Abstract

Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements taken with a continuous-wave focused Doppler lidar at 9.1-µm wavelength were obtained over western North America and the Pacific Ocean from 13 to 26 September 1995 as part of a NASA airborne mission. Backscatter variability was measured for ∼52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of ∼30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from ∼0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. A midtropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode near 3 × 10-11 to 1 × 10-10 m-1 sr-1 was obtained, which is consistent with those of previous airborne and ground-based data sets.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava, A. D. Clarke, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, “Comparison of modeled backscatter using measured aerosol microphysics with focused cw lidar data over Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,605–16,617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, S. Chudamani, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. L. Bufton, “Aerosol and cloud backscatter at 1.06, 1.54, and 0.53 µm by airborne hard-target-calibrated Nd:YAG/methane Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3475–3490 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (4)

V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, D. R. Cutten, “High resolution remote sensing of sulfate aerosols from CO2 lidar backscatter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2373–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, C. Nash, S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 2. Compendium of airborne backscatter measurements at 10.6 µm,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1043–1065 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Brieglab, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

R. J. Charlson, J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, S. G. Warren, “Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols,” Tellus 43AB, 152–163 (1991).

D. A. Bowdle, J. Rothermel, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5327–5335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alejandro, S. B.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, C. Nash, S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 2. Compendium of airborne backscatter measurements at 10.6 µm,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1043–1065 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G. M.

Anderson, J. R.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R. J.

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, R. M.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, W. E.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Banta, R. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, E. W.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bedo, D.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bowdle, D. A.

J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, W. D. Jones, “Signal processing and calibration of continuous-wave focused CO2 Doppler lidars for atmospheric backscatter measurement,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2083–2095 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, “Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode over the Pacific Ocean at 9.1 µm wavelength,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 281–284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, D. R. Cutten, “High resolution remote sensing of sulfate aerosols from CO2 lidar backscatter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2373–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bowdle, J. Rothermel, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5327–5335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Bowdle, “A global-scale model of aerosol backscatter at CO2 wavelengths for satellite-based lidar sensors,” Second Conference on Satellite Meteorology/Remote Sensing and Applications, preprint volume (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., (1986), pp. 303–306.

D. A. Bowdle, D. E. Fitzjarrald, “The GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) program,” in Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, Vol. 16 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 108–111 (1987).

Brieglab, B. P.

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Brieglab, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. W.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, C. Nash, S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 2. Compendium of airborne backscatter measurements at 10.6 µm,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1043–1065 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bowdle, J. Rothermel, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5327–5335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. A.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

Callan, R.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cavanaugh, J. F.

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambers, D. M.

Charlson, R. J.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Charlson, J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, S. G. Warren, “Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols,” Tellus 43AB, 152–163 (1991).

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chudamani, S.

Clarke, A. D.

V. Srivastava, A. D. Clarke, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, “Comparison of modeled backscatter using measured aerosol microphysics with focused cw lidar data over Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,605–16,617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cupp, R. E.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cutten, D. R.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, D. R. Cutten, “High resolution remote sensing of sulfate aerosols from CO2 lidar backscatter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2373–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davies, P. H.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delany, A. C.

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Derr, V. E.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Emmitt, G. D.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fitzjarrald, D. E.

D. A. Bowdle, D. E. Fitzjarrald, “The GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) program,” in Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, Vol. 16 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 108–111 (1987).

Flamant, P. H.

Foord, R.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frelin, R.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gras, J. L.

Hales, J. M.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haner, D. A.

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardesty, R. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howell, J. N.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jaenicke, R.

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jarzembski, M. A.

V. Srivastava, A. D. Clarke, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, “Comparison of modeled backscatter using measured aerosol microphysics with focused cw lidar data over Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,605–16,617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, W. D. Jones, “Signal processing and calibration of continuous-wave focused CO2 Doppler lidars for atmospheric backscatter measurement,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2083–2095 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. M. Chambers, “Lidar calibration technique using laboratory-generated aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2096–2108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, D. R. Cutten, “High resolution remote sensing of sulfate aerosols from CO2 lidar backscatter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2373–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jedlovec, G. J.

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. C.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, W. D.

Kavaya, M. J.

R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, P. H. Flamant, D. A. Haner, “Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements using a tunable coherent CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2510–2517 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” in Space Instrumentation and Dual-Use Technologies, F. A. Allahadadi, M. P. Chrisp, C. R. Giuliano, W. P. Latham, J. F. Shanley, eds., Proc. SPIE2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keller, V. W.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” in Space Instrumentation and Dual-Use Technologies, F. A. Allahadadi, M. P. Chrisp, C. R. Giuliano, W. P. Latham, J. F. Shanley, eds., Proc. SPIE2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Brieglab, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenig, G. G.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, C. Nash, S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 2. Compendium of airborne backscatter measurements at 10.6 µm,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1043–1065 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurti, T. N.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Langner, J.

R. J. Charlson, J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, S. G. Warren, “Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols,” Tellus 43AB, 152–163 (1991).

