Abstract

Ground-based sunphotometer observation of direct and scattered solar radiation is a traditional tool for providing data on aerosol optical properties. Spectral transmission and solar aureole measurements provide an optical source of aerosol information, which can be inverted for retrieval of microphysical properties (particle size distribution and refractive index). However, to infer these aerosol properties from ground-based remote-sensing measurements, special numerical inversion methods should be developed and applied. We propose two improvements to the existing inversion techniques employed to derive aerosol microphysical properties from combined atmospheric transmission and solar aureole measurements. First, the aerosol refractive index is directly included in the inversion procedure and is retrieved simultaneously with the particle size spectra. Second, we allow for real or effective instrumental pointing errors by including a correction factor for scattering angle errors as a retrieved inversion parameter. The inversion technique is validated by numerical simulations and applied to field data. It is shown that ground-based sunphotometer measurements enable one to derive the real part of the aerosol refractive index with an absolute error of 0.03–0.05 and to distinguish roughly between weakly and strongly absorbing aerosols. The aureole angular observation scheme can be refined with an absolute accuracy of 0.15–0.19 deg. Offset corrections to the scattering angle error are generally found to be small and consistently of the order of -0.17. This error magnitude is deduced to be due primarily to nonlinear field-of-view averaging effects rather than to instrumental errors.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  46. N. T. O’Neill, A. Royer, P. Coté, B. McArthur, “Relations between optically derived aerosol parameters, humidity, and air-quality data in an urban atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1484–1498 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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1998 (1)

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydispersed spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Remer, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, “Urban/industrial aerosol: ground-based sun/sky radiometer and airborne in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,849–16,859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, T. Dusterdiek, “Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario,” J. Geophys. Res. D 101, 19,199–19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2672–2686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

P. M. Teillet, G. Fedosejevs, F. J. Ahern, R. P. Gauthier, “Sensitivity of surface reflectance retrieval to uncertainties in aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3933–3940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Matoo, B. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 99, 10,341–10,356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Weindisch, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 785–792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. T. O’Neill, A. Royer, P. Coté, B. McArthur, “Relations between optically derived aerosol parameters, humidity, and air-quality data in an urban atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1484–1498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Caokley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hoffman, “Climate forcing by antropogenic aerosol,” Science 255, 423–429 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. Cess, I. L. Vullis, “Inferring surface solar absorption form broadband satellite measurements,” J. Clim. 2, 974–985 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

1988 (3)

P. Koepke, M. Hess, “Scattering functions of tropospheric aerosol: the effects of nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2422–2430 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yu. Romanov, V. V. Rozanov, Yu. M. Timofeyev, “Combined interpretation of ground-based measurement of atmospheric clarity,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 228–235 (1988).

D. Tanre, C. Devaux, H. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

V. V. Rozanov, S. P. Obrastzov, P. Yu. Romanov, “Sensitivity of the optical characteristics of a polydispersed aerosol to variations of the complex refractive index,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 293–296 (1987).

1986 (1)

Q. Jinhuan, “An approximate expression of the sky radiance in almucantar and its application,” Adv. Atmos. Phys. 3, 1–9 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. A. Coakley, R. D. Cess, “Response of the NCAR community climate model to the radiative forcing by the naturally occurring tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 1677–1692 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Constrained linear inversion of optical scattered data for particle size spectra: an approach to angular optimization,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1231–1235 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water-suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1271 (1982).

1981 (2)

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “An approximation to multiple scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere: almucantar radiance formulation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037–1048 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, “Finite sun effects in the interpretation of solar aureole,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2806–2810 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Birne, M. D. King, “Determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particles from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzy, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distributions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

K. S. Shifrin, V. F. Turchin, L. S. Turovtseva, V. A. Gashko, “Reconstruction of particles size distribution by statistical regularization of the scattered function,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1268–1278 (1972).

1969 (1)

V. F. Turchin, V. Z. Nozik, “Statistical regularization of the solution of incorrectly posed problems,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 5, 29–38 (1969).

1968 (1)

E. R. Westwater, O. N. Strand, “Statistical information content of radiation measurements used in indirect sensing,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 750–758 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellites. I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

S. Twomey, “On the numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation of the first kind by the inversion of the linear system produced by quadrature,” J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 10, 97–101 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ahern, F. J.

