Abstract

We present a theoretical study of a new highly efficient system for optical light collection, designed for ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of surface-bound molecules. The main core of the system is a paraboloid glass segment acting as a mirror for collecting the fluorescence. A special feature of the system is its ability to sample not only fluorescence that is emitted below the angle of total internal reflection (the critical angle) but also particularly the light above the critical angle. As shown, this is especially advantageous for collecting the fluorescence of surface-bound molecules. A comparison is made with conventional high-aperture microscope objectives. Furthermore, it is shown that the system allows not only for highly efficient light collection but also for confocal imaging of the detection region, which is of great importance for rejecting scattered light in potential applications such as the detection of only a few molecules.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. R. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.
  2. W. Lukosz, R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane interface. I. Total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1607–1615 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “’Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Sommerfeld, Partielle Differentialgleichungen der Physik (Akademische Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1966), Chaps. 32–33, pp. 226–243.
  5. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11,344–11,351 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Jackson, “Reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves at a plane interface between dielectrics,” in Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 7.3, pp. 278–282.
  8. A. L. Huston, C. T. Reimann, “Photochemical bleaching of absorbed rhodamine 6G as a probe of binding geometries on a fused silica surface,” Chem. Phys. 149, 401–407 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, W. Lukosz, “Optical environment-dependent effects on the fluorescence of submonomolecular dye layers on interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 189/190, 954–959 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169, 391–405 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “’Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11,344–11,351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169, 391–405 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. L. Huston, C. T. Reimann, “Photochemical bleaching of absorbed rhodamine 6G as a probe of binding geometries on a fused silica surface,” Chem. Phys. 149, 401–407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, W. Lukosz, “Optical environment-dependent effects on the fluorescence of submonomolecular dye layers on interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 189/190, 954–959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Ambrose, W. P.

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. R. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.

Cremer, C.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169, 391–405 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11,344–11,351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, W. Lukosz, “Optical environment-dependent effects on the fluorescence of submonomolecular dye layers on interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 189/190, 954–959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11,344–11,351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, P. M.

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “’Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heinzelmann, H.

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “’Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169, 391–405 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huston, A. L.

A. L. Huston, C. T. Reimann, “Photochemical bleaching of absorbed rhodamine 6G as a probe of binding geometries on a fused silica surface,” Chem. Phys. 149, 401–407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, “Reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves at a plane interface between dielectrics,” in Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 7.3, pp. 278–282.

Jett, J. H.

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

Lieberherr, M.

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, W. Lukosz, “Optical environment-dependent effects on the fluorescence of submonomolecular dye layers on interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 189/190, 954–959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, W. Lukosz, “Optical environment-dependent effects on the fluorescence of submonomolecular dye layers on interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 189/190, 954–959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane interface. I. Total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1607–1615 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. C.

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “’Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “’Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. R. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.

Reimann, C. T.

A. L. Huston, C. T. Reimann, “Photochemical bleaching of absorbed rhodamine 6G as a probe of binding geometries on a fused silica surface,” Chem. Phys. 149, 401–407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, G.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169, 391–405 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. R. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.

Sommerfeld, A.

A. Sommerfeld, Partielle Differentialgleichungen der Physik (Akademische Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1966), Chaps. 32–33, pp. 226–243.

Stelzer, E. H. K.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169, 391–405 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

R. A. Keller, W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Jett, J. C. Martin, M. Wu, “Single-molecule fluorescence analysis in solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 12–32A (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

A. L. Huston, C. T. Reimann, “Photochemical bleaching of absorbed rhodamine 6G as a probe of binding geometries on a fused silica surface,” Chem. Phys. 149, 401–407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169, 391–405 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11,344–11,351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, W. Lukosz, “Optical environment-dependent effects on the fluorescence of submonomolecular dye layers on interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 189/190, 954–959 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, L. Novotny, “’Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Sommerfeld, Partielle Differentialgleichungen der Physik (Akademische Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1966), Chaps. 32–33, pp. 226–243.

J. D. Jackson, “Reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves at a plane interface between dielectrics,” in Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 7.3, pp. 278–282.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine, S. R. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.

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