Laulainen, N.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leifer, R.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leovy, C. B.

R. J. Charlson, J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, S. G. Warren, “Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols,” Tellus 43AB, 152–163 (1991).

Lobl, E. S.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” in Space Instrumentation and Dual-Use Technologies, F. A. Allahadadi, M. P. Chrisp, C. R. Giuliano, W. P. Latham, J. F. Shanley, eds., Proc. SPIE2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lorenc, A. C.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCaul, E. W.

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Tratt, R. T. Menzies, “Recent climatological trends in atmospheric aerosol backscatter derived from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory multiyear backscatter profile database,” Appl. Opt. 33, 424–430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne CO2 coherent lidar for measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5698–5711 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ancellet, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Atmospheric backscatter vertical profiles at 9.2 and 10.6 µm: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4907–4912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, P. H. Flamant, D. A. Haner, “Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements using a tunable coherent CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2510–2517 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. L.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mohnen, V.

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Molinari, J. E.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moyers, J.

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nash, C.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, C. Nash, S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 2. Compendium of airborne backscatter measurements at 10.6 µm,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1043–1065 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novakov, T.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ogren, J.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, L. D.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paegle, J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Penner, J. E.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bowdle, J. Rothermel, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5327–5335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscattering profiles at CO2 wavelengths: the NOAA data base,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2507–2509 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Radke, L. F.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, K.

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, P.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodhe, H.

R. J. Charlson, J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, S. G. Warren, “Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols,” Tellus 43AB, 152–163 (1991).

Rothermel, J.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava, A. D. Clarke, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, “Comparison of modeled backscatter using measured aerosol microphysics with focused cw lidar data over Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,605–16,617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, W. D. Jones, “Signal processing and calibration of continuous-wave focused CO2 Doppler lidars for atmospheric backscatter measurement,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2083–2095 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, “Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode over the Pacific Ocean at 9.1 µm wavelength,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 281–284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, D. R. Cutten, “High resolution remote sensing of sulfate aerosols from CO2 lidar backscatter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2373–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bowdle, J. Rothermel, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5327–5335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” in Space Instrumentation and Dual-Use Technologies, F. A. Allahadadi, M. P. Chrisp, C. R. Giuliano, W. P. Latham, J. F. Shanley, eds., Proc. SPIE2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiesow, R. L.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, P. C.

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Spiers, G. D.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” in Space Instrumentation and Dual-Use Technologies, F. A. Allahadadi, M. P. Chrisp, C. R. Giuliano, W. P. Latham, J. F. Shanley, eds., Proc. SPIE2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

Srivastava, V.

V. Srivastava, A. D. Clarke, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, “Comparison of modeled backscatter using measured aerosol microphysics with focused cw lidar data over Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,605–16,617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, W. D. Jones, “Signal processing and calibration of continuous-wave focused CO2 Doppler lidars for atmospheric backscatter measurement,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2083–2095 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. M. Chambers, “Lidar calibration technique using laboratory-generated aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2096–2108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, “Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode over the Pacific Ocean at 9.1 µm wavelength,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 281–284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, D. R. Cutten, “High resolution remote sensing of sulfate aerosols from CO2 lidar backscatter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2373–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swirbalus, T.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tratt, D. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Tratt, R. T. Menzies, “Recent climatological trends in atmospheric aerosol backscatter derived from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory multiyear backscatter profile database,” Appl. Opt. 33, 424–430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne CO2 coherent lidar for measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5698–5711 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ancellet, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Atmospheric backscatter vertical profiles at 9.2 and 10.6 µm: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4907–4912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travis, L.

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. M.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, C. Nash, S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 2. Compendium of airborne backscatter measurements at 10.6 µm,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1043–1065 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bowdle, J. Rothermel, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5327–5335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, S. G.

R. J. Charlson, J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, S. G. Warren, “Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols,” Tellus 43AB, 152–163 (1991).

Wilson, D. J.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woffinden, J.

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, W.

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

D. M. Tratt, R. T. Menzies, “Recent climatological trends in atmospheric aerosol backscatter derived from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory multiyear backscatter profile database,” Appl. Opt. 33, 424–430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne CO2 coherent lidar for measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5698–5711 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ancellet, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Atmospheric backscatter vertical profiles at 9.2 and 10.6 µm: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4907–4912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscattering profiles at CO2 wavelengths: the NOAA data base,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2507–2509 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, P. H. Flamant, D. A. Haner, “Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements using a tunable coherent CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2510–2517 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, S. Chudamani, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. L. Bufton, “Aerosol and cloud backscatter at 1.06, 1.54, and 0.53 µm by airborne hard-target-calibrated Nd:YAG/methane Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3475–3490 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Gras, W. D. Jones, “Australian aerosol backscatter survey,” Appl. Opt. 28, 852–856 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. M. Chambers, “Lidar calibration technique using laboratory-generated aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2096–2108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, W. D. Jones, “Signal processing and calibration of continuous-wave focused CO2 Doppler lidars for atmospheric backscatter measurement,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2083–2095 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (3)