P. M. Teillet, G. Fedosejevs, F. J. Ahern, R. P. Gauthier, “Sensitivity of surface reflectance retrieval to uncertainties in aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3933–3940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

Birne, D. M.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Birne, M. D. King, “Determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particles from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boi, P.

Bolle, H.-J.

R. A. McClatchey, H.-J. Bolle, K. Ya. Kondratyev, “A preliminary cloudless standard atmosphere for radiation computation,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, TD-No.24 1986).

Box, M. A.

Brook, J.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, T. Dusterdiek, “Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario,” J. Geophys. Res. D 101, 19,199–19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Caokley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Caokley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hoffman, “Climate forcing by antropogenic aerosol,” Science 255, 423–429 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, D. E.

Cess, R.

R. Cess, I. L. Vullis, “Inferring surface solar absorption form broadband satellite measurements,” J. Clim. 2, 974–985 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Caokley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hoffman, “Climate forcing by antropogenic aerosol,” Science 255, 423–429 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Coakley, R. D. Cess, “Response of the NCAR community climate model to the radiative forcing by the naturally occurring tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 1677–1692 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Caokley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hoffman, “Climate forcing by antropogenic aerosol,” Science 255, 423–429 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coakley, J. A.

J. A. Coakley, R. D. Cess, “Response of the NCAR community climate model to the radiative forcing by the naturally occurring tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 1677–1692 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, A.

Coté, P.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Royer, P. Coté, B. McArthur, “Relations between optically derived aerosol parameters, humidity, and air-quality data in an urban atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1484–1498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cuzzy, J. N.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzy, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Their Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Deepak, A.

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

Devaux, C.

D. Tanre, C. Devaux, H. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O. V.

Dusterdiek, T.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, T. Dusterdiek, “Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario,” J. Geophys. Res. D 101, 19,199–19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T.

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedosejevs, G.

P. M. Teillet, G. Fedosejevs, F. J. Ahern, R. P. Gauthier, “Sensitivity of surface reflectance retrieval to uncertainties in aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3933–3940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, H. E.

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellites. I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, R. S.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Matoo, B. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 99, 10,341–10,356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ganor, E.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Matoo, B. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 99, 10,341–10,356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gashko, V. A.

K. S. Shifrin, V. F. Turchin, L. S. Turovtseva, V. A. Gashko, “Reconstruction of particles size distribution by statistical regularization of the scattered function,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1268–1278 (1972).

Gasso, S.

L. A. Remer, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, “Urban/industrial aerosol: ground-based sun/sky radiometer and airborne in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,849–16,859 (1997).
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R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, T. Dusterdiek, “Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario,” J. Geophys. Res. D 101, 19,199–19209 (1996).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, T. Dusterdiek, “Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario,” J. Geophys. Res. D 101, 19,199–19209 (1996).
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R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Caokley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hoffman, “Climate forcing by antropogenic aerosol,” Science 255, 423–429 (1992).
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L. A. Remer, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, “Urban/industrial aerosol: ground-based sun/sky radiometer and airborne in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,849–16,859 (1997).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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D. Tanre, C. Devaux, H. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
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R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, T. Dusterdiek, “Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario,” J. Geophys. Res. D 101, 19,199–19209 (1996).
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R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Caokley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hoffman, “Climate forcing by antropogenic aerosol,” Science 255, 423–429 (1992).
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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2672–2686 (1996).
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Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Matoo, B. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 99, 10,341–10,356 (1994).
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L. A. Remer, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, “Urban/industrial aerosol: ground-based sun/sky radiometer and airborne in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,849–16,859 (1997).
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J. T. Houghton, F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, Remote Sounding of the Atmosphere (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1984).

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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Matoo, B. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 99, 10,341–10,356 (1994).
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Kaufman, Y. J.

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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L. A. Remer, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, “Urban/industrial aerosol: ground-based sun/sky radiometer and airborne in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,849–16,859 (1997).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Matoo, B. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 99, 10,341–10,356 (1994).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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J. A. Reagan, D. M. Birne, M. D. King, “Determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particles from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
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M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
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Lavenu, F.

