Abstract

A precision laser pattern generator for writing arbitrary diffractive elements was developed as an alternative to Cartesian coordinate laser/electron-beam writers. This system allows for the fabrication of concentric continuous-relief and arbitrary binary patterns with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.6 µm and position accuracy of 0.1 µm over 300-mm substrates. Two resistless technologies of writing on chromium and on amorphous silicon films were developed and implemented. We investigated limit characteristics by writing special test structures. A 58-mm f/1.1 zone plate written directly is demonstrated at a λ/50 rms wave-front error corresponding to a 0.06-µm pattern accuracy. Several examples of fabricated diffractive elements are presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Krackhardt, J. Schwider, M. Schrader, N. Streibl, “Synthetic holograms written by a laser pattern generator,” Opt. Eng. 32, 781–785 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Lenkova, E. G. Churin, “High-resolution microobjective lens with kinoform corrector,” Opt. Appl. 21, 213–219 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Burge, “Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics,” in International Conference on Optical Fabrication and Testing, T. Kasai, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2576, 258–269 (1995).
  7. M. B. Stern, “Binary optics—a VLSI-based microoptics technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 32, 369–388 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi, H. Nishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5120–5126 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser writer for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 137–147 (1990).
  10. T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Bowen, R. L. Michaels, C. G. Blough, “Generation of large-diameter diffractive elements with laser pattern generation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8970–8975 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ogata, M. Tada, M. Yoneda, “Electron-beam writing system and its application to large and high-density diffractive optic elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2032–2038 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).
  14. V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).
  15. V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).
  16. V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.
  17. A. G. Sedukhin, “Analysis of the errors in fabrication circular sacles by a scanning method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 606–609 (1986).
  18. A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).
  19. V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, “Control of optical radiation in precision laser photoplotters,” Autometrya 6, 51–61 (1985) (in Russian).
  20. V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).
  21. V. P. Koronkevich, A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, Yu. Yurlov, “Selective etching of laser exposure thin chromium films,” Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. 11, 144–148 (1985) (in Russian).
  22. V. Z. Gotchiyaev, V. P. Korolkov, A. P. Sokolov, V. P. Chernukhin, “High resolution optical recording on a-Si films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137/138, 1297–1300 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. B. Fleming, M. C. Hutley, “Blazed diffractive optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4635–4643 (1997).
  24. V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, “Shape conversion of an inclined incident laser gaussian beam,” Autometrya 6, 75–81 (1995) (in Russian).

1997 (3)

J. P. Bowen, R. L. Michaels, C. G. Blough, “Generation of large-diameter diffractive elements with laser pattern generation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8970–8975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).

M. B. Fleming, M. C. Hutley, “Blazed diffractive optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4635–4643 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. B. Stern, “Binary optics—a VLSI-based microoptics technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 32, 369–388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, “Shape conversion of an inclined incident laser gaussian beam,” Autometrya 6, 75–81 (1995) (in Russian).

1994 (3)

S. Ogata, M. Tada, M. Yoneda, “Electron-beam writing system and its application to large and high-density diffractive optic elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2032–2038 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

U. Krackhardt, J. Schwider, M. Schrader, N. Streibl, “Synthetic holograms written by a laser pattern generator,” Opt. Eng. 32, 781–785 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

V. Z. Gotchiyaev, V. P. Korolkov, A. P. Sokolov, V. P. Chernukhin, “High resolution optical recording on a-Si films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137/138, 1297–1300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Lenkova, E. G. Churin, “High-resolution microobjective lens with kinoform corrector,” Opt. Appl. 21, 213–219 (1991).

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

A. G. Sedukhin, “Analysis of the errors in fabrication circular sacles by a scanning method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 606–609 (1986).

1985 (3)

V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, “Control of optical radiation in precision laser photoplotters,” Autometrya 6, 51–61 (1985) (in Russian).

V. P. Koronkevich, A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, Yu. Yurlov, “Selective etching of laser exposure thin chromium films,” Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. 11, 144–148 (1985) (in Russian).

G. Neugebauer, R. Hauck, O. Bryngdahl, “Computer-generated holograms: carrier of polar geometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 777–784 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

1981 (1)

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Bazhenov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blough, C. G.

Bowen, J. P.

Bryngdahl, O.

Burge, J. H.

J. H. Burge, “Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics,” in International Conference on Optical Fabrication and Testing, T. Kasai, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2576, 258–269 (1995).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

Cherkashin, V. V.

A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

Chernukhin, V. P.

V. Z. Gotchiyaev, V. P. Korolkov, A. P. Sokolov, V. P. Chernukhin, “High resolution optical recording on a-Si films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137/138, 1297–1300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Churin, E. G.

