Abstract

We outline the methodology of interpreting channels 1 and 2 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) radiance data over the oceans and describe a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of monthly averages of retrieved aerosol parameters to the assumptions made in different retrieval algorithms. The analysis is based on using real AVHRR data and exploiting accurate numerical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering and spectral absorption of light in the vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere–ocean system. We show that two-channel algorithms can be expected to provide significantly more accurate and less biased retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness than one-channel algorithms and that imperfect cloud screening and calibration uncertainties are by far the largest sources of errors in the retrieved aerosol parameters. Both underestimating and overestimating aerosol absorption as well as the potentially strong variability of the real part of the aerosol refractive index may lead to regional and/or seasonal biases in optical-thickness retrievals. The Ångström exponent appears to be the aerosol size characteristic that is least sensitive to the choice of aerosol model and should be retrieved along with optical thickness as the second aerosol parameter.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995 (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995).
  2. E. Roeckner, T. Siebert, J. Feichter, “Climatic response to anthropogenic sulfate forcing simulated with a general circulation model,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 349–362.
  3. I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Miller, I. Tegen, “Radiative forcing of a tropical direct circulation by soil dust aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 2403–2433 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Lacis, M. I. Mishchenko, “Climate forcing, climate sensitivity, and climate response: a radiative modeling perspective on atmospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 11–42.
  7. O. B. Toon, “Modeling the relationships between aerosol properties and the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 197–213.
  8. L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimating aerosol optical properties over the oceans with the multiangle imaging spectroradiometer: some preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4042–4057 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989–17,013 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Validation of the NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals using TARFOX data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 78, Spring Meeting Suppl., S87 (1997).
  14. S. Twomey, “Pollution and the planetary albedo,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251–1256 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “A use of two-channel radiances for an aerosol characterization from space,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3815–3818 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “AVHRR remote sensing of aerosol optical properties in the Persian Gulf region, summer 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,935–19,946 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,195–32,213 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. P. McClain, “Global sea surface temperatures and cloud clearing for aerosol optical depth estimates,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 763–769 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garger, “Cloud detection using satellite measurements of infrared and visible radiances for ISCCP,” J. Clim. 6, 2341–2369 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garder, “Validation of ISCCP cloud detection,” J. Clim. 6, 2370–2393 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Curran, M. Mishchenko, I. Tegen, I. Geogdzhayev, “Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP): structure, early products and plans,” GEWEX News 8(4), 3–4 (1998).
  28. W. B. Rossow, A. W. Walker, D. E. Beuschel, M. D. Roiter, “International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud data sets,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).
  29. A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, “A description of the correlated k-distribution method for modeling non-grey gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 9027–9063 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
  31. R. H. Tipping, Q. Ma, “Theory of the water vapor continuum and validations,” Atmos. Res. 36, 69–94 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).
  33. A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, J. E. Hansen, “Retrieval of atmospheric NO2, O3, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance information from SAGE II multispectral extinction measurements,” Appl. Math. Comput. (to be published).
  34. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).
  35. J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10,585–10,606 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  37. X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. C. Benner, J. A. Curry, “Characteristics of small tropical cumulus clouds and their impact on the environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,753–28,767 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. G. Asrar, R. Greenstone, eds., 1995 MTPE EOS Reference Handbook (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  40. C. R. N. Rao, ed., “Degradation of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-9 spacecraft: assessment and recommendations for corrections,” (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).
  41. C. L. Brest, W. B. Rossow, M. D. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibrations for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 1091–1109 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  42. I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  43. P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  45. O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  46. O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  47. G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).
  48. P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  50. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  51. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  52. I. R. Young, “Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate,” Int. J. Climatol. 19, 931–950 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  53. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).
  54. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  55. N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  56. Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
  57. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite difference time domain method for light scattering by nonspherical and inhomogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), pp. 173–221.
  58. M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  59. P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  60. B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “The Research Scanning Polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–197 (1999).

1999 (5)

R. L. Miller, I. Tegen, “Radiative forcing of a tropical direct circulation by soil dust aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 2403–2433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Young, “Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate,” Int. J. Climatol. 19, 931–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “A use of two-channel radiances for an aerosol characterization from space,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3815–3818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,195–32,213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Curran, M. Mishchenko, I. Tegen, I. Geogdzhayev, “Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP): structure, early products and plans,” GEWEX News 8(4), 3–4 (1998).

