Abstract

A variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic fixed-polarizer, rotating-polarizer, fixed-analyzer ellipsometer (PRPSE) across a spectral range from 300 to 800 nm is used to determine the optical properties of anisotropic uniaxial tetragonal red mercuric iodide (HgI2). For the first time, to our knowledge, the bulk crystal HgI2 surface measured by ellipsometry was not subjected to potassium iodide cutting or etching. Measurements were made at an air–HgI2 interface with the optic axis parallel to the sample surface. To determine the optical constants, we varied both the angle of incidence and the azimuth of the optic axis with the plane of incidence. The detailed formulas needed for reliable procedures for analyzing the data are presented. The ordinary and extraordinary complex indices of refraction, (n o - ik o) and (n e - ik e), respectively, are determined. Good agreement between PRPSE and the prism technique for the refractive index is observed. The surface aging effects of the ellipsometric parameters of HgI2, during 30 h of exposure to air, were detected by PRPSE.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, “Extension of rotating-analyzer ellipsometry to generalized ellipsometry: determination of the dielectric function tensor from uniaxial TiO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 875–883 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. C. Chang, R. B. James, “Electronic and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 15,040–15,045 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, “Recent advances in γ- and x-ray spectrometry by means of mercuric iodide detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 173–178 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. F. McGilp, “Epioptics: linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of surfaces and interfaces,” J. Phys. Condensed Matter 3, 7985–8006 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Sieskind, S. Nikitine, J. B. Grun, “Données nouvelles sur les spectres de réflexion et d’absorption de monocristaux d’iodure mercurique rouge perpendiculaire à l’axe optique,” J. Phys. (Paris) 20, 557–560 (1959).
  33. H. E. Merwin, International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1930), Vol. 7, p. 21.

1998

K. Vedam, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry: a historical overview,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Michaelis, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. R. Krauss, B. Veal, “A spectroscopic anisotropy ellipsometry study of YBa2Cu3O7–x superconductors,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 362–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, “Generalized ellipsometry and complex optical systems,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 323–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Thompson, M. J. DeVries, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, “Determination of optical anisotropy in calcite from ultraviolet to mid-infrared by generalized ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 341–346 (1998); L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, H. Arwin, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 356–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Schubert, “Polarization-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, “Extension of rotating-analyzer ellipsometry to generalized ellipsometry: determination of the dielectric function tensor from uniaxial TiO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 875–883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, “Recent advances in γ- and x-ray spectrometry by means of mercuric iodide detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

See, for example, G. D. Landry, T. A. Maldonado, “Complete method to determine transmission and reflection characteristics at a planar interface between arbitrarily oriented biaxial media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2048–2063 (1995) and references therein.

See Ref. 16. Also M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, F. Alsina, S. Pinol, “Determination of the dielectric tensor in anisotropic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 596–598 (1995).

1994

D. J. De Smet, “Ellipsometry of anisotropic substrates: reexamination of a special case,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2571–2574 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

X. Wang, J. Yao, “Transmitted and tuning characteristics of birefringent filters,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4505–4508 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chang, R. B. James, “Electronic and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 15,040–15,045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. F. McGilp, “Epioptics: linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of surfaces and interfaces,” J. Phys. Condensed Matter 3, 7985–8006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Bozovic, “Plasmons in cuprate superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 1969–1984 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1980

1976

M. Elshazly-Zaghloul, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bachara, “Explicit solution for the optical properties of a uniaxial crystal in generalized ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 56, 281–292 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

1972

1971

1965

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959

M. Sieskind, S. Nikitine, J. B. Grun, “Données nouvelles sur les spectres de réflexion et d’absorption de monocristaux d’iodure mercurique rouge perpendiculaire à l’axe optique,” J. Phys. (Paris) 20, 557–560 (1959).

Alonso, M. I.

See Ref. 16. Also M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, F. Alsina, S. Pinol, “Determination of the dielectric tensor in anisotropic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 596–598 (1995).

Alsina, F.

See Ref. 16. Also M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, F. Alsina, S. Pinol, “Determination of the dielectric tensor in anisotropic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 596–598 (1995).

Amann, M.

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

Auciello, O.

