Abstract

Laser-induced-fluorescence techniques have been used successfully for quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide. NO AX(0, 2) excitation at 248 nm recently found applications in internal-combustion engines. We assess the collisional processes that influence quantification of signal intensities in terms of saturation, rotational energy transfer, and line broadening, using laminar high-pressure methane/air and n-heptane/air flames at pressures as high as 80 bars (8 × 106 Pa). A calibration method that is applicable in technical combustion systems based on addition of NO to the burning flame is investigated for various air/fuel ratios and pressures and yields information about the influence of NO reburn processes.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, E. Wagner, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in an SI engine,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.
  9. M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2, H2O and NO at 295 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 164, 97–117 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, “Multidimensional laser diagnostic and numerical analysis of NO formation in a gasoline engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2085–2092.
  17. E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  23. J. Warnatz, U. Maas, R. Dibble, Combustion (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Eberius, T. Just, T. Kick, G. Häfner, W. Lutz, “Stabilization of premixed, laminar methane flames in the pressure regime up to 40 bar,” presented at the Joint Meeting of the German–Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Ravello, Italy, 11–14 September 1989.
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  26. A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “Collisional broadening of spectral lines in the A–X (0, 0) system of NO by N2, Ar, and He at elevated pressures measured by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 277–287 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Fernandez-Allonso, G. A. Raiche, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational energy transfer in A2Σ+ NO in atmospheric flames and flow cells,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, paper 94-047 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif. 94551, 1994).
  30. C. O. Laux, C. H. Kruger, “Arrays of radiative transition probabilities for the N2 first and second positive, NO beta and gamma, N2+ first negative and O2 Schumann–Runge band systems,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 9–24 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. D. Thomsen, F. F. Kuligowski, N. M. Laurendeau, “Background corrections for laser-induced-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in lean, high-pressure, premixed methane flames,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3244–3252 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavalowsky, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1156–1173.
  33. J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Quantitative LIF measurement and modeling of nitric oxide in high-pressure C2H4/O2/N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 101, 141–152 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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  35. A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.
  36. D. Schmidt, Institut für Technische Verbrennung, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany (personal communication, 1998).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

R. J. Jensen, R. D. Guettler, J. L. Lyman, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of hot carbon dioxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 356–360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Thomsen, F. F. Kuligowski, N. M. Laurendeau, “Background corrections for laser-induced-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in lean, high-pressure, premixed methane flames,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3244–3252 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames with A–X(0, 2) excitation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3227–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Paul, “Calculation of transition frequencies and rotational line strengths in the γ-bands of nitric oxide,” J. Quant. Radiat. Transfer 57, 581–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser-induced fluorescence scheme for measuring nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Quantitative LIF measurement and modeling of nitric oxide in high-pressure C2H4/O2/N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 101, 141–152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “Collisional broadening of spectral lines in the A–X (0, 0) system of NO by N2, Ar, and He at elevated pressures measured by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 277–287 (1995).

1994 (4)

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2, H2O and NO at 295 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 164, 97–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2 and H2O at high temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 515–529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “Collisional quenching corrections for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NO A2Σ+,” AIAA J. 32, 1670–1675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Williams, J. W. Fleming, “Comparative species concentrations in CH4/O2/Ar flames doped with N2O, NO and NO2,” Combust. Flame 98, 93–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “A model for temperature-dependent collisional quenching of NO A2Σ+,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 249–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. O. Laux, C. H. Kruger, “Arrays of radiative transition probabilities for the N2 first and second positive, NO beta and gamma, N2+ first negative and O2 Schumann–Runge band systems,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 9–24 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

G. Zizak, J. A. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “An experimental study of the excited state rotational population of OH in flames using laser induced fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 65, 203–214 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Aldén, M.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

Andersson, Ö.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

Andresen, P.

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Huwel, H. Schlüter, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, H. Voges, “High sensitivity detection of NO in a flame using a tunable ArF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 910–912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.

Beushausen, V.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.

Bormann, F.

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bräumer, A.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.

Canaan, R. E.

J. E. Dec, R. E. Canaan, “PLIF imaging of NO formation in a DI Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980147.

Cattolica, R. J.

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavalowsky, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1156–1173.

Cavalowsky, J. A.

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavalowsky, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1156–1173.

Chryssostomou, A.

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D.

J. Luque, G. P. Smith, D. Crosley, “Quantitative CH determinations in low-pressure flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 959–966.

Crosley, D. R.

F. Fernandez-Allonso, G. A. Raiche, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational energy transfer in A2Σ+ NO in atmospheric flames and flow cells,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, paper 94-047 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif. 94551, 1994).

Dec, J. E.

J. E. Dec, R. E. Canaan, “PLIF imaging of NO formation in a DI Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980147.

Decker, M.

M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “2D-temperature measurements in high pressure flames using LIF of molecular oxygen,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–51.

