toxic metal monitoring,” Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 13(1) , 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

“Revised standards for hazardous waste combustors, performance specification 10—specifications and test procedures for multi-metals continuous monitoring systems in stationary sources,” Fed. Reg. 61, 17502–17502 (1996).

1995

H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, “Laser-induced breakdown spectra in a coal-fired MHD facility,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1617–1623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Balwin, D. S. Zamzow, A. P. J. D’Silva, “Detection limits for hazardous and radioactive elements in airborne aerosols using inductively coupled air plasma—atomic emission spectrometry,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 45, 789–791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, J. E. Barefield, A. C. Koskelo, “Remote elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber optic cable,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 857–860 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

1994

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

1989

1987

1984

1983

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246–1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aguilera, J. A.

Aragon, C.

Balwin, D. P.

D. P. Balwin, D. S. Zamzow, A. P. J. D’Silva, “Detection limits for hazardous and radioactive elements in airborne aerosols using inductively coupled air plasma—atomic emission spectrometry,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 45, 789–791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barefield, J. E.

Baxter, L. L.

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, L. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bonin, M. P.

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. H.

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Burns, D. B.

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Burrows, L. F.

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, L. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

Carney, K. P.

Castle, B. C.

R. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ciucci, A.

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R. L.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, R. L. Cook, “Study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a process monitor and control tool for hazardous waste remediation,” Process Control Qual. 10, 247–258 (1997).

H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, “Laser-induced breakdown spectra in a coal-fired MHD facility,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1617–1623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

D. A. Cremers, J. E. Barefield, A. C. Koskelo, “Remote elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber optic cable,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 857–860 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wachter, D. A. Cremers, “Determination of uranium in solution using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1042–1048 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246–1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, “Laser plasmas for chemical analysis,” in Laser Spectroscopy and its Application, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, eds. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 5, pp. 351–415.

Crosley, D. R.

S. Yalcin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, G. W. Faris, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser-produced plasmas for in-situ toxic metal monitoring,” Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 13(1) , 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Silva, A. P. J.

D. P. Balwin, D. S. Zamzow, A. P. J. D’Silva, “Detection limits for hazardous and radioactive elements in airborne aerosols using inductively coupled air plasma—atomic emission spectrometry,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 45, 789–791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dellinger, H. B.

H. B. Dellinger, D. W. Pershing, A. F. Sarofim, “Evaluation of the origin, emissions and control of organic and metal compounds from cement kilns cofired with hazardous wastes,” the , A. F. Sarofim, Workgroup Chair (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.June1993).

DeRosa, M.

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Faris, G. W.

S. Yalcin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, G. W. Faris, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser-produced plasmas for in-situ toxic metal monitoring,” Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 13(1) , 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flower, W. L.

D. W. Hahn, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, “Discrete particle detection and metal emissions monitoring using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1836–1844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

French, N. B.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Grant, K. J.

Haas, W. J.

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Hahn, D. W.

Hencken, K. R.

D. W. Hahn, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, “Discrete particle detection and metal emissions monitoring using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1836–1844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Hoffman, N. M.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246–1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, Z. W.

Johnsen, H. A.

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, H. A.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

Koskelo, A. C.

Lazzari, C.

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lemieux, P. M.

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Li, K. P.

Loree, T. R.

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246–1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, J. A.

Ottesen, D. K.

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, L. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Ottesen, J. C. F. Wang, L. J. Radziemski, “Real time laser spark spectroscopy of particulates in combustion environments,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 967–976 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, G. L.

Peng, L. W.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pershing, D. W.

H. B. Dellinger, D. W. Pershing, A. F. Sarofim, “Evaluation of the origin, emissions and control of organic and metal compounds from cement kilns cofired with hazardous wastes,” the , A. F. Sarofim, Workgroup Chair (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.June1993).

Priebe, S. J.

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Radziemski, L. J.

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, L. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Ottesen, J. C. F. Wang, L. J. Radziemski, “Real time laser spark spectroscopy of particulates in combustion environments,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 967–976 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246–1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, “Laser plasmas for chemical analysis,” in Laser Spectroscopy and its Application, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, eds. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 5, pp. 351–415.

Rastelli, S.

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Renzi, R. F.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rusak, R. A.

R. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. V.