T. C. Benner, J. A. Curry, “Characteristics of small tropical cumulus clouds and their impact on the environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,753–28,767 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (15)

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Brest, W. B. Rossow, M. D. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibrations for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 1091–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “AVHRR remote sensing of aerosol optical properties in the Persian Gulf region, summer 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,935–19,946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989–17,013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Validation of the NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals using TARFOX data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 78, Spring Meeting Suppl., S87 (1997).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Tipping, Q. Ma, “Theory of the water vapor continuum and validations,” Atmos. Res. 36, 69–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garder, “Validation of ISCCP cloud detection,” J. Clim. 6, 2370–2393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garger, “Cloud detection using satellite measurements of infrared and visible radiances for ISCCP,” J. Clim. 6, 2341–2369 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, “A description of the correlated k-distribution method for modeling non-grey gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 9027–9063 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

E. P. McClain, “Global sea surface temperatures and cloud clearing for aerosol optical depth estimates,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 763–769 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10,585–10,606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1974 (3)

S. Twomey, “Pollution and the planetary albedo,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251–1256 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimating aerosol optical properties over the oceans with the multiangle imaging spectroradiometer: some preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4042–4057 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Ahmad, Z.

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andronova, A.

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Arnott, W. P.

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Asamoah, K.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,195–32,213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beckford, K.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benner, T. C.

T. C. Benner, J. A. Curry, “Characteristics of small tropical cumulus clouds and their impact on the environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,753–28,767 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beuschel, D. E.

W. B. Rossow, A. W. Walker, D. E. Beuschel, M. D. Roiter, “International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud data sets,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).

Bhartia, P. K.

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borenstein, S.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brest, C. L.

C. L. Brest, W. B. Rossow, M. D. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibrations for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 1091–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “The Research Scanning Polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–197 (1999).

Carlson, B.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, B. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, J. E. Hansen, “Retrieval of atmospheric NO2, O3, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance information from SAGE II multispectral extinction measurements,” Appl. Math. Comput. (to be published).

Chin, M.

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Curran, B.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Curran, R.

R. Curran, M. Mishchenko, I. Tegen, I. Geogdzhayev, “Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP): structure, early products and plans,” GEWEX News 8(4), 3–4 (1998).

Curry, J. A.

T. C. Benner, J. A. Curry, “Characteristics of small tropical cumulus clouds and their impact on the environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,753–28,767 (1998).
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

de Castro, S.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deusé, J. L.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D. J.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,195–32,213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Druyan, L.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Etwarrow, P.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feichter, J.

E. Roeckner, T. Siebert, J. Feichter, “Climatic response to anthropogenic sulfate forcing simulated with a general circulation model,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 349–362.

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Ferede, T.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferek, R. J.

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Flittner, D. E.

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fox, M.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frost, E.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fung, I.

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaffen, D.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garder, L. C.

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garder, “Validation of ISCCP cloud detection,” J. Clim. 6, 2370–2393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garger, L. C.

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garger, “Cloud detection using satellite measurements of infrared and visible radiances for ISCCP,” J. Clim. 6, 2341–2369 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Geogdzhayev, I.

R. Curran, M. Mishchenko, I. Tegen, I. Geogdzhayev, “Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP): structure, early products and plans,” GEWEX News 8(4), 3–4 (1998).

Glascoe, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J.

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Estimating aerosol optical properties over the oceans with the multiangle imaging spectroradiometer: some preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4042–4057 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, J.

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Han, Q.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, J. E. Hansen, “Retrieval of atmospheric NO2, O3, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance information from SAGE II multispectral extinction measurements,” Appl. Math. Comput. (to be published).

Hegg, D. A.

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “A use of two-channel radiances for an aerosol characterization from space,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3815–3818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “AVHRR remote sensing of aerosol optical properties in the Persian Gulf region, summer 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,935–19,946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hollandsworth, S.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hollrigl, P.

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, J.

J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10,585–10,606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ignatov, A.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Validation of the NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals using TARFOX data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 78, Spring Meeting Suppl., S87 (1997).

