Abstract

Past research on all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitters is reviewed. It is shown that, for a 50-nm spectral region, it is possible to design and manufacture a two-material nonpolarizing plate beam splitter for use at an angle of 45° (with a measured rms reflectance of 0.50 ± 0.01 for both s- and p-polarized incident light).

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical Properties of Films and Coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 42.1–42.130.
  3. S. J. Refermat, A. F. Turner, “Polarization free beam divider,” U.S. patent3,559,090 (26January1971).
  4. S. Itoh, M. Sawamura, “Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization,” U.S. patent4,415,233 (15November1983).
  5. L. Y. Chang, S. H. Mo, “Design of non-polarizing prism beam splitter,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 381–384.
  6. H. A. Macleod, Z. Milanovic, “Immersed beam splitters—an old problem,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.
  7. J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Beam splitter for a wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1585–1588 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Baumeister, “The transmission and degree of polarization of quarter-wave stacks at non-normal incidence,” Optica Acta 8, 105–119 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. R. Costich, “Reduction of polarization effects in interference coatings,” Appl. Opt. 9, 866–870 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Thelen, “Nonpolarizing interference films inside a glass cube,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2983–2985 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).
  12. H. F. Mahlein, “Non-polarizing beam splitters,” Optica Acta 21, 577–583 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Knittl, “Control of polarization effects by internal antireflection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 105–110 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Knittl, H. Houserkova, “Equivalent layers in oblique incidence: the problem of unsplit admittances and depolarization of partial reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2055–2068 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Knittl, “Applications of thin films in optics and the principles and methods of their design,” in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE401, 2–18 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. M. de Sterke, C. J. van der Laan, H. J. Frankena, “Nonpolarizing beam splitter design,” Appl. Opt. 22, 595–601 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. R. Henderson, “The design of non-polarizing beam splitters,” Thin Solid Films 51, 339–347 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Kobayashi, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent4,627,688 (9December1986).
  19. M. Zukic, K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing beamsplitters with dielectric multilayer coatings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. N. Konoplev, Y. A. Mamaev, V. N. Starostin, A. A. Turkin, “Nonpolarizing 50% beam splitters,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 303–305 (1991).
  21. M. Gilo, “Design of a nonpolarizing beam splitter inside a glass cube,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5345–5349 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Ciosek, “Non-polarizing beam-splitter inside a glass cube,” in Gradient Index Optics in Science and Engineering, M. Pluta, ed., Proc. SPIE2943, 179–183 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Numerical methods for optical thin films,” Opt. Photonics News 8, 24–33 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Development of the needle optimization technique and new features of Optilayer design software,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 10–20 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Noe, “Immersed wideband nonpolarizing beamsplitter,” http://www.spectra.com/designs/immersedBS.html (1996).
  26. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin-film design,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5484–5492 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Manufacture of all-dielectric interference filters of arbitrary thickness and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 725 (1970).
  28. J. A. Dobrowolski, J. R. Pekelsky, R. Pelletier, M. Ranger, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “Practical magnetron sputtering system for the deposition of optical multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3784–3789 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).
  30. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. I. Theoretical description,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3821–3835 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. II. Experimental results—sputtering system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2351–2360 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Numerical methods for optical thin films,” Opt. Photonics News 8, 24–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

Y. N. Konoplev, Y. A. Mamaev, V. N. Starostin, A. A. Turkin, “Nonpolarizing 50% beam splitters,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 303–305 (1991).

1989 (1)

M. Zukic, K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing beamsplitters with dielectric multilayer coatings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

A. R. Henderson, “The design of non-polarizing beam splitters,” Thin Solid Films 51, 339–347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

H. F. Mahlein, “Non-polarizing beam splitters,” Optica Acta 21, 577–583 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Manufacture of all-dielectric interference filters of arbitrary thickness and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 725 (1970).

V. R. Costich, “Reduction of polarization effects in interference coatings,” Appl. Opt. 9, 866–870 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

P. Baumeister, “The transmission and degree of polarization of quarter-wave stacks at non-normal incidence,” Optica Acta 8, 105–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, T.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Baumeister, P.

P. Baumeister, “The transmission and degree of polarization of quarter-wave stacks at non-normal incidence,” Optica Acta 8, 105–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L. Y.