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, P. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, T. L. Miller, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Penner, R. J. Charlson, J. M. Hales, N. Laulainen, R. Leifer, T. Novakov, J. Ogren, L. F. Radke, S. E. Schwartz, L. Travis, “Quantifying and minimizing uncertainty of climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 375–400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

V. Srivastava, D. A. Bowdle, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, D. M. Chambers, D. R. Cutten, “High resolution remote sensing of sulfate aerosols from CO2 lidar backscatter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2373–2376 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, E. W. McCaul, G. J. Jedlovec, R. J. Atkinson, R. F. Pueschel, D. R. Cutten, “Comparison of lidar backscatter with particle distribution and GOES-7 data in Hurricane Juliette,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, “Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode over the Pacific Ocean at 9.1 µm wavelength,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 281–284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meterol. (1)

R. L. Schwiesow, R. E. Cupp, V. E. Derr, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, P. C. Sinclair, “Aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles measured at 10.6 µm,” J. Appl. Meterol. 20, 184–194 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, D. Bedo, T. Swirbalus, R. Frelin, J. Woffinden, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, R. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, C. Nash, D. J. Wilson, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 1. Program overview and airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1035–1041 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, C. Nash, S. B. Alejandro, G. G. Koenig, “Atlantic atmospheric aerosol studies. 2. Compendium of airborne backscatter measurements at 10.6 µm,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1043–1065 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bowdle, J. Rothermel, J. M. Vaughan, D. W. Brown, M. J. Post, “Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5327–5335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Srivastava, A. D. Clarke, M. A. Jarzembski, J. Rothermel, “Comparison of modeled backscatter using measured aerosol microphysics with focused cw lidar data over Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,605–16,617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

J. M. Prospero, R. J. Charlson, V. Mohnen, R. Jaenicke, A. C. Delany, J. Moyers, W. Zoller, K. Rahn, “The atmospheric aerosol system: an overview,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 21, 1607–1629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Brieglab, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus (1)

R. J. Charlson, J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, S. G. Warren, “Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols,” Tellus 43AB, 152–163 (1991).

Other (3)

D. A. Bowdle, D. E. Fitzjarrald, “The GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) program,” in Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, Vol. 16 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 108–111 (1987).

D. A. Bowdle, “A global-scale model of aerosol backscatter at CO2 wavelengths for satellite-based lidar sensors,” Second Conference on Satellite Meteorology/Remote Sensing and Applications, preprint volume (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., (1986), pp. 303–306.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” in Space Instrumentation and Dual-Use Technologies, F. A. Allahadadi, M. P. Chrisp, C. R. Giuliano, W. P. Latham, J. F. Shanley, eds., Proc. SPIE2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locations where quasi-vertical β profiles, identified by the various symbols and labeled P1–P9, were obtained with the NASA MSFC 9.1-µm cw lidar during ascents and descents of the NASA DC8 aircraft from 13 to 26 September 1995. Asterisk represents Moffett Field just south of San Francisco Bay where the flights originated and concluded and also where profiles were obtained.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

β profiles over the ocean (a), (b) off the coast of Oregon (locations shown in Fig. 1 as open and filled circles, respectively) and (c) off the coast of central California (pluses in Fig. 1). For comparison, the dotted curve in (a) is a geometric mean aerosol β profile retrieved by JPL’s airborne pulsed lidar7 at 9.25-µm wavelength over the northern Pacific Ocean between latitudes of 20 °N and 60 °N for the fall 1989 and spring 1990 GLOBE missions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

β profiles obtained during takeoff and landing near the south San Francisco Bay area (location shown in Fig. 1 by an asterisk) for (a) F1, F7, and F8 with winds in the lower troposphere from the west and (b) F2, F3, and F8 with winds in the lower troposphere from the south or north. For comparison, the heavy solid curve in (b) shows the geometric mean β climatology profile obtained by JPL’s ground-based pulsed lidar at 9.25-µm wavelength (1984–1992) over Pasadena, California.8

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

β profiles inland over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and over the San Joaquin Valley (locations shown in Fig. 1 as filled triangles and open squares, respectively).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

β profiles obtained during F9 (flight path shown in Fig. 1) showing elevated aerosol layers above the planetary boundary layer (a), (b) off the coast of California (P2–P6), (c) over the Sacramento Valley (P7, P8), and (d) over the San Francisco Bay region (P1, P9). For comparison, the dotted curve in (b) is a profile from JPL’s airborne pulsed lidar9 at 9.25-µm wavelength during the second GLOBE mission off the east coast of China on 31 May 1990.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

β profile showing an elevated aerosol layer above the planetary boundary layer over the ocean off the west coast of Mexico (shown in Fig. 1 as a filled diamond).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of frequency of occurrence for aerosol β as a function of altitude for all nine flights. Frequencies of occurrence within each altitude interval sum to unity across all β intervals. The column at the left shows the frequency distribution of measurement opportunities at each altitude interval, which sum to unity over all altitudes.

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