Ignatov, A. M.

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. C.

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,195–32,213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Kostinski, A.

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kotchenruther, R. A.

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krotkov, N. A.

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, A. J.

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, “A description of the correlated k-distribution method for modeling non-grey gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 9027–9063 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, J. E. Hansen, “Retrieval of atmospheric NO2, O3, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance information from SAGE II multispectral extinction measurements,” Appl. Math. Comput. (to be published).

A. A. Lacis, M. I. Mishchenko, “Climate forcing, climate sensitivity, and climate response: a radiative modeling perspective on atmospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 11–42.

Lawrence, N.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lean, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lerner, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liao, X.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite difference time domain method for light scattering by nonspherical and inhomogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), pp. 173–221.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Livingston, J.

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lo, K.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luckett, A.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Q.

R. H. Tipping, Q. Ma, “Theory of the water vapor continuum and validations,” Atmos. Res. 36, 69–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, A.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mattoo, S.

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McClain, E. P.

E. P. McClain, “Global sea surface temperatures and cloud clearing for aerosol optical depth estimates,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 763–769 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

McCormick, M. P.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, D.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,195–32,213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. L.

R. L. Miller, I. Tegen, “Radiative forcing of a tropical direct circulation by soil dust aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 2403–2433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minnis, P.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M.

R. Curran, M. Mishchenko, I. Tegen, I. Geogdzhayev, “Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP): structure, early products and plans,” GEWEX News 8(4), 3–4 (1998).

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989–17,013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, M. I. Mishchenko, “Climate forcing, climate sensitivity, and climate response: a radiative modeling perspective on atmospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 11–42.

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Nakajima, T.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “A use of two-channel radiances for an aerosol characterization from space,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3815–3818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “AVHRR remote sensing of aerosol optical properties in the Persian Gulf region, summer 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,935–19,946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Nakanishi, Y.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Nemesure, S.

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novakov, T.

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oinas, V.

A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, “A description of the correlated k-distribution method for modeling non-grey gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 9027–9063 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parker, L.

B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Penner, J.

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfeil, F.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Ramberran, I.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riley, C.

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rind, D.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roeckner, E.

E. Roeckner, T. Siebert, J. Feichter, “Climatic response to anthropogenic sulfate forcing simulated with a general circulation model,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 349–362.

Roiter, M. D.

C. L. Brest, W. B. Rossow, M. D. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibrations for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 1091–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Rossow, A. W. Walker, D. E. Beuschel, M. D. Roiter, “International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud data sets,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).

Rose, W.

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, W. B.

C. L. Brest, W. B. Rossow, M. D. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibrations for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 1091–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garder, “Validation of ISCCP cloud detection,” J. Clim. 6, 2370–2393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garger, “Cloud detection using satellite measurements of infrared and visible radiances for ISCCP,” J. Clim. 6, 2341–2369 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Rossow, A. W. Walker, D. E. Beuschel, M. D. Roiter, “International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud data sets,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).

Ruedy, R.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, E. E.

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “The Research Scanning Polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–197 (1999).

Russell, G.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Shettle, E. P.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Shima, E.

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shiobara, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Siebert, T.

E. Roeckner, T. Siebert, J. Feichter, “Climatic response to anthropogenic sulfate forcing simulated with a general circulation model,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 349–362.

Singh, R.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Validation of the NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals using TARFOX data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 78, Spring Meeting Suppl., S87 (1997).

Singh, R. R.

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I.

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stone, P.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Validation of the NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals using TARFOX data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 78, Spring Meeting Suppl., S87 (1997).

Stowe, L. L.

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Tanré, D.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tegen, I.

R. L. Miller, I. Tegen, “Radiative forcing of a tropical direct circulation by soil dust aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 2403–2433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Curran, M. Mishchenko, I. Tegen, I. Geogdzhayev, “Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP): structure, early products and plans,” GEWEX News 8(4), 3–4 (1998).

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Thomas, S.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

R. H. Tipping, Q. Ma, “Theory of the water vapor continuum and validations,” Atmos. Res. 36, 69–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, “Modeling the relationships between aerosol properties and the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 197–213.

Torres, O.