A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, “Shape conversion of an inclined incident laser gaussian beam,” Autometrya 6, 75–81 (1995) (in Russian).

G. A. Lenkova, E. G. Churin, “High-resolution microobjective lens with kinoform corrector,” Opt. Appl. 21, 213–219 (1991).

V. P. Koronkevich, A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, Yu. Yurlov, “Selective etching of laser exposure thin chromium films,” Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. 11, 144–148 (1985) (in Russian).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

Fleming, M. B.

Friberg, A.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goltsos, W.

W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser writer for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 137–147 (1990).

Gotchiyaev, V. Z.

V. Z. Gotchiyaev, V. P. Korolkov, A. P. Sokolov, V. P. Chernukhin, “High resolution optical recording on a-Si films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137/138, 1297–1300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

Hauck, R.

Hutley, M. C.

Kamiya, K.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khanov, V. A.

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Kharissov, A. A.

A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

Kirianov, V. P.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

Kiryanov, A. V.

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

Kiryanov, V. P.

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

Kobayashi, F.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kokarev, S. A.

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

Kokoulin, F. I.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Kooronkevich, V. P.

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

Korol’kov, V. P.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

Korolkov, V. P.

A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).

V. Z. Gotchiyaev, V. P. Korolkov, A. P. Sokolov, V. P. Chernukhin, “High resolution optical recording on a-Si films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137/138, 1297–1300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, “Control of optical radiation in precision laser photoplotters,” Autometrya 6, 51–61 (1985) (in Russian).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

Koronkevich, V. P.

A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).

V. P. Koronkevich, A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, Yu. Yurlov, “Selective etching of laser exposure thin chromium films,” Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. 11, 144–148 (1985) (in Russian).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

Krackhardt, U.

U. Krackhardt, J. Schwider, M. Schrader, N. Streibl, “Synthetic holograms written by a laser pattern generator,” Opt. Eng. 32, 781–785 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenkova, G. A.

G. A. Lenkova, E. G. Churin, “High-resolution microobjective lens with kinoform corrector,” Opt. Appl. 21, 213–219 (1991).

Liu, S.

W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser writer for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 137–147 (1990).

Lokhmatov, A. I.

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Michaels, R. L.

Miyashiro, H.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nalivaiko, V. I.

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Neugebauer, G.

Nishihara, H.

Nomura, T.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, S.

Ozono, S.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Palchikova, I. G.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

Pedersen, J.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poleshchuk, A. G.

A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).

V. P. Koronkevich, A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, Yu. Yurlov, “Selective etching of laser exposure thin chromium films,” Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. 11, 144–148 (1985) (in Russian).

V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, “Control of optical radiation in precision laser photoplotters,” Autometrya 6, 51–61 (1985) (in Russian).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, M.

U. Krackhardt, J. Schwider, M. Schrader, N. Streibl, “Synthetic holograms written by a laser pattern generator,” Opt. Eng. 32, 781–785 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schutz, H.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

U. Krackhardt, J. Schwider, M. Schrader, N. Streibl, “Synthetic holograms written by a laser pattern generator,” Opt. Eng. 32, 781–785 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sedukhin, A. G.

A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, “Shape conversion of an inclined incident laser gaussian beam,” Autometrya 6, 75–81 (1995) (in Russian).

A. G. Sedukhin, “Analysis of the errors in fabrication circular sacles by a scanning method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 606–609 (1986).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

Sherbachenko, A. M.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Sokolov, A. P.

V. Z. Gotchiyaev, V. P. Korolkov, A. P. Sokolov, V. P. Chernukhin, “High resolution optical recording on a-Si films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137/138, 1297–1300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stern, M. B.

M. B. Stern, “Binary optics—a VLSI-based microoptics technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 32, 369–388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

U. Krackhardt, J. Schwider, M. Schrader, N. Streibl, “Synthetic holograms written by a laser pattern generator,” Opt. Eng. 32, 781–785 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tada, M.

Takahashi, M.

Tarasov, G. G.

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Tashiro, H.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Usuki, M.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vasara, A.

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vedernikov, V. M.

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Verhoglad, A. G.

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

Vyukhin, V. N.

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Wakahayashi, K.

Yoneda, M.

Yoshikawa, K.

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yurlov, Yu.

V. P. Koronkevich, A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, Yu. Yurlov, “Selective etching of laser exposure thin chromium films,” Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. 11, 144–148 (1985) (in Russian).

Yurlov, Yu. I.

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Autometriya (1)

V. M. Vedernikov, V. N. Vyukhin, V. P. Koronkevich, F. I. Kokoulin, A. I. Lokhmatov, V. I. Nalivaiko, A. G. Poleshchuk, G. G. Tarasov, V. A. Khanov, A. M. Sherbachenko, Yu. I. Yurlov, “A precision photoconstructor for synthesizing optical components,” Autometriya 3, 3–17 (1981) (in Russian).

