Abstract

We discuss the design and performance of diffractive ring-toric lenses for focus-error sensing in optical data storage. A ring-toric lens images a point source of light to a ring-shaped image. Focus-error sensing is accomplished by means of monitoring the change in ring radius: The ring expands in response to a diverging wave front, and the ring contracts in response to a converging wave front. We describe the use of a segmented phi detector to generate a focus-error signal (FES). We found that the FES slope, a measure of sensitivity to disk defocus, is higher for the ring-toric lenses described in this paper than for other techniques such as the astigmatic and the obscuration methods. We measured an FES slope of 0.7 per micrometer of disk defocus (µm-1). The corresponding theoretical FES slope is 0.96 µm-1.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Mansuripur, C. Pons, “Diffraction modeling of optical path for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Storage Technology and Applications, D. B. Carlin, A. A. Jamberdino, Y. Tsunda, eds., Proc. SPIE899, 56–60 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. M. Soroko, Meso-Optics (World Scientific, Teaneck, N.J., 1996).
  3. Zemax lens-design software, Focus Software, Tucson, Arizona 85731 (1998).
  4. J. H. McLeod, “The axicon: a new type of optical element,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 592–597 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Goodell, “Eccentric lenses for producing ring images,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2566 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. E. Bernacki, M. Mansuripur, “Diffraction analysis and evaluation of several focus- and track-error detection schemes for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Data Storage, D. B. Carlin, D. B. Kay, eds., Proc. SPIE1663, 150–156 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Zambuto, R. E. Gerber, J. K. Erwin, M. Mansuripur, “Ring-lens focusing and push–pull tracking scheme for optical disk systems,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7987–7994 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. C. Sweatt, “Condenser for illuminating a ring field,” U.S. Patent5,361,292 (1November1994).
  9. B. Fritz, J. A. Cox, T. Werner, J. Gieske, “Diffractive optic power monitor for use with a VCSEL source,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 206–208.
  10. P.-A. Bélanger, M. Rioux, “Ring pattern of a lens-axicon doublet illuminated by a Gaussian beam,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1080–1086 (1978). In particular, see Fig. 5 in that article for out-of-focus ring irradiance profiles.
  11. P.-A. Bélanger, M. Rioux, “Diffraction ring pattern at the focal plane of a spherical lens-axicon doublet,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1774–1780 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. The modeling of the ring-toric lens reported in this paper was performed by means of diffract, a product of MM Research Inc., Tucson, Ariz.
  13. J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Foucault, wire, and phase modulation tests,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 8.
  14. M. Mansuripur, “Overview of optical data storage,” in The Physical Principles of Magneto-Optical Recording (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. I. Simon, M. R. Descour, W.-H. Yeh, “Ring-toric optics for optical data-storage applications,” in Proceedings of the International Optical Design Conference, K. P. Thompson, L. R. Gardner, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), 209–210.

1994 (1)

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

P.-A. Bélanger, M. Rioux, “Diffraction ring pattern at the focal plane of a spherical lens-axicon doublet,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1774–1780 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1954 (1)

Bélanger, P.-A.

Bernacki, B. E.

B. E. Bernacki, M. Mansuripur, “Diffraction analysis and evaluation of several focus- and track-error detection schemes for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Data Storage, D. B. Carlin, D. B. Kay, eds., Proc. SPIE1663, 150–156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

B. Fritz, J. A. Cox, T. Werner, J. Gieske, “Diffractive optic power monitor for use with a VCSEL source,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 206–208.

Descour, M. R.

D. I. Simon, M. R. Descour, W.-H. Yeh, “Ring-toric optics for optical data-storage applications,” in Proceedings of the International Optical Design Conference, K. P. Thompson, L. R. Gardner, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), 209–210.

Erwin, J. K.

Fritz, B.

B. Fritz, J. A. Cox, T. Werner, J. Gieske, “Diffractive optic power monitor for use with a VCSEL source,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 206–208.

Gerber, R. E.

Gieske, J.

B. Fritz, J. A. Cox, T. Werner, J. Gieske, “Diffractive optic power monitor for use with a VCSEL source,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 206–208.

Goodell, J. B.

Mansuripur, M.

J. J. Zambuto, R. E. Gerber, J. K. Erwin, M. Mansuripur, “Ring-lens focusing and push–pull tracking scheme for optical disk systems,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7987–7994 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bernacki, M. Mansuripur, “Diffraction analysis and evaluation of several focus- and track-error detection schemes for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Data Storage, D. B. Carlin, D. B. Kay, eds., Proc. SPIE1663, 150–156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Mansuripur, C. Pons, “Diffraction modeling of optical path for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Storage Technology and Applications, D. B. Carlin, A. A. Jamberdino, Y. Tsunda, eds., Proc. SPIE899, 56–60 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Mansuripur, “Overview of optical data storage,” in The Physical Principles of Magneto-Optical Recording (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1995).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, J. H.