L. Y. Chang, S. H. Mo, “Design of non-polarizing prism beam splitter,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 381–384.

Ciosek, J.

J. Ciosek, “Non-polarizing beam-splitter inside a glass cube,” in Gradient Index Optics in Science and Engineering, M. Pluta, ed., Proc. SPIE2943, 179–183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Costich, V. R.

de Sterke, C. M.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Numerical methods for optical thin films,” Opt. Photonics News 8, 24–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin-film design,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5484–5492 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. II. Experimental results—sputtering system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2351–2360 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. I. Theoretical description,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3821–3835 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, J. R. Pekelsky, R. Pelletier, M. Ranger, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “Practical magnetron sputtering system for the deposition of optical multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3784–3789 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Beam splitter for a wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1585–1588 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Manufacture of all-dielectric interference filters of arbitrary thickness and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 725 (1970).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical Properties of Films and Coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 42.1–42.130.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Frankena, H. J.

Gilo, M.

Guenther, K. H.

M. Zukic, K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing beamsplitters with dielectric multilayer coatings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, A. R.

A. R. Henderson, “The design of non-polarizing beam splitters,” Thin Solid Films 51, 339–347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

Houserkova, H.

Howe, L.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Itoh, S.

S. Itoh, M. Sawamura, “Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization,” U.S. patent4,415,233 (15November1983).

Kikuchi, K.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Knittl, Z.

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent4,627,688 (9December1986).

Konoplev, Y. N.

Y. N. Konoplev, Y. A. Mamaev, V. N. Starostin, A. A. Turkin, “Nonpolarizing 50% beam splitters,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 303–305 (1991).

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Z. Milanovic, “Immersed beam splitters—an old problem,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

Mahlein, H. F.

H. F. Mahlein, “Non-polarizing beam splitters,” Optica Acta 21, 577–583 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mamaev, Y. A.

Y. N. Konoplev, Y. A. Mamaev, V. N. Starostin, A. A. Turkin, “Nonpolarizing 50% beam splitters,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 303–305 (1991).

Matsumoto, A.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Milanovic, Z.

H. A. Macleod, Z. Milanovic, “Immersed beam splitters—an old problem,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

Mo, S. H.

L. Y. Chang, S. H. Mo, “Design of non-polarizing prism beam splitter,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 381–384.

Osborne, N.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Pekelsky, J. R.

Pelletier, R.

Ranger, M.

J. A. Dobrowolski, J. R. Pekelsky, R. Pelletier, M. Ranger, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “Practical magnetron sputtering system for the deposition of optical multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3784–3789 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Refermat, S. J.

S. J. Refermat, A. F. Turner, “Polarization free beam divider,” U.S. patent3,559,090 (26January1971).

Sawamura, M.

S. Itoh, M. Sawamura, “Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization,” U.S. patent4,415,233 (15November1983).

Song, Y.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

Starostin, V. N.

Y. N. Konoplev, Y. A. Mamaev, V. N. Starostin, A. A. Turkin, “Nonpolarizing 50% beam splitters,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 303–305 (1991).

Sullivan, B. T.

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, “Nonpolarizing interference films inside a glass cube,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2983–2985 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Development of the needle optimization technique and new features of Optilayer design software,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 10–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Development of the needle optimization technique and new features of Optilayer design software,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 10–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turkin, A. A.

Y. N. Konoplev, Y. A. Mamaev, V. N. Starostin, A. A. Turkin, “Nonpolarizing 50% beam splitters,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 303–305 (1991).

Turner, A. F.

S. J. Refermat, A. F. Turner, “Polarization free beam divider,” U.S. patent3,559,090 (26January1971).

van der Laan, C. J.

Waldorf, A.

Waldorf, A. J.

J. A. Dobrowolski, J. R. Pekelsky, R. Pelletier, M. Ranger, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “Practical magnetron sputtering system for the deposition of optical multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3784–3789 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Manufacture of all-dielectric interference filters of arbitrary thickness and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 725 (1970).

Zukic, M.

