Abstract

When a visible laser beam passes through β-BaB2O4 (BBO), scattered light can be observed along the beam within the crystal. Scattering centers caused by structural defects in Czochralski-grown BBO can be reduced by 95% by annealing at 920 °C. In the flux-grown BBO, centers actually increase by the same annealing because the process causes microcracks and/or secondary inclusions. It is shown that annealed Czochralski-grown BBO is superior to flux-grown BBO (annealed or as-grown) in terms of optical loss.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. K. Ceng, W. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Growth and characterization of low temperature phase barium metaborate crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 89, 553–559 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Itoh, F. Marumo, Y. Kuwano, “β-barium borate single crystal grown by a direct Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 728–731 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, K. Ito, F. Marumo, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method. II,” J. Cryst. Growth 114, 676–682 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method using β-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals as starting material,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 938–944 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 phase-matching-direction growth by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 166, 497–501 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kondo, M. Oka, H. Wada, T. Fukui, U. Umezu, K. Tatsuki, S. Kubota, “Demonstration of long-term reliability of a 266-nm, continuous-wave, frequency-quadrupled solid-state laser using β-BaB2O4,” Opt. Lett. 23, 195–197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Liang, Y. L. Zhang, “The kinetic study of BaB2O4 phase transition,” Acta Chim. Sin. 40, 994–1000 (1982).
  10. H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “Light scattering in a wavelength conversion BBO single crystal,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 261–264 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. S. Fang, H. M. You, H. J. Ling, “Crystal structure of the low temperature form of barium borate Ba3(B3O6)2,” Acta Phys. Sin. 31, 948–955 (1982).
  12. S. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, “Light scattering from ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3,” Mater. Res. Bull. 13, 511–518 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Fujioka, M. Suga, M. Nakatsuka, “Automatic rapid growth of nonlinear optic crystal KDP,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 244–250 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Kouta, “Wavelength-dependence of repetitive pulse laser-induced damage threshold in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Opt. 38, 545–547 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “Light scattering in a wavelength conversion BBO single crystal,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 261–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujioka, M. Suga, M. Nakatsuka, “Automatic rapid growth of nonlinear optic crystal KDP,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 244–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kondo, M. Oka, H. Wada, T. Fukui, U. Umezu, K. Tatsuki, S. Kubota, “Demonstration of long-term reliability of a 266-nm, continuous-wave, frequency-quadrupled solid-state laser using β-BaB2O4,” Opt. Lett. 23, 195–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 phase-matching-direction growth by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 166, 497–501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method using β-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals as starting material,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 938–944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, K. Ito, F. Marumo, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method. II,” J. Cryst. Growth 114, 676–682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Itoh, F. Marumo, Y. Kuwano, “β-barium borate single crystal grown by a direct Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 728–731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. K. Ceng, W. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Growth and characterization of low temperature phase barium metaborate crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 89, 553–559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. K. Liang, Y. L. Zhang, “The kinetic study of BaB2O4 phase transition,” Acta Chim. Sin. 40, 994–1000 (1982).

L. S. Fang, H. M. You, H. J. Ling, “Crystal structure of the low temperature form of barium borate Ba3(B3O6)2,” Acta Phys. Sin. 31, 948–955 (1982).

1978 (1)

S. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, “Light scattering from ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3,” Mater. Res. Bull. 13, 511–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W.

L. K. Ceng, W. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Growth and characterization of low temperature phase barium metaborate crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 89, 553–559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ceng, L. K.

L. K. Ceng, W. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Growth and characterization of low temperature phase barium metaborate crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 89, 553–559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, F.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. K.

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fang, L. S.

L. S. Fang, H. M. You, H. J. Ling, “Crystal structure of the low temperature form of barium borate Ba3(B3O6)2,” Acta Phys. Sin. 31, 948–955 (1982).

Fujioka, K.

K. Fujioka, M. Suga, M. Nakatsuka, “Automatic rapid growth of nonlinear optic crystal KDP,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 244–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, T.

Graham, E. K.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, K. Ito, F. Marumo, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method. II,” J. Cryst. Growth 114, 676–682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, F. Marumo, Y. Kuwano, “β-barium borate single crystal grown by a direct Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 728–731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, H.

S. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, “Light scattering from ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3,” Mater. Res. Bull. 13, 511–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

Kouta, H.