Ojeda-Castañeda, J.

J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Foucault, wire, and phase modulation tests,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 8.

Pons, C.

M. Mansuripur, C. Pons, “Diffraction modeling of optical path for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Storage Technology and Applications, D. B. Carlin, A. A. Jamberdino, Y. Tsunda, eds., Proc. SPIE899, 56–60 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rioux, M.

Simon, D. I.

D. I. Simon, M. R. Descour, W.-H. Yeh, “Ring-toric optics for optical data-storage applications,” in Proceedings of the International Optical Design Conference, K. P. Thompson, L. R. Gardner, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), 209–210.

Soroko, L. M.

L. M. Soroko, Meso-Optics (World Scientific, Teaneck, N.J., 1996).

Sweatt, W. C.

W. C. Sweatt, “Condenser for illuminating a ring field,” U.S. Patent5,361,292 (1November1994).

Werner, T.

B. Fritz, J. A. Cox, T. Werner, J. Gieske, “Diffractive optic power monitor for use with a VCSEL source,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 206–208.

Yeh, W.-H.

D. I. Simon, M. R. Descour, W.-H. Yeh, “Ring-toric optics for optical data-storage applications,” in Proceedings of the International Optical Design Conference, K. P. Thompson, L. R. Gardner, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), 209–210.

Zambuto, J. J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

P.-A. Bélanger, M. Rioux, “Diffraction ring pattern at the focal plane of a spherical lens-axicon doublet,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1774–1780 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (10)

W. C. Sweatt, “Condenser for illuminating a ring field,” U.S. Patent5,361,292 (1November1994).

B. Fritz, J. A. Cox, T. Werner, J. Gieske, “Diffractive optic power monitor for use with a VCSEL source,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 206–208.

The modeling of the ring-toric lens reported in this paper was performed by means of diffract, a product of MM Research Inc., Tucson, Ariz.

J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Foucault, wire, and phase modulation tests,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 8.

M. Mansuripur, “Overview of optical data storage,” in The Physical Principles of Magneto-Optical Recording (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1995).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Simon, M. R. Descour, W.-H. Yeh, “Ring-toric optics for optical data-storage applications,” in Proceedings of the International Optical Design Conference, K. P. Thompson, L. R. Gardner, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), 209–210.

B. E. Bernacki, M. Mansuripur, “Diffraction analysis and evaluation of several focus- and track-error detection schemes for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Data Storage, D. B. Carlin, D. B. Kay, eds., Proc. SPIE1663, 150–156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Mansuripur, C. Pons, “Diffraction modeling of optical path for magneto-optical disk systems,” in Optical Storage Technology and Applications, D. B. Carlin, A. A. Jamberdino, Y. Tsunda, eds., Proc. SPIE899, 56–60 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Soroko, Meso-Optics (World Scientific, Teaneck, N.J., 1996).

Zemax lens-design software, Focus Software, Tucson, Arizona 85731 (1998).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depiction of a ring-toric surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Center detail of a ring-toric lens photomask. The depicted ring-toric lens was designed for a focal length of 20 mm, a ring radius of 300 µm, and operation at a wavelength of 635 nm. See text for details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Center 460 µm × 600 µm section of an 80-µm ring-radius ring-toric lens. The feature height is 0.8 µm. The lens focal length is 20 mm. The full lens aperture measures 4 mm × 4 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ring focus. This image shows a ring focus with an 80-µm radius as observed in the image plane of a ring-toric lens. The image is shown in negative contrast.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic depiction of changes in ring radius in response to wave-front curvature. (a) The ring-image resulting from a plane wave in the ring-toric lens aperture, (b) the ring-image due to a diverging wave in the lens aperture, (c) the ring-image due to a converging wave in the lens aperture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic depiction of the phi detector. The detector is so called because the segmentation resembles the greek character ϕ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the ring-toric-lens FES measurement test setup. See text for details.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ring irradiance profiles in focus and two out-of-focus disk axial positions. See text for details.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Theoretical and experimental FES curves. The solid curve indicates theoretical results, and the squares indicate experimental data. The vertical lines indicate the abscissa range over which the FES slopes were calculated.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Elements of the Ring-Toric Lens FES Measurement Test Setup

Equations (2)

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FES=S2+S3-S1+S4S1+S2+S3+S4,
TES=S1+S2-S3+S4S1+S2+S3+S4.

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