M. Zukic, K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing beamsplitters with dielectric multilayer coatings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Beam splitter for a wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1585–1588 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Costich, “Reduction of polarization effects in interference coatings,” Appl. Opt. 9, 866–870 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Thelen, “Nonpolarizing interference films inside a glass cube,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2983–2985 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Knittl, “Control of polarization effects by internal antireflection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 105–110 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Knittl, H. Houserkova, “Equivalent layers in oblique incidence: the problem of unsplit admittances and depolarization of partial reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2055–2068 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. de Sterke, C. J. van der Laan, H. J. Frankena, “Nonpolarizing beam splitter design,” Appl. Opt. 22, 595–601 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gilo, “Design of a nonpolarizing beam splitter inside a glass cube,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5345–5349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin-film design,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5484–5492 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, J. R. Pekelsky, R. Pelletier, M. Ranger, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “Practical magnetron sputtering system for the deposition of optical multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3784–3789 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. I. Theoretical description,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3821–3835 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. II. Experimental results—sputtering system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2351–2360 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. J. Waldorf, “Manufacture of all-dielectric interference filters of arbitrary thickness and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 725 (1970).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Zukic, K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing beamsplitters with dielectric multilayer coatings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photonics News (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Numerical methods for optical thin films,” Opt. Photonics News 8, 24–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

Y. N. Konoplev, Y. A. Mamaev, V. N. Starostin, A. A. Turkin, “Nonpolarizing 50% beam splitters,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 303–305 (1991).

Optica Acta (2)

P. Baumeister, “The transmission and degree of polarization of quarter-wave stacks at non-normal incidence,” Optica Acta 8, 105–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Mahlein, “Non-polarizing beam splitters,” Optica Acta 21, 577–583 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. R. Henderson, “The design of non-polarizing beam splitters,” Thin Solid Films 51, 339–347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

T. Kobayashi, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent4,627,688 (9December1986).

Z. Knittl, “Applications of thin films in optics and the principles and methods of their design,” in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE401, 2–18 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Ciosek, “Non-polarizing beam-splitter inside a glass cube,” in Gradient Index Optics in Science and Engineering, M. Pluta, ed., Proc. SPIE2943, 179–183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical Properties of Films and Coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 42.1–42.130.

S. J. Refermat, A. F. Turner, “Polarization free beam divider,” U.S. patent3,559,090 (26January1971).

S. Itoh, M. Sawamura, “Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization,” U.S. patent4,415,233 (15November1983).

L. Y. Chang, S. H. Mo, “Design of non-polarizing prism beam splitter,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 381–384.

H. A. Macleod, Z. Milanovic, “Immersed beam splitters—an old problem,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Development of the needle optimization technique and new features of Optilayer design software,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 10–20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Noe, “Immersed wideband nonpolarizing beamsplitter,” http://www.spectra.com/designs/immersedBS.html (1996).

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. Clarke, T. Akiyama, N. Osborne, M. Ranger, L. Howe, A. Matsumoto, Y. Song, K. Kikuchi, “Manufacture of complex multilayer filters using an automated deposition system,” Vacuum (to be published).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated performance and refractive-index profiles of all-dielectric wideband nonpolarizing beam splitters for use at 45° incidence described (a) by Tikhonravov and Trubetskov24 and (b) by Noe25. The multilayers make use of three different coating materials and they consist of 47 and 97 layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated performance and refractive-index profile of a polarization-independent beam-splitter design for ion-assisted electron-beam gun deposition (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated performance over an extended spectral range of the polarization-independent beam splitter of Fig. 2. Also shown are the upper and the lower limits that contain 66% of such multilayers with 2% random perturbations of the layer thicknesses (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization-independent beam splitter produced by ac magnetron sputtering without real-time optimization: (a) and (c) p-polarized light and (b) and (d) s-polarized light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization-independent beam splitter produced by ac magnetron sputtering with real-time optimization: (a) and (c) p-polarized light and (b) and (d) s-polarized light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of angle of incidence on the reflectance of the system of Fig. 4 for s- and p-polarized light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Determined and measured normal-incidence transmittance of the filter of Fig. 4. The 45° target is shown for reference purposes.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Indices Used in the Calculations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Deposition by Magnetron Sputtering with and without Reoptimization of the Layer Thicknessesa

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