H. Kouta, “Wavelength-dependence of repetitive pulse laser-induced damage threshold in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Opt. 38, 545–547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “Light scattering in a wavelength conversion BBO single crystal,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 261–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 phase-matching-direction growth by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 166, 497–501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method using β-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals as starting material,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 938–944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, K. Ito, F. Marumo, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method. II,” J. Cryst. Growth 114, 676–682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

Kuwano, Y.

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “Light scattering in a wavelength conversion BBO single crystal,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 261–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 phase-matching-direction growth by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 166, 497–501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method using β-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals as starting material,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 938–944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, K. Ito, F. Marumo, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method. II,” J. Cryst. Growth 114, 676–682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, F. Marumo, Y. Kuwano, “β-barium borate single crystal grown by a direct Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 728–731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J. K.

J. K. Liang, Y. L. Zhang, “The kinetic study of BaB2O4 phase transition,” Acta Chim. Sin. 40, 994–1000 (1982).

Lin, Q.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ling, H. J.

L. S. Fang, H. M. You, H. J. Ling, “Crystal structure of the low temperature form of barium borate Ba3(B3O6)2,” Acta Phys. Sin. 31, 948–955 (1982).

Marumo, F.

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, K. Ito, F. Marumo, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method. II,” J. Cryst. Growth 114, 676–682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, F. Marumo, Y. Kuwano, “β-barium borate single crystal grown by a direct Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 728–731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

S. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, “Light scattering from ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3,” Mater. Res. Bull. 13, 511–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

K. Fujioka, M. Suga, M. Nakatsuka, “Automatic rapid growth of nonlinear optic crystal KDP,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 244–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oka, M.

Suga, M.

K. Fujioka, M. Suga, M. Nakatsuka, “Automatic rapid growth of nonlinear optic crystal KDP,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 244–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Ceng, W. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Growth and characterization of low temperature phase barium metaborate crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 89, 553–559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuki, K.

Umezu, U.

Velsko, S.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wada, H.

You, H. M.

L. S. Fang, H. M. You, H. J. Ling, “Crystal structure of the low temperature form of barium borate Ba3(B3O6)2,” Acta Phys. Sin. 31, 948–955 (1982).

Zalkin, A.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. L.

J. K. Liang, Y. L. Zhang, “The kinetic study of BaB2O4 phase transition,” Acta Chim. Sin. 40, 994–1000 (1982).

Zheng, Y.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Acta Chim. Sin. (1)

J. K. Liang, Y. L. Zhang, “The kinetic study of BaB2O4 phase transition,” Acta Chim. Sin. 40, 994–1000 (1982).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

L. S. Fang, H. M. You, H. J. Ling, “Crystal structure of the low temperature form of barium borate Ba3(B3O6)2,” Acta Phys. Sin. 31, 948–955 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (6)

K. Itoh, F. Marumo, Y. Kuwano, “β-barium borate single crystal grown by a direct Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 106, 728–731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, K. Ito, F. Marumo, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method. II,” J. Cryst. Growth 114, 676–682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 single crystal grown by Czochralski method using β-BaB2O4 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals as starting material,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 938–944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “β-BaB2O4 phase-matching-direction growth by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 166, 497–501 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Ceng, W. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Growth and characterization of low temperature phase barium metaborate crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 89, 553–559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

S. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, “Light scattering from ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3,” Mater. Res. Bull. 13, 511–518 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) (2)

H. Kouta, Y. Kuwano, “Light scattering in a wavelength conversion BBO single crystal,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 261–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujioka, M. Suga, M. Nakatsuka, “Automatic rapid growth of nonlinear optic crystal KDP,” Rev. Laser Eng. (Jpn.) 26, 244–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System for measuring scattered light intensity in CZ BBO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observation of scattered light in BBO: (a) as-grown CZ, (b) as-grown flux, (c) CZ annealed at 920 °C, (d) flux BBO annealed at 920 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Conspicuous scattering centers in annealed flux BBO: (a) microcracks and (b) secondary inclusions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattered light intensity dependence on direction of polarization of input light in as-grown and annealed CZ BBO: (a) x, input direction; y, measurement; y-z plane, rotation of polarization; (b) z, input direction; y, measurement direction; x-y plane, rotation of polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattering center in CZ BBO, conceived of as an electric dipole with dielectric constant H.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

System for measuring laser-induced damage threshold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bulk damage threshold of BBO under 266-nm repetitive laser pulse irradiation: (a) as-grown and annealed CZ and (b) as-grown flux.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scattered Light Intensity in CZ BBO Relative to Each Axisa

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eϕ=πH/λ4l21+cos ϕ.

Metrics