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989–17,013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “The Research Scanning Polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–197 (1999).

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, “Pollution and the planetary albedo,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251–1256 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

Volz, F. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wagener, R.

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. W.

W. B. Rossow, A. W. Walker, D. E. Beuschel, M. D. Roiter, “International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud data sets,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).

Wang, M.

Weiss, R.

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, R. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wielicki, B. A.

B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilder, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willson, R.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamano, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Yamasoe, M.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite difference time domain method for light scattering by nonspherical and inhomogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), pp. 173–221.

Young, I. R.

I. R. Young, “Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate,” Int. J. Climatol. 19, 931–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zawodny, J.

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

S. Twomey, “Pollution and the planetary albedo,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251–1256 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. Part A (2)

P. Durkee, F. Pfeil, E. Frost, E. Shima, “Global analysis of aerosol particle characteristics,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 2457–2471 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

R. H. Tipping, Q. Ma, “Theory of the water vapor continuum and validations,” Atmos. Res. 36, 69–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, R. Singh, “Validation of the NOAA/NESDIS operational aerosol retrievals using TARFOX data,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 78, Spring Meeting Suppl., S87 (1997).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, Q. Han, “Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: a sensitivity study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2655–2658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “A use of two-channel radiances for an aerosol characterization from space,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3815–3818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

GEWEX News (1)

R. Curran, M. Mishchenko, I. Tegen, I. Geogdzhayev, “Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP): structure, early products and plans,” GEWEX News 8(4), 3–4 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deusé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Climatol. (1)

I. R. Young, “Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate,” Int. J. Climatol. 19, 931–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

E. P. McClain, “Global sea surface temperatures and cloud clearing for aerosol optical depth estimates,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 763–769 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (3)

R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol optical depth over oceans: high space- and time-resolution retrieval and error budget from satellite radiometry,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 577–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Brest, W. B. Rossow, M. D. Roiter, “Update of radiance calibrations for ISCCP,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14, 1091–1109 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, “Development of a two channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on global scale using NOAA/AVHRR,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924–941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Miller, I. Tegen, “Radiative forcing of a tropical direct circulation by soil dust aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 2403–2433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. (2)

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garder, “Validation of ISCCP cloud detection,” J. Clim. 6, 2370–2393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Rossow, L. C. Garger, “Cloud detection using satellite measurements of infrared and visible radiances for ISCCP,” J. Clim. 6, 2341–2369 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (20)

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, “AVHRR remote sensing of aerosol optical properties in the Persian Gulf region, summer 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,935–19,946 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,195–32,213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, “A description of the correlated k-distribution method for modeling non-grey gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 9027–9063 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, “Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,679–25,720 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,923–16,934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,971–16,988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Tegen, P. Hollrigl, M. Chin, I. Fung, D. Jacob, J. Penner, “Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: estimates from model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,895–23,915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989–17,013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10,585–10,606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wielicki, L. Parker, “On the determination of cloud cover from satellite sensors: the effect of sensor spatial resolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,799–12,823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Benner, J. A. Curry, “Characteristics of small tropical cumulus clouds and their impact on the environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28,753–28,767 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russell, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,903–31,923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,099–17,110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from Sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki. II: Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

N. A. Krotkov, D. E. Flittner, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, C. Riley, W. Rose, O. Torres, “Effect of particle non-sphericity on satellite monitoring of drifting volcanic ash clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 63, 613–630 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, R. Weiss, “Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning,” Science 275, 1776–1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995 (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995).

E. Roeckner, T. Siebert, J. Feichter, “Climatic response to anthropogenic sulfate forcing simulated with a general circulation model,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 349–362.

A. A. Lacis, M. I. Mishchenko, “Climate forcing, climate sensitivity, and climate response: a radiative modeling perspective on atmospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 11–42.

O. B. Toon, “Modeling the relationships between aerosol properties and the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 197–213.

W. B. Rossow, A. W. Walker, D. E. Beuschel, M. D. Roiter, “International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud data sets,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, J. E. Hansen, “Retrieval of atmospheric NO2, O3, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance information from SAGE II multispectral extinction measurements,” Appl. Math. Comput. (to be published).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992).