A. Michaelis, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. R. Krauss, B. Veal, “A spectroscopic anisotropy ellipsometry study of YBa2Cu3O7–x superconductors,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 362–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

M. Elshazly-Zaghloul, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bachara, “Explicit solution for the optical properties of a uniaxial crystal in generalized ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 56, 281–292 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Application of generalized ellipsometry to anisotropic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 128–133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Polarization transfer function of a biaxial system as a bilinear transformation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 222–229 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 4, p. 355.

Bachara, N. M.

M. Elshazly-Zaghloul, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bachara, “Explicit solution for the optical properties of a uniaxial crystal in generalized ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 56, 281–292 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

Benz, A.

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

Bertucci, S.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

A. C. Boccara, C. Pickering, J. Rivory, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Proceedings of the First Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in Paris (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).

Bozovic, I.

I. Bozovic, “Plasmons in cuprate superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 1969–1984 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, R. B. James, “Electronic and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 15,040–15,045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chindaudom, P.

Corbu, C.

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Smet, D. J.

D. J. De Smet, “Ellipsometry of anisotropic substrates: reexamination of a special case,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2571–2574 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DeVries, M. J.

D. W. Thompson, M. J. DeVries, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, “Determination of optical anisotropy in calcite from ultraviolet to mid-infrared by generalized ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 341–346 (1998); L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, H. Arwin, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 356–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

El Ghemmaz, A.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elshazly-Zaghloul, M.

M. Elshazly-Zaghloul, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bachara, “Explicit solution for the optical properties of a uniaxial crystal in generalized ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 56, 281–292 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Franke, E.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garriga, M.

See Ref. 16. Also M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, F. Alsina, S. Pinol, “Determination of the dielectric tensor in anisotropic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 596–598 (1995).

Gaylord, T. K.

Grun, J. B.

M. Sieskind, S. Nikitine, J. B. Grun, “Données nouvelles sur les spectres de réflexion et d’absorption de monocristaux d’iodure mercurique rouge perpendiculaire à l’axe optique,” J. Phys. (Paris) 20, 557–560 (1959).

Hahn, J.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herzinger, C. M.

Irene, E. A.

A. Michaelis, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. R. Krauss, B. Veal, “A spectroscopic anisotropy ellipsometry study of YBa2Cu3O7–x superconductors,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 362–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

James, R. B.

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chang, R. B. James, “Electronic and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 15,040–15,045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johann, L.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B.

Kleim, R.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, A. R.

A. Michaelis, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. R. Krauss, B. Veal, “A spectroscopic anisotropy ellipsometry study of YBa2Cu3O7–x superconductors,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 362–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Landry, G. D.

Maldonado, T. A.

McGilp, J. F.

J. F. McGilp, “Epioptics: linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of surfaces and interfaces,” J. Phys. Condensed Matter 3, 7985–8006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Merwin, H. E.

H. E. Merwin, International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1930), Vol. 7, p. 21.

Michaelis, A.

A. Michaelis, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. R. Krauss, B. Veal, “A spectroscopic anisotropy ellipsometry study of YBa2Cu3O7–x superconductors,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 362–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, H.

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, N.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikitine, S.

M. Sieskind, S. Nikitine, J. B. Grun, “Données nouvelles sur les spectres de réflexion et d’absorption de monocristaux d’iodure mercurique rouge perpendiculaire à l’axe optique,” J. Phys. (Paris) 20, 557–560 (1959).

Pawlowski, A.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, C.

A. C. Boccara, C. Pickering, J. Rivory, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Proceedings of the First Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in Paris (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).

Pinol, S.

See Ref. 16. Also M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, F. Alsina, S. Pinol, “Determination of the dielectric tensor in anisotropic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 596–598 (1995).

Ponpon, J. P.

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, “Recent advances in γ- and x-ray spectrometry by means of mercuric iodide detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rheinländer, B.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, “Extension of rotating-analyzer ellipsometry to generalized ellipsometry: determination of the dielectric function tensor from uniaxial TiO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 875–883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richter, F.

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rivory, J.

A. C. Boccara, C. Pickering, J. Rivory, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Proceedings of the First Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in Paris (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).

Röder, M.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert, “Generalized ellipsometry and complex optical systems,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 323–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, “Extension of rotating-analyzer ellipsometry to generalized ellipsometry: determination of the dielectric function tensor from uniaxial TiO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 875–883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, “Polarization-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sieskind, M.