Autometrya (3)

A. G. Poleshchuk, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharissov, V. V. Cherkashin, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements in the polar coordinate system: fabrication errors and their measurement,” Autometrya 6, 40–53 (1997) (in Russian).

V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, “Control of optical radiation in precision laser photoplotters,” Autometrya 6, 51–61 (1985) (in Russian).

A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, “Shape conversion of an inclined incident laser gaussian beam,” Autometrya 6, 75–81 (1995) (in Russian).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

V. Z. Gotchiyaev, V. P. Korolkov, A. P. Sokolov, V. P. Chernukhin, “High resolution optical recording on a-Si films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137/138, 1297–1300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. B. Stern, “Binary optics—a VLSI-based microoptics technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 32, 369–388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl. (1)

G. A. Lenkova, E. G. Churin, “High-resolution microobjective lens with kinoform corrector,” Opt. Appl. 21, 213–219 (1991).

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresist,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Krackhardt, J. Schwider, M. Schrader, N. Streibl, “Synthetic holograms written by a laser pattern generator,” Opt. Eng. 32, 781–785 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kirianov, F. I. Kokoulin, I. G. Palchikova, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. G. Sedukhin, E. G. Churin, Yu. I. Yurlov, A. M. Sherbachenko, “Fabrication of kinoform optical elements,” Optik 67, 259–266 (1984).

Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. (1)

V. P. Koronkevich, A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, Yu. Yurlov, “Selective etching of laser exposure thin chromium films,” Pis’ma Zh. Teknich. Fiz. 11, 144–148 (1985) (in Russian).

Precis. Eng. (1)

T. Nomura, K. Kamiya, H. Miyashiro, K. Yoshikawa, H. Tashiro, M. Suzuki, S. Ozono, F. Kobayashi, M. Usuki, “An instrument for manufacturing zone-plates by using a lathe,” Precis. Eng. 16, 290–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. G. Sedukhin, “Analysis of the errors in fabrication circular sacles by a scanning method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 606–609 (1986).

Other (5)

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Korolkov, V. P. Kooronkevich, A. A. Kharissov, A. G. Poleshchuk, J. H. Burge, “Processing parameters optimisation for thermochemical writing of DOEs on chromium films,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.3010, 168–179 (1997).

V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korol’kov, A. G. Poleshchuk, V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, A. A. Kharissov, “Fabrication of diffractive optical elements by direct laser writing with circular scanning,” in 5th International Workshop on Digital Image Processing and Computer Graphics (DIP-94), N. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Soifer, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2363, 290–297 (1995).

V. V. Cherkashin, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Kiryanov, V. P. Korolkov, A. G. Poleshchuk, A. A. Kharissov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev, A. G. Verhoglad, “Circular laser writing system—CLWS-300C,” in Technical Digest of Diffractive Optics 1997, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds., Vol. 12 of EOS Topical Meeting Digest Series (European Optical Society, Savonlinna, Finland, 1997), pp. 222–223.

J. H. Burge, “Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics,” in International Conference on Optical Fabrication and Testing, T. Kasai, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2576, 258–269 (1995).

W. Goltsos, S. Liu, “Polar coordinate laser writer for binary optics fabrication,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 137–147 (1990).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the polar coordinate pattern generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pattern generation with thermochemical technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test pattern (a) written at a various laser beam power (line spacing is 1.5 µm) and measured line width (b) as a function of laser beam power for several scanning velocities (from 4.4 to 140 cm s-1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Microphotograph of the lines recorded in a-Si film with different spacing, (b) fragment of gray-scale mask, and (c) its transmission function.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microphotographs of the resolution tests written in 80-nm chromium films: (a) circular grating with 1.2-µm spacing (scanning electronic microscope photograph) and (b) test image with 2-, 1.6-, 1-, and 0.8-µm line spacing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Overlay test patterns written in the same chromium film. (a) Even triangle rows and (b) the upper vernier were written first. Writing radius is 40 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wave front from a 58-mm f/1.1 zone plate measured with a phase-shifting Fizeau interferometer: (a) interferogram and (b) gray-scale phase map with full scale variation ±λ/20.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Angular error distribution of a fabricated 36,000-groove optical scale.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Central part of a circular microlens array and (b) enlarged fragment of a single lens.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Off-axis (a) and (d) and on-axis (b) and (e) holograms generating helical wave fronts with topological charge m = 4 and 1 and corresponding diffraction patterns (c) and (f).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Central fragment of an elliptical zone plate for focusing the light beam with the incident and the diffraction angles of 45 deg.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance and Specifications of the Pattern Generator

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