Dibble, R.

J. Warnatz, U. Maas, R. Dibble, Combustion (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Dillmann, M.

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DiRosa, M. D.

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2 and H2O at high temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 515–529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2, H2O and NO at 295 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 164, 97–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Drewes, V.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.

Durant, J. L.

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “Collisional quenching corrections for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NO A2Σ+,” AIAA J. 32, 1670–1675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “A model for temperature-dependent collisional quenching of NO A2Σ+,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 249–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eberius, H.

H. Eberius, T. Just, T. Kick, G. Häfner, W. Lutz, “Stabilization of premixed, laminar methane flames in the pressure regime up to 40 bar,” presented at the Joint Meeting of the German–Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Ravello, Italy, 11–14 September 1989.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion, Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

Fernandez-Allonso, F.

F. Fernandez-Allonso, G. A. Raiche, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational energy transfer in A2Σ+ NO in atmospheric flames and flow cells,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, paper 94-047 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif. 94551, 1994).

Fleming, J. W.

B. A. Williams, J. W. Fleming, “Comparative species concentrations in CH4/O2/Ar flames doped with N2O, NO and NO2,” Combust. Flame 98, 93–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gray, J. A.

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “Collisional quenching corrections for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NO A2Σ+,” AIAA J. 32, 1670–1675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “A model for temperature-dependent collisional quenching of NO A2Σ+,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 249–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guettler, R. D.

R. J. Jensen, R. D. Guettler, J. L. Lyman, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of hot carbon dioxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 356–360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Häfner, G.

H. Eberius, T. Just, T. Kick, G. Häfner, W. Lutz, “Stabilization of premixed, laminar methane flames in the pressure regime up to 40 bar,” presented at the Joint Meeting of the German–Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Ravello, Italy, 11–14 September 1989.

Hanson, R. K.

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2, H2O and NO at 295 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 164, 97–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2 and H2O at high temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 515–529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heinze, J.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames with A–X(0, 2) excitation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3227–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “Collisional broadening of spectral lines in the A–X (0, 0) system of NO by N2, Ar, and He at elevated pressures measured by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 277–287 (1995).

M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “2D-temperature measurements in high pressure flames using LIF of molecular oxygen,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–51.

Hentschel, W.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.

Hildenbrand, F.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, E. Wagner, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in an SI engine,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, “Multidimensional laser diagnostic and numerical analysis of NO formation in a gasoline engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2085–2092.

Huwel, L.

Jensen, R. J.

R. J. Jensen, R. D. Guettler, J. L. Lyman, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of hot carbon dioxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 356–360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Josefsson, G.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, “Multidimensional laser diagnostic and numerical analysis of NO formation in a gasoline engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2085–2092.

Just, T.

H. Eberius, T. Just, T. Kick, G. Häfner, W. Lutz, “Stabilization of premixed, laminar methane flames in the pressure regime up to 40 bar,” presented at the Joint Meeting of the German–Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Ravello, Italy, 11–14 September 1989.

Kick, T.

H. Eberius, T. Just, T. Kick, G. Häfner, W. Lutz, “Stabilization of premixed, laminar methane flames in the pressure regime up to 40 bar,” presented at the Joint Meeting of the German–Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Ravello, Italy, 11–14 September 1989.

Knapp, M.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.

Kruger, C. H.

C. O. Laux, C. H. Kruger, “Arrays of radiative transition probabilities for the N2 first and second positive, NO beta and gamma, N2+ first negative and O2 Schumann–Runge band systems,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 9–24 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuligowski, F. F.

Lanauze, J. A.

G. Zizak, J. A. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “An experimental study of the excited state rotational population of OH in flames using laser induced fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 65, 203–214 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laurendeau, N. M.

Laux, C. O.

C. O. Laux, C. H. Kruger, “Arrays of radiative transition probabilities for the N2 first and second positive, NO beta and gamma, N2+ first negative and O2 Schumann–Runge band systems,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 9–24 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luczak, A.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.

Luque, J.

J. Luque, G. P. Smith, D. Crosley, “Quantitative CH determinations in low-pressure flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 959–966.

Lutz, W.

H. Eberius, T. Just, T. Kick, G. Häfner, W. Lutz, “Stabilization of premixed, laminar methane flames in the pressure regime up to 40 bar,” presented at the Joint Meeting of the German–Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Ravello, Italy, 11–14 September 1989.

Lyman, J. L.

R. J. Jensen, R. D. Guettler, J. L. Lyman, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of hot carbon dioxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 356–360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maas, U.

J. Warnatz, U. Maas, R. Dibble, Combustion (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, I.

G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, “Multidimensional laser diagnostic and numerical analysis of NO formation in a gasoline engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2085–2092.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

Maly, R.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.

Maly, R. R.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.

Manz, P.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.

