Abstract

Heat-resistant flexible-film optical waveguides were fabricated from fluorinated polyimides. These waveguides operated in single mode and had low optical loss (0.3 dB/cm) at a wavelength of 1.3 µm for TE and TM polarizations. They also had good flexibility: The optical loss did not significantly change above a minimum radius of curvature of less than 20 mm. The birefringence of 9 × 10-5 between the TE and TM polarizations is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that for a waveguide upon a substrate. Moreover, these waveguides had high thermal stability and moisture resistance: The optical loss and single-mode behavior changed little after heating the waveguides at 420 °C for 1 h or after their exposure to 85% relative humidity at 85 °C for more than 350 h.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  2. D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant cured polymer optical waveguides on printed circuit boards for photonic interconnection use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1032–1037 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).
  12. R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Hida, H. Onose, S. Imamura, “Polymer waveguide thermooptic switch with low electric power consumption at 1.3 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 782–784 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Directional couplers using fluorinated polyimide waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 610–614 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).
  23. J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Kaneko, M. Hikita, S. Imamura, M. Kihara, “Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 5th European International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibres and Applications (Institute of Communications, Geneva, 1996), pp. 113–119.
  25. T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Tsuruta, Applied Optics II (Baihukan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 191–194.

1998 (5)

J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).

J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1032–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Directional couplers using fluorinated polyimide waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 610–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

Y. Hida, H. Onose, S. Imamura, “Polymer waveguide thermooptic switch with low electric power consumption at 1.3 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 782–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant cured polymer optical waveguides on printed circuit boards for photonic interconnection use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Ando, S.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. J.

B. J. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, D. A.

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Fan, B.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feger, C.

Fischbeck, G.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flagello, D.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Franke, H.

Gelorme, J. D.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. M.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D. H.

Hasuda, Y.

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, S.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hida, Y.

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hida, H. Onose, S. Imamura, “Polymer waveguide thermooptic switch with low electric power consumption at 1.3 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 782–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneko, M. Hikita, S. Imamura, M. Kihara, “Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 5th European International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibres and Applications (Institute of Communications, Geneva, 1996), pp. 113–119.

Horiuchi, T.

J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Howse, J. W.

Imamura, S.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hida, H. Onose, S. Imamura, “Polymer waveguide thermooptic switch with low electric power consumption at 1.3 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 782–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneko, M. Hikita, S. Imamura, M. Kihara, “Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 5th European International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibres and Applications (Institute of Communications, Geneva, 1996), pp. 113–119.

Inoue, Y.

J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).

Ishii, T.

J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Izawa, “Plastic planar waveguides for optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Optical Communication and the 8th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1991), pp. 97–100.

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, A.

A. Kaneko, M. Hikita, S. Imamura, M. Kihara, “Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 5th European International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibres and Applications (Institute of Communications, Geneva, 1996), pp. 113–119.

Katayama, Y.

T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Keil, N.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kihara, M.

A. Kaneko, M. Hikita, S. Imamura, M. Kihara, “Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 5th European International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibres and Applications (Institute of Communications, Geneva, 1996), pp. 113–119.

Kobayashi, J.

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Directional couplers using fluorinated polyimide waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 610–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1032–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kostrzewa, C.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krchnavek, R. R.

Lalk, G. R.

Maruno, T.

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1032–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Directional couplers using fluorinated polyimide waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 610–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, T.

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1032–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Directional couplers using fluorinated polyimide waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 610–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, R.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakagome, H.

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, S.

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Onose, H.

Y. Hida, H. Onose, S. Imamura, “Polymer waveguide thermooptic switch with low electric power consumption at 1.3 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 782–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Optysko, M. M.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, R.

Sasaki, S.

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Directional couplers using fluorinated polyimide waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 610–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1032–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L. W.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Speth, A.

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stengel, K. M. T.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Strebel, B.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, S.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-board interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE994, 92–100 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuruta, T.

T. Tsuruta, Applied Optics II (Baihukan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 191–194.

Usui, M.

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Xu, C.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Yamada, N.

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, F.

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H. H.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Yoshimura, R.

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, C.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (7)

S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Hida, H. Onose, S. Imamura, “Polymer waveguide thermooptic switch with low electric power consumption at 1.3 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 782–784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. (1)

J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Macromolecules (2)

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).

Other (6)

D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Izawa, “Plastic planar waveguides for optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Optical Communication and the 8th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1991), pp. 97–100.

C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-board interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE994, 92–100 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneko, M. Hikita, S. Imamura, M. Kihara, “Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 5th European International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibres and Applications (Institute of Communications, Geneva, 1996), pp. 113–119.

T. Tsuruta, Applied Optics II (Baihukan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 191–194.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of fluorinated polyimides of 6FDA/TFDB and PMDA/TFDB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices at a wavelength of 1.3 µm for TE and TM polarization of copolyimides after substrate removal and annealing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-infrared absorption spectrum for 6FDA/TFDB polyimide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steps in the fabrication of fluorinated polyimide film waveguides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional micrograph of a typical fabricated buried waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical near-field mode pattern observed by an infrared camera at a wavelength of 1.3 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical losses for TE and TM polarization against wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between phase retardation and waveguide length by the Senarmont method.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of optical loss on heating temperature for a fabricated film waveguide.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of optical loss on length of exposure to 85% relative humidity at 85 °C for a fabricated film waveguide: RH, relative humidity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dependence of bending loss on radius of curvature for fabricated film waveguides.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of Waveguide Materials

Equations (2)

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R=Bd=nλ+θ180 λ,
θ=180Bλ d-180n,

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