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Matoo, B. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 99, 10,341–10,356 (1994).
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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2672–2686 (1996).
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T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

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V. V. Rozanov, S. P. Obrastzov, P. Yu. Romanov, “Sensitivity of the optical characteristics of a polydispersed aerosol to variations of the complex refractive index,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 293–296 (1987).

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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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J. A. Reagan, D. M. Birne, M. D. King, “Determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particles from bistatic–monostatic lidar and solar radiometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1591–1599 (1980).
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M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
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L. A. Remer, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, “Urban/industrial aerosol: ground-based sun/sky radiometer and airborne in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,849–16,859 (1997).
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P. Yu. Romanov, V. V. Rozanov, Yu. M. Timofeyev, “Combined interpretation of ground-based measurement of atmospheric clarity,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 228–235 (1988).

V. V. Rozanov, S. P. Obrastzov, P. Yu. Romanov, “Sensitivity of the optical characteristics of a polydispersed aerosol to variations of the complex refractive index,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 293–296 (1987).

Royer, A.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Royer, P. Coté, B. McArthur, “Relations between optically derived aerosol parameters, humidity, and air-quality data in an urban atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1484–1498 (1993).
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P. Yu. Romanov, V. V. Rozanov, Yu. M. Timofeyev, “Combined interpretation of ground-based measurement of atmospheric clarity,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 24, 228–235 (1988).

V. V. Rozanov, S. P. Obrastzov, P. Yu. Romanov, “Sensitivity of the optical characteristics of a polydispersed aerosol to variations of the complex refractive index,” Izv. Akad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 293–296 (1987).

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D. Tanre, C. Devaux, H. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
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R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Caokley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hoffman, “Climate forcing by antropogenic aerosol,” Science 255, 423–429 (1992).
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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Shettle, E. P.

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K. S. Shifrin, V. F. Turchin, L. S. Turovtseva, V. A. Gashko, “Reconstruction of particles size distribution by statistical regularization of the scattered function,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1268–1278 (1972).

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T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, T. Dusterdiek, “Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario,” J. Geophys. Res. D 101, 19,199–19209 (1996).
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T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamamuchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of the aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
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M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, T. Takamura, “Simultaneous determination of complex refractive index and size distribution of airborne and water-suspended particles from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1259–1271 (1982).

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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janovak, A. Smirnov, “Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,815–16,830 (1997).
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Tonna, G.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydispersed spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
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K. S. Shifrin, V. F. Turchin, L. S. Turovtseva, V. A. Gashko, “Reconstruction of particles size distribution by statistical regularization of the scattered function,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 8, 1268–1278 (1972).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aerosol size distribution retrieval error estimates for different schemes of sunphotometer measurements (T is for the transmission measurements, A is for the aureole measurements, and T + A is for the combined aureole and transmission measurements.) The results are presented for (a) the turbid and (b) the clear aerosol models. The accuracies of measurements of optical depth and the solar aureole were assumed equal to 0.01 and 5.0%, respectively. Volume concentration is given in units of (cm3/cm2)/µm × 109.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Influence of measurement errors on the accuracy of the particle size distribution retrieval. Curve 1, ε t = 0.02, ε a = 10%; curve 2, ε t = 0.01, ε a = 5.0%; curve 3, ε t = 0.005, ε a = 2.5%. ε t and ε a are the transparency and the solar aureole measurement errors, respectively. The turbid aerosol model was used. Volume concentration is given in units of (cm3/cm2)/µm × 109.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two examples of aerosol size distribution retrieval. Volume concentration is given in units of (cm3/cm2)/µm × 109.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aerosol optical depth measured at Sherbrooke, Quebec (45.37 °N, 71.92 °W) from 27 June to 1 July 1997 (corresponding days of the year are 177–181).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved aerosol size distribution (dV/d ln r) time series from 27 June to 1 July 1997 (corresponding days of the year are 177–181). Volume concentration is given in units of (cm3/cm2)/µm × 109.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time series of the derived refractive index and the volume ratio estimated from the corresponding retrieved particle size distributions from 27 June to 1 July 1997 (corresponding days of the year are 177–181). Error bars at the bottom represent standard deviations of the daily mean values of the imaginary part of the refractive index.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scattering angle correction factor (δΩ) retrieved from combined aureole and transmission measurements. Measurements used in the inversions were taken at Sherbrooke, Québec, from 27 June to 1 July 1997.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 CIMEL Sky-Scanning Angular Schemes