Mataga, T. G.

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavalowsky, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1156–1173.

Meier, U. E.

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “Collisional broadening of spectral lines in the A–X (0, 0) system of NO by N2, Ar, and He at elevated pressures measured by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 277–287 (1995).

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

Paul, P. H.

P. H. Paul, “Calculation of transition frequencies and rotational line strengths in the γ-bands of nitric oxide,” J. Quant. Radiat. Transfer 57, 581–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “Collisional quenching corrections for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NO A2Σ+,” AIAA J. 32, 1670–1675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “A model for temperature-dependent collisional quenching of NO A2Σ+,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 249–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raiche, G. A.

F. Fernandez-Allonso, G. A. Raiche, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational energy transfer in A2Σ+ NO in atmospheric flames and flow cells,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, paper 94-047 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif. 94551, 1994).

Reisel, J. R.

J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Quantitative LIF measurement and modeling of nitric oxide in high-pressure C2H4/O2/N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 101, 141–152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, E. W.

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

Schlüter, H.

Schmidt, D.

D. Schmidt, Institut für Technische Verbrennung, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany (personal communication, 1998).

Schulz, C.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, E. Wagner, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in an SI engine,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames with A–X(0, 2) excitation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3227–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser-induced fluorescence scheme for measuring nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, “Multidimensional laser diagnostic and numerical analysis of NO formation in a gasoline engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2085–2092.

C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, V. Sick, “Comparative study of experimental and numerical NO profiles in SI combustion,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2077–2084.

C. Schulz, “Entwicklung und Anwendung einesLaser-induzierten-Fluoreszenzverfahrens zur quantitativen Bestimmung momentaner Stickoxidverteilungen in Verbrennungsmotoren,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1997).

Sick, V.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, E. Wagner, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in an SI engine,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames with A–X(0, 2) excitation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3227–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser-induced fluorescence scheme for measuring nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, V. Sick, “Comparative study of experimental and numerical NO profiles in SI combustion,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2077–2084.

G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, “Multidimensional laser diagnostic and numerical analysis of NO formation in a gasoline engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2085–2092.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.

M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “2D-temperature measurements in high pressure flames using LIF of molecular oxygen,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–51.

Smith, G. P.

J. Luque, G. P. Smith, D. Crosley, “Quantitative CH determinations in low-pressure flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 959–966.

Stricker, W.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames with A–X(0, 2) excitation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3227–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “2D-temperature measurements in high pressure flames using LIF of molecular oxygen,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–51.

Thoman, J. W.

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “Collisional quenching corrections for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NO A2Σ+,” AIAA J. 32, 1670–1675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “A model for temperature-dependent collisional quenching of NO A2Σ+,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 249–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, D. D.

Voges, H.

Vyrodov, A. O.

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “Collisional broadening of spectral lines in the A–X (0, 0) system of NO by N2, Ar, and He at elevated pressures measured by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 277–287 (1995).

Wagner, E.

Warnatz, J.

J. Warnatz, U. Maas, R. Dibble, Combustion (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. A.

B. A. Williams, J. W. Fleming, “Comparative species concentrations in CH4/O2/Ar flames doped with N2O, NO and NO2,” Combust. Flame 98, 93–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

G. Zizak, J. A. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “An experimental study of the excited state rotational population of OH in flames using laser induced fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 65, 203–214 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wodtke, A. M.

Wolfrum, J.

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser-induced fluorescence scheme for measuring nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.

C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, V. Sick, “Comparative study of experimental and numerical NO profiles in SI combustion,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2077–2084.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.

Woyde, M.

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yip, B.

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser-induced fluorescence scheme for measuring nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zahn, M.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.

Zizak, G.

G. Zizak, J. A. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “An experimental study of the excited state rotational population of OH in flames using laser induced fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 65, 203–214 (1986).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “Collisional quenching corrections for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NO A2Σ+,” AIAA J. 32, 1670–1675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, U. E. Meier, W. Stricker, “Laser-induced fluorescence thermometry and concentration measurements on NO A–X(0, 0) transitions in the exhaust gas of high pressure CH4/air flames,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 409–414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, F. Bormann, “Effect of laser intensity and of lower-state rotational energy transfer upon temperature measurements made with laser-induced predissociative fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 251–258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Paul, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, J. W. Thoman, “A model for temperature-dependent collisional quenching of NO A2Σ+,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 249–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser-induced fluorescence scheme for measuring nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jensen, R. D. Guettler, J. L. Lyman, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of hot carbon dioxide,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 277, 356–360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (3)

