Abstract

A photodiode-embedded near-field scanning microscope cantilever (photocantilever) was used to scan in a noncontact, constant-height mode at a range common in hard disk drives to examine its readout capabilities when mounted on a flying-slider head. The intensity ratios of spatial frequencies that compose the obtained near-field image were analyzed by use of the fast Fourier transform. A simplified model was developed as a guiding principle for estimating the readout characteristics of the near-field optical probe in the above-proximity scan-height range.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, “Thermomechanical writing with an atomic force microscope tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1003–1005 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Mamin, L. S. Fan, S. Hoen, D. Rugar, “Tip-based data storage using micromechanical cantilevers,” Sensors Actuators 48, 215–219 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Submicron magnetizing and its detection based on the point magnetic recording concept,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5286–5288 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Reduced-area magnetic bit recording and detection using magnetic force microscopy based on application of bidirectional magnetomotive force,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 4086–4088 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Pohl, “Some thoughts about scanning probe microscopy, micromechanics, and storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701–711 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. W. Pohl, D. Courjoun, eds., Near-Field Optics, NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), Vol. 242.
  13. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. Garcia, eds., Optics at the Nanometer Scale, NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), Vol. 319.
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Attractive-mode atomic force microscopy with optical detection in an orthogonal cantilever/sample configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2499–2502 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Liberman, A. Lewis, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling and optical near-field imaging with a micropipette,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1335–1337 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Kobayashi, O. Watanuki, “Characteristics of photon scanning tunneling microscope read-out,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 804–808 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Model near-field calculations for optical data storage readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 31–33 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Akamine, H. Yamada, H. Kuwano, “Scanning near-field optical microscope using an atomic force microscope cantilever with integrated photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 579–581 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  24. D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Scanning-tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical macroscopic approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732–739 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, Vol. 22 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Maystre, “Rigorous vector theories of diffraction gratings,” in Progress in Optics XXI, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), pp. 1–67.
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Chen, R. K. Kupka, “Analysis of the near field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985).

1997 (2)

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Model near-field calculations for optical data storage readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 31–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

S. Akamine, H. Yamada, H. Kuwano, “Scanning near-field optical microscope using an atomic force microscope cantilever with integrated photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 579–581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, O. Watanuki, “Characteristics of photon scanning tunneling microscope read-out,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 804–808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Mamin, L. S. Fan, S. Hoen, D. Rugar, “Tip-based data storage using micromechanical cantilevers,” Sensors Actuators 48, 215–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Pohl, “Some thoughts about scanning probe microscopy, micromechanics, and storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, R. K. Kupka, “Analysis of the near field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

K. Liberman, A. Lewis, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling and optical near-field imaging with a micropipette,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1335–1337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Reduced-area magnetic bit recording and detection using magnetic force microscopy based on application of bidirectional magnetomotive force,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 4086–4088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (6)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Attractive-mode atomic force microscopy with optical detection in an orthogonal cantilever/sample configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2499–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, “Thermomechanical writing with an atomic force microscope tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1003–1005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, “Scanning-tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical macroscopic approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 732–739 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Submicron magnetizing and its detection based on the point magnetic recording concept,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5286–5288 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Akamine, S.

S. Akamine, H. Yamada, H. Kuwano, “Scanning near-field optical microscope using an atomic force microscope cantilever with integrated photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 579–581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolger, B.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, R. K. Kupka, “Analysis of the near field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Attractive-mode atomic force microscopy with optical detection in an orthogonal cantilever/sample configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2499–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Durig, U.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L. S.

H. J. Mamin, L. S. Fan, S. Hoen, D. Rugar, “Tip-based data storage using micromechanical cantilevers,” Sensors Actuators 48, 215–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukuzawa, K.

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirotune, A.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoen, S.

H. J. Mamin, L. S. Fan, S. Hoen, D. Rugar, “Tip-based data storage using micromechanical cantilevers,” Sensors Actuators 48, 215–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, S.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kammer, S.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, R.

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Reduced-area magnetic bit recording and detection using magnetic force microscopy based on application of bidirectional magnetomotive force,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 4086–4088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Submicron magnetizing and its detection based on the point magnetic recording concept,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5286–5288 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kishigami, J.

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Reduced-area magnetic bit recording and detection using magnetic force microscopy based on application of bidirectional magnetomotive force,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 4086–4088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Submicron magnetizing and its detection based on the point magnetic recording concept,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5286–5288 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, O. Watanuki, “Characteristics of photon scanning tunneling microscope read-out,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 804–808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kostealk, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kryder, M. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kupka, R. K.

Y. Chen, R. K. Kupka, “Analysis of the near field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuwano, H.

S. Akamine, H. Yamada, H. Kuwano, “Scanning near-field optical microscope using an atomic force microscope cantilever with integrated photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 579–581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

K. Liberman, A. Lewis, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling and optical near-field imaging with a micropipette,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1335–1337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, K.

K. Liberman, A. Lewis, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling and optical near-field imaging with a micropipette,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1335–1337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Model near-field calculations for optical data storage readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 31–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mamin, H. J.

H. J. Mamin, L. S. Fan, S. Hoen, D. Rugar, “Tip-based data storage using micromechanical cantilevers,” Sensors Actuators 48, 215–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, “Thermomechanical writing with an atomic force microscope tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1003–1005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

D. Maystre, “Rigorous vector theories of diffraction gratings,” in Progress in Optics XXI, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), pp. 1–67.
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, M.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moers, M. H. P.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Model near-field calculations for optical data storage readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 31–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noordham, O. F. J.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohkubo, T.