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimates of the Retrieval Accuracy of the Aerosol Refractive-Index and Scattering-Angle Corrective Factor for Separate Measurements of Atmospheric Transmission, of Solar Aureole, and of Combined Transmission and Aureolea

Tables Icon

Table 3 Influence of the Measurement Errors on the Retrieval Accuracy Estimatesa

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Table 4 Retrievals of the Optical Constants and Angular Corrective Factor in the Numerical Simulationsa

Equations (33)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eλ=E0λexp-m0τλ,
τaλ=τλ-τRλ-τgλ,
IsΩ, λ=m0E0λexp-m0τλτRλPRΩ, λ+τsaλPaΩ, λ+ΔmsΩ, λ, A,
ΔmsΩ, λ, A=τAλ, APR0°, λ+PRΩ, λtms,
τAλ, A=Aτ2/1-Aτ3,τ2=1.34τss cos θ/1.0+0.22τss/cos θ2,τ3=0.9τss-0.92τss2+0.54τss3,tms=0.02τss+1.2τss2/cos θ1/4,τss=τRλ+τsaλ,
τaλ=0 πr2nrQextm, r, λdr,
τsaλ=0 πr2nrQscam, r, λdr,
PaΩ, λ=λ2/2π/τsaλ0 nri1Ω, m, r, λ+i2Ω, m, r, λdr,
Ωl=Ωl*+δΩ,  l=1L,
F=Hϕ+ε,
ϕT=δv1δvK, δη, δχ, δΩ,
δvk=vk-vk*/vk*,
ϕˆ=HTΣ-1H+D-1-1HTΣ-1F,
Dˆ=D-DHTHDHT+Σ-1HD
Dˆ=D-1+HTΣ-1H-1.
ϕt+1=ϕt-HtTΣ-1Ht+D-1-1HtTΣ-1Ft+D-1ϕt,
i1=S1S1*,i2=S2S2*.
Qext=2/x2n=12n+1Rean+bn,
Qscat=2/x2n=12n+1|an|2+|bn|2;
S1=n=12n+1/nn+1anπn+bnτn,
S2=n=12n+1/nn+1bnπn+anτn.
an=Any/m+n/xRe wnx-Re wn-1xAny/m+n/xwnx-wn-1x,
bn=Anym+n/xRe wnx-Re wn-1xAnym+n/xwnx-wn-1x,
Any=-n/y+n/y-An-1y-1,  A0=cot y,
πn=2n-1/n-1πn-1 cos Ω-n/n-1πn-2,
τn=πn-πn-2cos Ω-2n-1πn-1 sin2 Ω+τn-2,
π0=0,  τ0=0,  π1=1,τ2=cos Ω,  π2=3 cos Ω,  τ3=3 cos 2Ω.
Any=n/y2+n/y2+An-1yn/y-An-1y-1.
an/m=i/m2yAny-Any×Any/m+n/xwnx-wn-1x2,bn/m=iyAny-Any×Anym+n/xwnx-wn-1x2.
Qext/η=2/x2n=12n+1Rean/m+bn/m,S1/η=n=12n+1/nn+1×πnRe an/m+τnRe bn/m,i1/η=2 Re S1Re S1/η+2 Im S1 Im S1/η.
πn=2n-1/n-1πn-1 cos Ω-πn-1 sin Ω-n/n-1πn-2,τn=πn-πn-2cos Ω-πn-πn-2sin Ω-2n-1×πn-1 sin2 Ω+2πn-1 sin Ω cos Ω+τn-2,
π0=0,  τ0=0,  π1=0,  τ2=-sin Ω,π2=-3 sin Ω,  τ3=-6 sin 2Ω.
S1/Ω=n=12n+1/nn+1anπn+bnτn,i1/Ω=2 Re S1Re S1/Ω+2 Im S1 Im S1/Ω.

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