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, “Recent advances in γ- and x-ray spectrometry by means of mercuric iodide detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, S. Nikitine, J. B. Grun, “Données nouvelles sur les spectres de réflexion et d’absorption de monocristaux d’iodure mercurique rouge perpendiculaire à l’axe optique,” J. Phys. (Paris) 20, 557–560 (1959).

Stein, N.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. W.

D. W. Thompson, M. J. DeVries, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, “Determination of optical anisotropy in calcite from ultraviolet to mid-infrared by generalized ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 341–346 (1998); L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, H. Arwin, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 356–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiwald, T. E.

D. W. Thompson, M. J. DeVries, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, “Determination of optical anisotropy in calcite from ultraviolet to mid-infrared by generalized ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 341–346 (1998); L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, H. Arwin, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 356–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Veal, B.

A. Michaelis, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. R. Krauss, B. Veal, “A spectroscopic anisotropy ellipsometry study of YBa2Cu3O7–x superconductors,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 362–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vedam, K.

Wang, X.

Weis, R. S.

Woollam, J. A.

D. W. Thompson, M. J. DeVries, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, “Determination of optical anisotropy in calcite from ultraviolet to mid-infrared by generalized ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 341–346 (1998); L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, H. Arwin, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 356–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, “Extension of rotating-analyzer ellipsometry to generalized ellipsometry: determination of the dielectric function tensor from uniaxial TiO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 875–883 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H.

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, “Optics of anisotropic layered media: a new 4 × 4 matrix algebra,” Surf. Sci. 96, 41–53 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

See Ref. 16. Also M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, F. Alsina, S. Pinol, “Determination of the dielectric tensor in anisotropic materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 596–598 (1995).

M. Schubert, B. Rheinländer, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Röder, F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819–1821 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Comput. J.

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Comput. J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. J. De Smet, “Ellipsometry of anisotropic substrates: reexamination of a special case,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2571–2574 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Franke, M. Schubert, H. Neumann, T. E. Tiwald, D. W. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, J. Hahn, F. Richter, “Phase and microstructure investigations of boron nitride thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and infrared spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2906–2911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. (Paris)

M. Sieskind, S. Nikitine, J. B. Grun, “Données nouvelles sur les spectres de réflexion et d’absorption de monocristaux d’iodure mercurique rouge perpendiculaire à l’axe optique,” J. Phys. (Paris) 20, 557–560 (1959).

J. Phys. Condensed Matter

J. F. McGilp, “Epioptics: linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of surfaces and interfaces,” J. Phys. Condensed Matter 3, 7985–8006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, “Recent advances in γ- and x-ray spectrometry by means of mercuric iodide detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chang, R. B. James, “Electronic and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 15,040–15,045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, “Polarization-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Bozovic, “Plasmons in cuprate superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 1969–1984 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

P. Yeh, “Optics of anisotropic layered media: a new 4 × 4 matrix algebra,” Surf. Sci. 96, 41–53 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Elshazly-Zaghloul, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bachara, “Explicit solution for the optical properties of a uniaxial crystal in generalized ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci. 56, 281–292 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, “Generalized ellipsometry and complex optical systems,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 323–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Thompson, M. J. DeVries, T. E. Tiwald, J. A. Woollam, “Determination of optical anisotropy in calcite from ultraviolet to mid-infrared by generalized ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 341–346 (1998); L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, H. Arwin, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 356–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Vedam, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry: a historical overview,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 1–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Michaelis, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. R. Krauss, B. Veal, “A spectroscopic anisotropy ellipsometry study of YBa2Cu3O7–x superconductors,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 362–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. C. Boccara, C. Pickering, J. Rivory, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Proceedings of the First Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in Paris (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 4, p. 355.