G. Asrar, R. Greenstone, eds., 1995 MTPE EOS Reference Handbook (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

C. R. N. Rao, ed., “Degradation of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-9 spacecraft: assessment and recommendations for corrections,” (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite difference time domain method for light scattering by nonspherical and inhomogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), pp. 173–221.

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “The Research Scanning Polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–197 (1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase function versus power exponent and scattering angle for the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4) and m = 1.5 + 0.005i.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective radius versus power exponent for the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ångström exponent versus power exponent for the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ångström exponent versus effective radius for the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4) and the bimodal size distribution of Eq. (11).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-scattering albedo versus power exponent for the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4) and three values of the refractive index.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) and (b) Monthly mean optical thickness 〈τ〉 and optical-thickness-weighted power exponent 〈α〉 for July 1986 derived with the benchmark atmosphere–ocean model and the standard ISCCP cloud-detection scheme. (c) and (d) As in panels (a) and (b) but with a modified cloud-detection scheme that retains only pixels with channel-5 temperatures warmer than the respective composite values.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) and (b) As in panels (a) and (b) of Fig. 6 but with the cloud-detection scheme that retains only pixels with channel-5 temperatures warmer than their composite counterparts by 1 K or more. (c) and (d) As in panels (a) and (b) but with the addition of the S 12 threshold.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Global and hemisphere averages of the aerosol optical thickness and power exponent plotted with daily resolution. Horizontal ticks correspond to the 15th day of the respective months.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) and (b) As in panels (a) and (b) of Fig. 7 but with the NOAA postlaunch calibration of NOAA-9 AVHRR channels 1 and 2. (c) As in panel (d) of Fig. 7 but for α̅. (d) α̅:〈α〉 ratio.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scatterplot of aerosol power exponent versus optical thickness for July 1986.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) and (b) Ratios of the mean optical thickness and power exponent retrieved assuming the refractive index m = 1.5 + 0.002i relative to those shown in Figs. 7(c) and 7(d), respectively. (c) and (d) Ratios of the mean optical thickness and power exponent retrieved assuming a small added diffuse contribution to the ocean reflection function relative to those shown in Figs. 7(c) and 7(d), respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Phase function versus power exponent and scattering angle for the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4) and m = 1.5 + 0.002i.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) and (b) Ratios of the mean optical thickness and power exponent retrieved assuming the refractive index m = 1.4 + 0.005i relative to those shown in Figs. 7(c) and 7(d), respectively. (c) and (d) Ratios of the mean optical thickness and power exponent retrieved assuming a wind speed of W = 11 m/s relative to those shown in Figs. 7(c) and 7(d), respectively.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Phase function versus power exponent and scattering angle for the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4) and m = 1.4 + 0.005i.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Ratio of monthly mean aerosol optical thicknesses retrieved with the bimodal size distribution of Eq. (11) and the modified power law of Eq. (4). (b) As in (a) but for the effective radius ratio. (c) As in (a) but for the difference of optical-thickness-weighted monthly mean Ångström exponents. (d) As in (c) but for the difference of simple monthly mean Ångström exponents.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Phase function versus γ and scattering angle for the bimodal log normal size distribution of Eq. (11) and m = 1.5 + 0.005i.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Single-scattering albedo versus γ for the bimodal log normal size distribution of Eq. (11) and m = 1.5 + 0.005i.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Aerosol optical thickness retrieved with the one-channel algorithm based on the power-law size distribution of Eq. (4) with α = 2.5, 3, 4, and 4.5 relative to that retrieved for α = 3.5 for July 1986.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

As in Fig. 18 but for January 1986.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

pzx, zy=12πs2exp-z/x2+z/y22s2,
2s2=0.003+0.00512W.
L1t-L1m2+L2t-L2m2L1m2+L2m21/2,
nr=C,rr1,Cr/r1-α,r1<rr2,0,r>r2,
0drnr=1.
reff=0drrπr2nr0drπr2nr.
A=dln Cextλdln λλ=λ1
α=1Tτtt+T αtτtdt,
τ=1Ttt+T τtdt.
α¯=1Ttt+T αtdt
nr=C1r-4exp-ln r-ln rg122 ln2 σg12+γ exp-ln r-ln rg222 ln2 σg22,

Metrics