Abstract

We review the main optical properties of bacteriorhodopsin that are relevant to its use as a spatial light modulator. A model is described for the transmittance of a film placed between crossed polarizers in which photoinduced birefringence occurs. We show when the transmittance is proportional to the write intensity. We use this property in a joint transform correlator for incoherent-to-coherent conversion and effective square-law modulation in the Fourier plane.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Lindvold, P. Ramanujam, “The use of bacteriorhodopsin in optical processing: a review,” J. Indust. Sci. Res. 54, 55–66 (1995).
  2. N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, “Bacteriorhodopsin and its functional variants: potential applications in modern optics,” in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bonas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, pp. 954–975.
  3. C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, “Optical applications of bacteriorhodopsin and its mutated variants,” Adv. Mater. 3, 420–428 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Joseph, F. J. Aranda, D. Rao, J. A. Akkara, M. Nakashima, “Optical Fourier processing using photoinduced dichroism in a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1499–1501 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauchle, “Biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp–Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1834–1841 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin wildtype and variant aspartate-96 asparagine as reversible holographic media,” Biophys. J. 58, 83–93 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Zhang, Q. Song, C. Tseronis, “Real-time holographic imaging with a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2429–2431 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin films as spatial light modulators for nonlinear-optical filtering,” Opt. Lett. 16, 651–653 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, S. Boothroyd, J. Chrostowski, “Novelty filter that uses a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Appl. Opt. 36, 508–511 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Birge, “Protein-based computers,” Sci. Am. 253(3), 90–95 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Shelton, “Bacteriorhodopsin optoelectronic synapses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1728–1730 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Takei, N. Shimizu, “Optical device with excitatory and inhibitory optical outputs,” Opt. Lett. 21, 537–539 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Q. Song, C. Zhang, R. Blumer, R. Gross, Z. Chen, R. Birge, “Chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin thin-film spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1373–1375 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Imam, L. R. Lindvold, P. S. Ramanujam, “Photoanisotropic incoherent-to-coherent converter using a bacteriorhodopsin thin film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 225–227 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X. Chen, Z. Zhang, K. Chen, Q. Li, “Optical wavelet-matched filtering with bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8413–8416 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D. A. Pommet, M. A. Fiddy, “Novel joint transform correlator architecture using bacteriorhodopsin optically addressable spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 37, 27–32 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Stoeckenius, “The purple membrane of salt-loving bacteria,” Sci. Am. 234(6), 38–46 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Birge, “Nature of the primary photochemical events in rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1016, 293–327 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. Ramanujam, “Spatial frequency response and transient anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin thin films,” Opt. Rev. 2, 32–38 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Hampp, A. Popp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants BRD85E and BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4679–4685 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Downie, D. Smithey, “Measurements of holographic properties of bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5780–5789 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. Wang, L. Liu, Q. Li, “Readout of a real-time hologram bacteriorhodopsin film with high diffraction efficiency and intensity,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1697–1699 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Spectral relationship of light-induced refractive index and absorption changes in bacteriorhodopsin films containing wildtype BRWT and the variant BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788–7792 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D. A. Pommet, M. A. Fiddy, “Novel joint transform correlator architecture using bacteriorhodopsin optically addressable spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 37, 27–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (5)

1995 (6)

Y. Zhang, Q. Song, C. Tseronis, “Real-time holographic imaging with a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2429–2431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imam, L. R. Lindvold, P. S. Ramanujam, “Photoanisotropic incoherent-to-coherent converter using a bacteriorhodopsin thin film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 225–227 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Birge, “Protein-based computers,” Sci. Am. 253(3), 90–95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Lindvold, P. Ramanujam, “The use of bacteriorhodopsin in optical processing: a review,” J. Indust. Sci. Res. 54, 55–66 (1995).

L. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. Ramanujam, “Spatial frequency response and transient anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin thin films,” Opt. Rev. 2, 32–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

N. Hampp, A. Popp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants BRD85E and BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4679–4685 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Spectral relationship of light-induced refractive index and absorption changes in bacteriorhodopsin films containing wildtype BRWT and the variant BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788–7792 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauchle, “Biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp–Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1834–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, “Optical applications of bacteriorhodopsin and its mutated variants,” Adv. Mater. 3, 420–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin films as spatial light modulators for nonlinear-optical filtering,” Opt. Lett. 16, 651–653 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

R. Birge, “Nature of the primary photochemical events in rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1016, 293–327 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin wildtype and variant aspartate-96 asparagine as reversible holographic media,” Biophys. J. 58, 83–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. Stoeckenius, “The purple membrane of salt-loving bacteria,” Sci. Am. 234(6), 38–46 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Akkara, J.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akkara, J. A.