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Reduced-area magnetic bit recording and detection using magnetic force microscopy based on application of bidirectional magnetomotive force,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 4086–4088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Submicron magnetizing and its detection based on the point magnetic recording concept,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5286–5288 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D.

D. Pohl, “Some thoughts about scanning probe microscopy, micromechanics, and storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rishton, S.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rohner, F.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rugar, D.

H. J. Mamin, L. S. Fan, S. Hoen, D. Rugar, “Tip-based data storage using micromechanical cantilevers,” Sensors Actuators 48, 215–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, “Thermomechanical writing with an atomic force microscope tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1003–1005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shintani, T.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tack, R. G.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Terao, M.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Attractive-mode atomic force microscopy with optical detection in an orthogonal cantilever/sample configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2499–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

Watanuki, O.

K. Kobayashi, O. Watanuki, “Characteristics of photon scanning tunneling microscope read-out,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 804–808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

S. Akamine, H. Yamada, H. Kuwano, “Scanning near-field optical microscope using an atomic force microscope cantilever with integrated photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 579–581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yanagisawa, K.

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Reduced-area magnetic bit recording and detection using magnetic force microscopy based on application of bidirectional magnetomotive force,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 4086–4088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Submicron magnetizing and its detection based on the point magnetic recording concept,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5286–5288 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Attractive-mode atomic force microscopy with optical detection in an orthogonal cantilever/sample configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2499–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985).

Yoshida, M.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

H. J. Mamin, D. Rugar, “Thermomechanical writing with an atomic force microscope tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1003–1005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits/in.2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Liberman, A. Lewis, “Simultaneous scanning tunneling and optical near-field imaging with a micropipette,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1335–1337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. F. van Hulst, M. H. P. Moers, O. F. J. Noordham, R. G. Tack, F. B. Segerink, B. Bolger, “Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 461–463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Model near-field calculations for optical data storage readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 31–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Akamine, H. Yamada, H. Kuwano, “Scanning near-field optical microscope using an atomic force microscope cantilever with integrated photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 579–581 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

D. Pohl, “Some thoughts about scanning probe microscopy, micromechanics, and storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (2)

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Submicron magnetizing and its detection based on the point magnetic recording concept,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 5286–5288 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohkubo, J. Kishigami, K. Yanagisawa, R. Kaneko, “Reduced-area magnetic bit recording and detection using magnetic force microscopy based on application of bidirectional magnetomotive force,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 4086–4088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

K. Fukuzawa, Y. Tanaka, S. Akamine, H. Kuwano, H. Yamada, “Imaging of optical and topographical distributions by simultaneous near field scanning optical/atomic force microscopy with a microfabricated photocantilever,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7376–7381 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Attractive-mode atomic force microscopy with optical detection in an orthogonal cantilever/sample configuration,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2499–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. Kobayashi, O. Watanuki, “Characteristics of photon scanning tunneling microscope read-out,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 804–808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, S. Kammer, “Nanometer-sized phase change recording using a scanning near-field optical microscope with a laser diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443–447 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostealk, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors Actuators (1)

H. J. Mamin, L. S. Fan, S. Hoen, D. Rugar, “Tip-based data storage using micromechanical cantilevers,” Sensors Actuators 48, 215–219 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

Y. Chen, R. K. Kupka, “Analysis of the near field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, Vol. 22 of Topics in Current Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Maystre, “Rigorous vector theories of diffraction gratings,” in Progress in Optics XXI, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), pp. 1–67.
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, D. Courjoun, eds., Near-Field Optics, NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), Vol. 242.

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. Garcia, eds., Optics at the Nanometer Scale, NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), Vol. 319.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental AFM-NOSM system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NOSM detection method: The photocantilever was scanned in the noncontact, constant-height mode above the sample surface. The scan height was measured before and after each scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noncontact NSOM image of the land and the groove patterns on the surface of an optical disk. The scan height was gradually lowered from 122 nm (bottom of image) to 62 nm (top of image) above the sample surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of NSOM image profiles obtained at 122 and 62 nm. Note the increase in profile intensity as the scan height was lowered toward the sample surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Logarithm of the NSOM intensity ratio {ln[Int(z 1)/Int(z 2)]} for different spatial frequencies. Note that the decrease in the intensity ratio differs for each spatial frequency and that the intensity ratio is proportional to the difference in scanning height from the sample surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response from optical gratings as detected with a NSOM photocantilever.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fx=- fmexp2iπmx/adx.
Edx, y, z=m=-m=+ Emexpikmxx+kmyy+kmzz,  z>0.
kmx=2πm/a.
kmy=2πn sin θ/λ.
kmz=2πλ1-n2 sin2 θ-m λa21/2.
Edx, y, z=m=-m=+ Emexpi 2πma x×expi 2πn sin θλ yexp-2πλ×n2 sin2 θ+mλa2-11/2z.
Edx, z  m=-m=+expi 2πmλ xexp-2πλ×n2 sin2 θ+mλa2-11/2z.
Edx, z=0  m=-m=+expi 2πmλ x.
Ha, m, z=Edx, z=zEdx, z=0=exp-2πλ×n2 sin2 θ+mλa2-11/2z.
Hfx, z=exp-2πλn2 sin2 θ+λfx2-11/2z.
Iz  |Ed|2  Hfx, z2.
lnIz=z2/Iz=z1=-4πλn2 sin2 θ+λfx2-11/2Δz,
SNR2αPHfx, z22Δv4kT/RL,

Metrics