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Salvetti, A.

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sarofim, A. F.

H. B. Dellinger, D. W. Pershing, A. F. Sarofim, “Evaluation of the origin, emissions and control of organic and metal compounds from cement kilns cofired with hazardous wastes,” the , A. F. Sarofim, Workgroup Chair (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.June1993).

H. B. Dellinger, D. W. Pershing, A. F. Sarofim, “Evaluation of the origin, emissions and control of organic and metal compounds from cement kilns cofired with hazardous wastes,” the , A. F. Sarofim, Workgroup Chair (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.June1993).

Singh, J. P.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, R. L. Cook, “Study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a process monitor and control tool for hazardous waste remediation,” Process Control Qual. 10, 247–258 (1997).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, K. P. Carney, “Investigation of the effects of atmospheric conditions on the quantification of metal hydrides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 764–773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, “Laser-induced breakdown spectra in a coal-fired MHD facility,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1617–1623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, C. F. Su, “Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1994).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “Advanced analytical instrumentation demonstration—LIBS measurements,” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1995).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “DOE and EPA multi-metal continuous emission monitor test at EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1997).

Smith, B. W.

R. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

S. Yalcin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, G. W. Faris, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser-produced plasmas for in-situ toxic metal monitoring,” Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 13(1) , 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sneddon, J.

Su, C. F.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, C. F. Su, “Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1994).

Sullivan, R. J.

R. J. Sullivan, “The air pollution aspects of arsenic and its compounds,” (National Association of Pipe Coating Applicators, Shreveport, La., September1969).

Teng, Y. Y.

Wachter, J. R.

Wang, J. C. F.

Waterland, L. R.

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

Westbrook, L. V.

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

R. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, S.

S. Yalcin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, G. W. Faris, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser-produced plasmas for in-situ toxic metal monitoring,” Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 13(1) , 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Y.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, R. L. Cook, “Study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a process monitor and control tool for hazardous waste remediation,” Process Control Qual. 10, 247–258 (1997).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, K. P. Carney, “Investigation of the effects of atmospheric conditions on the quantification of metal hydrides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 764–773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, “Laser-induced breakdown spectra in a coal-fired MHD facility,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1617–1623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, C. F. Su, “Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1994).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “Advanced analytical instrumentation demonstration—LIBS measurements,” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1995).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “DOE and EPA multi-metal continuous emission monitor test at EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1997).

Zamzow, D. S.

D. P. Balwin, D. S. Zamzow, A. P. J. D’Silva, “Detection limits for hazardous and radioactive elements in airborne aerosols using inductively coupled air plasma—atomic emission spectrometry,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 45, 789–791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, R. L. Cook, “Study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a process monitor and control tool for hazardous waste remediation,” Process Control Qual. 10, 247–258 (1997).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, K. P. Carney, “Investigation of the effects of atmospheric conditions on the quantification of metal hydrides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 764–773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, “Laser-induced breakdown spectra in a coal-fired MHD facility,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1617–1623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “Advanced analytical instrumentation demonstration—LIBS measurements,” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1995).

H. Zhang, “Diagnostics for characterization of combustion products and heavy metal emissions,” Ph.D. dissertation (Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1994).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “DOE and EPA multi-metal continuous emission monitor test at EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1997).

Anal. Chem.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246–1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

H. Zhang, J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, “Laser-induced breakdown spectra in a coal-fired MHD facility,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1617–1623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, J. E. Barefield, A. C. Koskelo, “Remote elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber optic cable,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 857–860 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Grant, G. L. Paul, J. A. O’Neill, “Quantitative elemental analysis of iron ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 701–705 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Ottesen, J. C. F. Wang, L. J. Radziemski, “Real time laser spark spectroscopy of particulates in combustion environments,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 967–976 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Aguilera, C. Aragon, J. Campos, “Determination of carbon content in steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 1382–1387 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Hwang, Y. Y. Teng, K. P. Li, J. Sneddon, “Interaction of a laser beam with metals. Part I: quantitative studies of plasma emission,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 435–441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wachter, D. A. Cremers, “Determination of uranium in solution using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 41, 1042–1048 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, K. P. Carney, “Investigation of the effects of atmospheric conditions on the quantification of metal hydrides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 764–773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hahn, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, “Discrete particle detection and metal emissions monitoring using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1836–1844 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem.

R. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Energy Fuels

D. K. Ottesen, L. L. Baxter, L. J. Radziemski, L. F. Burrows, “Laser spark emission spectroscopy for in situ, real time monitoring of pulverized coal particle composition,” Energy Fuels 5, 304–312 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fed. Reg.

“Revised standards for hazardous waste combustors, performance specification 10—specifications and test procedures for multi-metals continuous monitoring systems in stationary sources,” Fed. Reg. 61, 17502–17502 (1996).

Fuel Process. Technol.

W. L. Flower, L. W. Peng, M. P. Bonin, N. B. French, H. A. Johnsen, D. K. Ottesen, R. F. Renzi, L. V. Westbrook, “A laser-based technique to continuously monitor metal aerosol emissions,” Fuel Process. Technol. 39, 277–284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater.

S. Yalcin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, G. W. Faris, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser-produced plasmas for in-situ toxic metal monitoring,” Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 13(1) , 51–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc.

D. P. Balwin, D. S. Zamzow, A. P. J. D’Silva, “Detection limits for hazardous and radioactive elements in airborne aerosols using inductively coupled air plasma—atomic emission spectrometry,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 45, 789–791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laser Particle Beams

C. Lazzari, M. DeRosa, S. Rastelli, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, “Detection of mercury in air by time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique,” Laser Particle Beams 12, 525–530 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Process Control Qual.

L. W. Peng, W. L. Flower, K. R. Hencken, H. A. Johnson, R. F. Renzi, N. B. French, “A laser-based technique for continuously monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment units,” Process Control Qual. 7, 39–49 (1995).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, R. L. Cook, “Study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a process monitor and control tool for hazardous waste remediation,” Process Control Qual. 10, 247–258 (1997).

Other

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “DOE and EPA multi-metal continuous emission monitor test at EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1997).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, C. F. Su, “Application of modern diagnostic methods to environmental improvement: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1994).

J. P. Singh, H. Zhang, F. Y. Yueh, “Advanced analytical instrumentation demonstration—LIBS measurements,” (Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1995).

W. J. Haas, N. B. French, C. H. Brown, D. B. Burns, P. M. Lemieux, S. J. Priebe, J. V. Ryan, L. R. Waterland, “Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors,” Ames Laboratory, U.S. DOE (Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, November1997).

H. Zhang, “Diagnostics for characterization of combustion products and heavy metal emissions,” Ph.D. dissertation (Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1994).

R. J. Sullivan, “The air pollution aspects of arsenic and its compounds,” (National Association of Pipe Coating Applicators, Shreveport, La., September1969).

H. B. Dellinger, D. W. Pershing, A. F. Sarofim, “Evaluation of the origin, emissions and control of organic and metal compounds from cement kilns cofired with hazardous wastes,” the , A. F. Sarofim, Workgroup Chair (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.June1993).

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, “Laser plasmas for chemical analysis,” in Laser Spectroscopy and its Application, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, eds. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 5, pp. 351–415.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LIBS experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LIBS calibration setup. USN, ultrasonic nebulizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration curves for (a) Be, (b) Pb obtained with peak heights (top) and peak areas (bottom) of an analyte line. Calibration data were all recorded with a gate delay of 15 µs and a gate width of 40 µs. ppm, parts in 106.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIBS spectra recorded during the metal CEM test.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Real-time LIBS data with (a) 6.7-s sampling time, (b) 13-s sampling time, (c) 20-s sampling time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Metal concentrations versus time during low metal concentration test.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of metal concentrations before and after the system problem was solved.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Incineration Conditions at the Locations of the RM and the CEM Sampling Ports

Tables Icon

Table 2 Test Metals and Target Flue-Gas Concentrations

Tables Icon

Table 3 DIAL/LIBS Minimum Detectable Concentration Limits for the RCRA Metals

Tables Icon

Table 4 LIBS, EPA RM, and RA Results from each of the RM Sampling Periods during the DOE/EPA CEM testa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

=1-FWIW/IS,
CA=CSFS/FG,
CL=3σB/S,
cμg/dscm=T°F+46049211-xwater cμg/acm.
RA=|d¯|+t0.975/nσRRM¯,

Metrics