H. E. Merwin, International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1930), Vol. 7, p. 21.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Definitions of the (x, y, z) and (a, b, c) coordinate systems and orientation of the c axis. Φ and φ are the angle of incidence and the angle between the c axis and the y direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ellipsometric parameters of a uniaxial crystal calculated for φ = 0, φ = 30°, φ = 50°, and φ = 90° as a function of angle of incidence Φ at λ = 490 nm with N o = 2.7241–i0.4548, N e = 2.5231–i0.3754. The incident medium has n = 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Generalized ellipsometric angles of a uniaxial crystal calculated for Φ = 70° as a function of azimuthal angle φ at λ = 490 nm with N o = 2.7241–i0.4548, N e = 2.5231–i0.3754. The incident medium has n = 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental data tan Ψ and cos Δ of HgI2 at multiple angles of incidence of 50°, 55°, 60°, and 65°. The optic axis of the sample is in the plane of incidence φ = 0°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 for φ = 90°. The optic axis is perpendicular to the plane of incidence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental data tan Ψ and cos Δ of HgI2 at an angle of incidence of 70° at two different surface orientations. (The optic axis is parallel and perpendicular to the plane of incidence, φ = 0 and φ = 90°, respectively.) Note the rapid variation in cos Δ around 560 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices from HgI2 compared with results reviewed in Refs. 29, 32, and 33. Except near 300 nm the relative error is less than 0.03. Curves display literature-extracted refractive indices of the HgI2 surface as in Ref. 29.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ordinary and extraordinary absorption indices for HgI2. Curves display literature-extracted absorption indices of the HgI2 surface as in Ref. 29.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental variation of tan Ψ and cos Δ of HgI2 at an angle of incidence of 70° with φ = 0, measured directly after surface polishing, then after 8, 10, 23, and 30 h of exposure to air.

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ErpErs=REipEis=RppRpsRspRssEipEis.
Rss=n cos Φ-No2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2n cos Φ+No2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2,
Rpp=nNo2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2-NoNe cos ΦnNo2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2+No+Ne cos Φ,
Rps=Rsp=0.
Rss=n cos Φ-Ne2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2n cos Φ+Ne2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2,
Rpp=nNo2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2-No2 cos ΦnNo2-n2 sin2 Φ1/2+No2 cos Φ,
Rps=Rsp=0.
ρpp=RppRss=tan Ψpp expiΔpp,
ρps=RpsRss=tan Ψps expiΔps,
ρsp=RspRss=tan Ψsp expiΔsp.
tan Ψ expiΔ=RppRss=-b1b3+b2b4b32+b42-i b1b4-b2b3b32+b42,
tan Ψ=b12+b22b32+b421/2, cos Δ=b1b3+b2b4b12+b22b32+b421/2,
b1=-nαo cosβo2+none-kokecos Φ×n cos Φ+αo cosβo2-noke+nekocos Φ-nαo sinβo2αo sinβo2,
b2=noke+nekocos Φ-nαo sinβo2×n cos Φ+αo cosβo2+-nαo cosβo2+none-kokecos Φαo sinβo2,
b3=nαo cosβo2+none-kokecos Φ×n cos Φ-αo cosβo2+noke+nekocos Φ+nαo sinβo2αo sinβo2,
b4=noke+nekocos Φ+nαo sinβo2×n cos Φ-αo cosβo2-nαo cosβo2+none-kokecos Φαo sinβo2;
βl=arctan2nlklnl2-kl2-sin Φ2,  l=o, e,
αl2=nl2-kl2-sin Φ22+4nl2kl2,  l=o, e.
tan Ψ expiΔ=RppRss=-c1c3+c2c4c32+c42-i c1c4-c2c3c32+c42,
tan Ψ=c12+c22c32+c421/2, cos Δ=c1c3+c2c4c12+c22c32+c421/2,
c1=-nαo cosβo2+no2-ko2cos Φ×n cos Φ+αe cosβe2-2noko cos Φ-nαo sinβo2αe sinβe2,
c2=2noko cos Φ-nαo sinβo2×n cos Φ+αe cosβe2-nαo cosβo2-no2-ko2cos Φαe sinβe2,
c3=nαo cosβo2+no2-ko2cos Φ×n cos Φ-αe cosβe2+2noko cos Φ+nαo sinβo2αe sinβe2,
c4=2noko cos Φ+nαo sinβo2×n cos Φ-αe cosβe2-nαo cosβo2+no2-ko2cos Φαe sinβe2.
χ2=i=12j=12tan ΨeΦi, φj-tan ΨcΦi, φj2+cos ΔeΦi, φj-cos ΔcΦi, φj2,

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