Abstract

The phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was recently developed and implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to characterize extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) projection optical systems for lithography. Here we quantitatively characterize the accuracy and precision of the PS/PDI. Experimental measurements are compared with theoretical results. Two major classes of errors affect the accuracy of the interferometer: systematic effects arising from measurement geometry and systematic and random errors due to an imperfect reference wave. To characterize these effects, and hence to calibrate the interferometer, a null test is used. This null test also serves as a measure of the accuracy of the interferometer. We show the EUV PS/PDI, as currently implemented, to have a systematic error-limited reference-wave accuracy of 0.0028 waves (λ/357 or 0.038 nm at λ = 13.5 nm) within a numerical aperture of 0.082.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1982

1981

1975

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14Suppl. 14–1, 351–356 (1975).

1952

A. Bathia, E. Wolf, “The Zernike circle polynomials occurring in diffraction theory,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 65, 909–910 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1933

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 1, 210–212 (1933).

Attwood, D.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Bathia, A.

A. Bathia, E. Wolf, “The Zernike circle polynomials occurring in diffraction theory,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 65, 909–910 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beguiristain, R.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berger, K. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Bjorkholm, J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Bokor, J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bresloff, C.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Ceglio, N.

Cerrina, F.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Denham, P. E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Gaughan, R.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1997).

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S. J.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Himel, M. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Ina, H.

Jackson, K.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K. H.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, T. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Jin, P. S.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Kobayashi, S.

Koike, M.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

LaFontaine, B.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Linnik, W.

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 1, 210–212 (1933).

MacDowell, A. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Malinowski, M. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Medecki, H.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

Nissen, R. P.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, R. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14Suppl. 14–1, 351–356 (1975).

Sommargren, G.

Spector, S. J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spence, P. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Steel, W. H.

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14Suppl. 14–1, 351–356 (1975).

Stulen, R. H.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Sweat, W. C.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Takeda, M.

Tan, Z.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tejnil, E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Tichenor, D. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Underwood, J.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

White, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Wilkerson, G. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Williamson, D. M.

D. M. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 68–76.

Windt, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Wolf, E.

A. Bathia, E. Wolf, “The Zernike circle polynomials occurring in diffraction theory,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 65, 909–910 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14Suppl. 14–1, 351–356 (1975).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst.

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 1, 210–212 (1933).

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B

A. Bathia, E. Wolf, “The Zernike circle polynomials occurring in diffraction theory,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 65, 909–910 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, R. Gaughan, H. Chapman, J. Goldsmith, J. Bokor, “Direct comparison of EUV and visible-light interferometries,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 635–642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1997).

D. M. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Attwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 68–76.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PS/PDI in (a) the conventional operation configuration and (b) the null-test configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope images of (a) a standard PS/PDI mask and (b) a null mask. The square window in (a) is the test-beam window, and the reference pinhole to the right-hand side has a diameter <100 nm. In (b) we see the pinhole pair (∼120-nm diameter each) along with an alignment window ∼40 µm below the pinholes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement geometry leading to systematic coma.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometric-coma-induced error in waves as a function of NA (s = 4.5 µm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry for predicting the detector-tilt-induced systematic astigmatism error.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Critical alignment parameters for the PS/PDI null test.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Demonstration of the null-test alignment technique. (a) Transmission-fringe pattern through membrane and (b) its Fourier transform. (c) Two-pinhole-fringe pattern and (d) its Fourier transform.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Representative null-test interferogram with a 100-nm-pinhole null mask and a wavelength of 13.5 nm (full 1-in.2 CCD image, 512 × 512 pixels).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstructed wave front from interferogram in Fig. 6 quantized to 8 gray levels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average and standard deviation of Zernike-polynomial fit from 20 independent measurements.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Residual rms error after removal of predicted geometric coma term as a function of wave-front averaging.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average 100-nm-pinhole wave front displayed as 8-level gray scale: (a) prior to predicted geometric coma removal and (b) after predicted geometric coma removal. (c) Rescaled version of (b) to accentuate the wave-front structure. The rms error of wave front in (b) and (c) is 0.0041 waves (λ/244 or 0.055 nm).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Representative null-test interferogram with a 80-nm-pinhole null mask and a wavelength of 13.5 nm (full 1-in.2 CCD image, 512 × 512 pixels).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Average 80-nm pinhole wave front displayed as 8-level gray scale: (a) prior to predicted geometric coma removal and (b) after predicted geometric coma removal. (c) is a rescaled version of (b) to accentuate the wave-front structure. The rms error of wave front in (b) and (c) is 0.0028 waves (λ/357 or 0.038 nm).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reference-Wave rms Accuracy as a Function of Null-Mask Pinhole Size

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Coma and Measured Coma Error Relative to Predicted Value as a Function of Null-Mask Pinhole Size

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δr=s2z3 ρ3-sz-s2z3ρcos θ,
Δr=C3ρ3-2ρ+Tρcos θ,
C=s6rmz3,
C=s6tan3sin-1NA16 s NA3,
Δr=sρ22z2γxcos 2θ+1-γy sin 2θ.
ea½s NA2yx2+γy21/2
ed¼sγxNA2,

Metrics