B. A. Williams, J. W. Fleming, “Comparative species concentrations in CH4/O2/Ar flames doped with N2O, NO and NO2,” Combust. Flame 98, 93–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Reisel, N. M. Laurendeau, “Quantitative LIF measurement and modeling of nitric oxide in high-pressure C2H4/O2/N2 flames,” Combust. Flame 101, 141–152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Zizak, J. A. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, “An experimental study of the excited state rotational population of OH in flames using laser induced fluorescence,” Combust. Flame 65, 203–214 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2, H2O and NO at 295 K,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 164, 97–117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Radiat. Transfer (1)

P. H. Paul, “Calculation of transition frequencies and rotational line strengths in the γ-bands of nitric oxide,” J. Quant. Radiat. Transfer 57, 581–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

M. D. DiRosa, R. K. Hanson, “Collisional broadening and shift of NO γ(0, 0) absorption lines by O2 and H2O at high temperatures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 515–529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Vyrodov, J. Heinze, U. E. Meier, “Collisional broadening of spectral lines in the A–X (0, 0) system of NO by N2, Ar, and He at elevated pressures measured by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 277–287 (1995).

C. O. Laux, C. H. Kruger, “Arrays of radiative transition probabilities for the N2 first and second positive, NO beta and gamma, N2+ first negative and O2 Schumann–Runge band systems,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 9–24 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (16)

J. E. Dec, R. E. Canaan, “PLIF imaging of NO formation in a DI Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980147.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, Ö. Andersson, M. Aldén, “Laserspectroscopic investigation of flow fields and NO-formation in a realistic SI engine,” in 1998 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), paper 980148.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Quantitative in-cylinder NO LIF measurements with a KrF excimer laser applied to a mass-production SI engine fueled with isooctane and regular gasoline,” in 1997 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997), paper 970824.

C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, V. Sick, “Comparative study of experimental and numerical NO profiles in SI combustion,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2077–2084.

G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson, F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, V. Sick, “Multidimensional laser diagnostic and numerical analysis of NO formation in a gasoline engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 2085–2092.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion, Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

R. J. Cattolica, J. A. Cavalowsky, T. G. Mataga, “Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1156–1173.

C. Schulz, “Entwicklung und Anwendung einesLaser-induzierten-Fluoreszenzverfahrens zur quantitativen Bestimmung momentaner Stickoxidverteilungen in Verbrennungsmotoren,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1997).

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature in a transparent SI engine,” in 1995 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), paper 952462.

D. Schmidt, Institut für Technische Verbrennung, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany (personal communication, 1998).

J. Warnatz, U. Maas, R. Dibble, Combustion (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Eberius, T. Just, T. Kick, G. Häfner, W. Lutz, “Stabilization of premixed, laminar methane flames in the pressure regime up to 40 bar,” presented at the Joint Meeting of the German–Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Ravello, Italy, 11–14 September 1989.

M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “2D-temperature measurements in high pressure flames using LIF of molecular oxygen,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–51.

F. Fernandez-Allonso, G. A. Raiche, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational energy transfer in A2Σ+ NO in atmospheric flames and flow cells,” presented at the Spring Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, paper 94-047 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif. 94551, 1994).

J. Luque, G. P. Smith, D. Crosley, “Quantitative CH determinations in low-pressure flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 959–966.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measurement of NO in premixed methane and n-heptane flames at 1–80 bars with various quantities of NO seeded to the burn gases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of NO LIF signal intensity on laser energy density at various pressures. Bottom, limits of the linear range versus pressure. The value for 20 bars represents a lower limit only.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and calculated fluorescence excitation spectra about the NO AX(0, 2) O12 bandhead for four pressures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of measured NO LIF intensities (on a relative scale, open squares) with calculated overlap factors g λ(p) (filled circles) versus pressure. Both data series are on a relative scale and are scaled to overlap at 5 bars.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Highly resolved fluorescence emission spectra from the NO AX(0, 1) band near 236 nm on excitation at the NO AX(0, 2) O12 bandhead at various pressures. Signal intensities are normalized.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

NO LIF intensity versus NO dopant concentration for different pressures and fuels. Linear fits are shown for the measurements obtained for NO dopant concentrations from 500 to 1500 ppm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative NO LIF signal per added quantity of NO versus NO seeding level (see text) measured in lean (ϕ = 0.9) methane/air (1 and 10 bars) and n-heptane/air (10 bars) flames.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

NO quenching rates as a function of temperature for several air/fuel ratios in 10-bar methane/air and n-heptane/air flames. The rates refer to atmospheric pressure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ratio of NO LIF intensities from AX(0, 0) and (0, 3) bands versus NO dopant concentration. No variation with NO concentration was found, so fluorescence trapping was excluded in the present setup (see text).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ILIF  ILaserNNOfBBikgλp, Tk,j fkjAkjl Akl+Qkp.
τi=k Aik+k Qik+j RETij-1,
I2591bar/I2261barI259p/I226p =exp-ε259-ε226kI2590/I2260exp-ε259-ε226pkI2590/I2260.
I237p/I2370=exp-pε237k.

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