Abstract

Atmospheric correction in ocean-color remote sensing corrects more than 90% of signals in the visible contributed from the atmosphere measured at satellite altitude. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) atmospheric correction uses radiances measured at two near-infrared wavelengths centered at 765 and 865 nm to estimate the atmospheric contribution and extrapolate it into the visible range. However, the SeaWiFS 765-nm band, which covers 745–785 nm, completely encompasses the oxygen A-band absorption. The O2A-band absorption usually reduces more than 10–15% of the measured radiance at the SeaWiFS 765-nm band. Ding and Gordon [Appl. Opt.34, 2068–2080 (1995)] proposed a numerical scheme to remove the O2A-band absorption effects from the atmospheric correction. This scheme has been implemented in the SeaWiFS ocean-color imagery data-processing system. I present results that demonstrate a method to validate the SeaWiFS 765-nm O2A-band absorption correction by analyzing the sensor-measured radiances at 765 and 865 nm taken looking at the clouds over the oceans. SeaWiFS is usually not saturated with cloudy scenes because of its bilinear gain design. Because the optical and radiative properties of water clouds are nearly independent of the wavelengths ranging from 400 to 865 nm, the sensor-measured radiances above the cloud at the two near-infrared wavelengths are comparable. The retrieved cloud optical thicknesses from the SeaWiFS band 7 measurements are compared for cases with and without the O2A-band absorption corrections and from the band 8 measurements. The results show that, for air-mass values of 2–5, the current SeaWiFS O2A-band absorption correction works reasonably well. The validation method is potentially applicable for in-orbit relative calibration for SeaWiFS and other satellite sensors.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).
  2. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Analysis of the influence of O2A-band absorption on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2068–2080 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. S. Fraser, The Effect of Oxygen Absorption on Band-7 Radiance, Vol. 27 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).
  8. R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, Stray Light in the SeaWiFS Radiometer, Vol. 31 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).
  9. S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Spectral reflectance of clouds in the near-infrared: comparison of measurements and calculations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 583–592 (1982).
  10. S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Remote sensing of cloud parameters from spectral reflectance measurements in the near-infrared,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 62, 172–179 (1989).
  11. T. Nakajima, M. D. King, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. I. Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878–1893 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Wang, M. D. King, “Correction of Rayleigh scattering effects in cloud optical thickness retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,915–25,926 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, M. D. King, “Correction of Rayleigh scattering effects in cloud optical thickness retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,915–25,926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1990 (1)

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. I. Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878–1893 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Remote sensing of cloud parameters from spectral reflectance measurements in the near-infrared,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 62, 172–179 (1989).

1982 (1)

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Spectral reflectance of clouds in the near-infrared: comparison of measurements and calculations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 583–592 (1982).

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, Stray Light in the SeaWiFS Radiometer, Vol. 31 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Cocks, T.

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Remote sensing of cloud parameters from spectral reflectance measurements in the near-infrared,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 62, 172–179 (1989).

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Spectral reflectance of clouds in the near-infrared: comparison of measurements and calculations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 583–592 (1982).

Ding, K.

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, Stray Light in the SeaWiFS Radiometer, Vol. 31 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fraser, R. S.

R. S. Fraser, The Effect of Oxygen Absorption on Band-7 Radiance, Vol. 27 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Gordon, H. R.

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, Stray Light in the SeaWiFS Radiometer, Vol. 31 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

King, M. D.

M. Wang, M. D. King, “Correction of Rayleigh scattering effects in cloud optical thickness retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,915–25,926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. I. Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878–1893 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. I. Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878–1893 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Remote sensing of cloud parameters from spectral reflectance measurements in the near-infrared,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 62, 172–179 (1989).

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Spectral reflectance of clouds in the near-infrared: comparison of measurements and calculations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 583–592 (1982).

Wang, M.

Yang, H.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Remote sensing of cloud parameters from spectral reflectance measurements in the near-infrared,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 62, 172–179 (1989).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. I. Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1878–1893 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

M. Wang, M. D. King, “Correction of Rayleigh scattering effects in cloud optical thickness retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,915–25,926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Twomey, T. Cocks, “Spectral reflectance of clouds in the near-infrared: comparison of measurements and calculations,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 583–592 (1982).

Other (3)

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

R. S. Fraser, The Effect of Oxygen Absorption on Band-7 Radiance, Vol. 27 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, Stray Light in the SeaWiFS Radiometer, Vol. 31 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

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