Aranda, F.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aranda, F. J.

Birge, R.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Birge, “Protein-based computers,” Sci. Am. 253(3), 90–95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, C. Zhang, R. Blumer, R. Gross, Z. Chen, R. Birge, “Chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin thin-film spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1373–1375 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Birge, “Nature of the primary photochemical events in rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1016, 293–327 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blumer, R.

Boothroyd, S.

Brauchle, C.

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauchle, “Biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp–Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1834–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hampp, A. Popp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants BRD85E and BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4679–4685 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin films as spatial light modulators for nonlinear-optical filtering,” Opt. Lett. 16, 651–653 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, “Optical applications of bacteriorhodopsin and its mutated variants,” Adv. Mater. 3, 420–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin wildtype and variant aspartate-96 asparagine as reversible holographic media,” Biophys. J. 58, 83–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, “Bacteriorhodopsin and its functional variants: potential applications in modern optics,” in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bonas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, pp. 954–975.

Burykin, N. M.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Chen, X.

Chen, Z.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, C. Zhang, R. Blumer, R. Gross, Z. Chen, R. Birge, “Chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin thin-film spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1373–1375 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrostowski, J.

Dokova, T. V.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Downie, J.

Fiddy, M. A.

J. D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D. A. Pommet, M. A. Fiddy, “Novel joint transform correlator architecture using bacteriorhodopsin optically addressable spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 37, 27–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garimella, R.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gross, R.

Gu, L.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hampp, N.

N. Hampp, A. Popp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants BRD85E and BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4679–4685 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Spectral relationship of light-induced refractive index and absorption changes in bacteriorhodopsin films containing wildtype BRWT and the variant BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788–7792 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauchle, “Biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp–Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1834–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin films as spatial light modulators for nonlinear-optical filtering,” Opt. Lett. 16, 651–653 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, “Optical applications of bacteriorhodopsin and its mutated variants,” Adv. Mater. 3, 420–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin wildtype and variant aspartate-96 asparagine as reversible holographic media,” Biophys. J. 58, 83–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, “Bacteriorhodopsin and its functional variants: potential applications in modern optics,” in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bonas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, pp. 954–975.

Imam, H.

L. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. Ramanujam, “Spatial frequency response and transient anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin thin films,” Opt. Rev. 2, 32–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Imam, L. R. Lindvold, P. S. Ramanujam, “Photoanisotropic incoherent-to-coherent converter using a bacteriorhodopsin thin film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 225–227 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, J.

Kaplan, D.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Korchemskaya, E. Ya.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Lindvold, L.

L. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. Ramanujam, “Spatial frequency response and transient anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin thin films,” Opt. Rev. 2, 32–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Lindvold, P. Ramanujam, “The use of bacteriorhodopsin in optical processing: a review,” J. Indust. Sci. Res. 54, 55–66 (1995).

Lindvold, L. R.

Liu, L.

McCarthy, N.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, M.

Niu, A.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oesterhelt, D.

N. Hampp, A. Popp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants BRD85E and BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4679–4685 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Brauchle, “Biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin and its genetic variant Asp–Asn as media for optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1834–1841 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin films as spatial light modulators for nonlinear-optical filtering,” Opt. Lett. 16, 651–653 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, “Optical applications of bacteriorhodopsin and its mutated variants,” Adv. Mater. 3, 420–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin wildtype and variant aspartate-96 asparagine as reversible holographic media,” Biophys. J. 58, 83–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

Pan, J.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, B.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

J. D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D. A. Pommet, M. A. Fiddy, “Novel joint transform correlator architecture using bacteriorhodopsin optically addressable spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 37, 27–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Popp, A.

N. Hampp, A. Popp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants BRD85E and BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4679–4685 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P.

L. Lindvold, P. Ramanujam, “The use of bacteriorhodopsin in optical processing: a review,” J. Indust. Sci. Res. 54, 55–66 (1995).

L. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. Ramanujam, “Spatial frequency response and transient anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin thin films,” Opt. Rev. 2, 32–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

Rao, D.

Rao, D. R.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roach, J.

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-de-la-Llave, J. D.

J. D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D. A. Pommet, M. A. Fiddy, “Novel joint transform correlator architecture using bacteriorhodopsin optically addressable spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 37, 27–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, D.

Shimizu, N.

Smithey, D.

Song, Q.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Q. Song, C. Tseronis, “Real-time holographic imaging with a bacteriorhodopsin film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2429–2431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, C. Zhang, R. Blumer, R. Gross, Z. Chen, R. Birge, “Chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin thin-film spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1373–1375 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soskin, M. S.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckenius, W.

W. Stoeckenius, “The purple membrane of salt-loving bacteria,” Sci. Am. 234(6), 38–46 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Takei, H.

Taranenko, V. B.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, R.

Tong, M.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tseronis, C.

Vsevolodov, N. N.

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, Y.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Zeisel, D.

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Spectral relationship of light-induced refractive index and absorption changes in bacteriorhodopsin films containing wildtype BRWT and the variant BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788–7792 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, C. Zhang, R. Blumer, R. Gross, Z. Chen, R. Birge, “Chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin thin-film spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1373–1375 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, “Optical applications of bacteriorhodopsin and its mutated variants,” Adv. Mater. 3, 420–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Aranda, R. Garimella, N. McCarthy, D. R. Rao, D. V. Rao, Z. Chen, J. Akkara, D. Kaplan, J. Roach, “All-optical light modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 599–601 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

R. Birge, “Nature of the primary photochemical events in rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1016, 293–327 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Bacteriorhodopsin wildtype and variant aspartate-96 asparagine as reversible holographic media,” Biophys. J. 58, 83–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Indust. Sci. Res. (1)

L. Lindvold, P. Ramanujam, “The use of bacteriorhodopsin in optical processing: a review,” J. Indust. Sci. Res. 54, 55–66 (1995).

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

N. Hampp, A. Popp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, “Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants BRD85E and BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4679–4685 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Spectral relationship of light-induced refractive index and absorption changes in bacteriorhodopsin films containing wildtype BRWT and the variant BRD96N,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788–7792 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

N. M. Burykin, E. Ya. Korchemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, T. V. Dokova, N. N. Vsevolodov, “Photoinduced anisotropy in bio-chromic films,” Opt. Commun. 54, 68–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, C. Zhang, A. Niu, J. Li, G. Zhang, Y. Wang, M. Tong, J. Pan, Q. Song, B. Parsons, R. Birge, “Bacteriorhodopsin based photonic logic gate and its applications to gray level image subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 131, 25–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. D. Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D. A. Pommet, M. A. Fiddy, “Novel joint transform correlator architecture using bacteriorhodopsin optically addressable spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 37, 27–32 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Opt. Rev. (1)

L. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. Ramanujam, “Spatial frequency response and transient anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin thin films,” Opt. Rev. 2, 32–38 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (2)

W. Stoeckenius, “The purple membrane of salt-loving bacteria,” Sci. Am. 234(6), 38–46 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Birge, “Protein-based computers,” Sci. Am. 253(3), 90–95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, “Bacteriorhodopsin and its functional variants: potential applications in modern optics,” in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bonas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, pp. 954–975.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified BR photocycle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoinduced birefringence architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Incoherent-to-coherent converter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical incoherent-to-coherent converter output: white-light source, 150-W halogen lamp; read-beam intensity, 0.3 mW/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-wavelength JTC that uses a BR SLM at the Fourier plane; P denotes a hierarchy polarizing filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Double-slit input pattern.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Input images. All distances are in millimeters.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Relative Phase Retardationa

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Table 2 Correlation-Peak Level versus Spatial Frequencya

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Table 3 Autocorrelation versus Cross-Correlation (a.u.)

Equations (7)

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T=12Te exp-j Γ2-To expj Γ2,
Γ=2πlλne-no.
T=Te-To2-jTe+To4Γ-Te-To16Γ2+jTe+To96Γ3++.
T  Γ.
|Et|2=14 |Ei|2Te2+To2+2TeTosin2Γ2-cos2Γ2.
|Et|212 |Ei|2Te2+To2sin2Γ2.
IoIb sin2Γ2.

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