Abstract

We first discuss the restriction on the incoherent source and the color filters in a joint transform correlation (JTC) system for white-light color pattern recognition and then report on a novel, to our knowledge, solution of channeling in a white-light JTC system, using a tricolor grating to encode the color patterns in real time. The theoretical analyses and the experimental results show not only that the restriction on the experimental condition is relieved but also that parallel channeling of the power spectra of the encoded pattern is easily performed. In addition, the zero-order power spectrum also forms a useful channel for the shape-only correlation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. T. S. Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. G. Mu, Z. L. Zheng, F. L. Liu, H. C. Zhai, “A physical method for color photography,” Trends in Optics: Research, Developments, and Applications, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 527–542.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, “Theta modulation in optics,” Appl. Opt. 4, 399–403 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).
  9. H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).
  10. H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

1999 (1)

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

1994 (1)

1989 (2)

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Armitage, J. D.

Campos, J.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chao, T. H.

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, C.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jutamulia, S.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

Li, H. L.

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

Liu, F. L.

G. G. Mu, Z. L. Zheng, F. L. Liu, H. C. Zhai, “A physical method for color photography,” Trends in Optics: Research, Developments, and Applications, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 527–542.
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Millan, M. S.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mu, G. G.

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

G. G. Mu, Z. L. Zheng, F. L. Liu, H. C. Zhai, “A physical method for color photography,” Trends in Optics: Research, Developments, and Applications, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 527–542.
[CrossRef]

Pan, K.

Yang, Z.

Yelamarty, R. V.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, H. C.

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

G. G. Mu, Z. L. Zheng, F. L. Liu, H. C. Zhai, “A physical method for color photography,” Trends in Optics: Research, Developments, and Applications, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 527–542.
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Y. L.

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

Zhang, T. Q.

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

Zheng, Z. L.

G. G. Mu, Z. L. Zheng, F. L. Liu, H. C. Zhai, “A physical method for color photography,” Trends in Optics: Research, Developments, and Applications, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 527–542.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. S.

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

H. C. Zhai, G. G. Mu, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling in the experiment of color JTC,” Acta Opt. Sin. 19, 1244–1250 (1999).

Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis (1)

H. C. Zhai, H. L. Li, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, H. Kang, Y. L. Zhan, “The white light color JTC with three color grating,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis 31(4), 83–88 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Laser (1)

H. C. Zhai, H. Kang, X. S. Zhu, T. Q. Zhang, G. G. Mu, Y. L. Zhan, “Discussion on the channeling of color JTC,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9Suppl., 208–210 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. G. Mu, Z. L. Zheng, F. L. Liu, H. C. Zhai, “A physical method for color photography,” Trends in Optics: Research, Developments, and Applications, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), Vol. 3, pp. 527–542.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

White-light CJTC with a conventional cosine grating for channeling. S, white-light source; L, lens; G, conventional cosine grating; OP, output plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure of the tricolor grating constructed with three Ronchi gratings overlapping in the three orientations. R, red; G, green; B, blue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Different channels formed at the spectrum plane by the tricolor grating. R, red; G, green; B, blue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

White-light CJTC with the tricolor grating for channeling. S, white-light source; G, tricolor grating; L, lens; BS, beam splitter; EASLM, electronically addressed spatial light modulator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two identical transparent capital letters, E, at the input plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power spectra of the input patterns shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correlation results of the input patterns shown in Fig. 5. (a) Correlation result on the zero-order channel. (b) Correlation result on the red channel. (c) Correlation result on the green channel. (d) Correlation result on the blue channel.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Yellow letter E and green letter E as input patterns.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Power spectra of the input patterns shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Correlation results of the input patterns shown in Fig. 8. (a) Correlation result on the green channel. (b) Correlation result on the red channel.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Shape-only correlation results on the zero channel. (a) Shape-only correlation between two letters E shown in Fig. 8. (b) Shape-only correlation between letters E and F (the same input as in Fig. 8, except that one of the E’s is partially blocked to form the letter F).

Equations (11)

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V=Imax-IminImax+Imin=J12πr02a/λif1r02a/λif1,
Δλiλi6aq0,
r00.3λf1/2a=4.5 μm,  Δλ0.4 nm,
τGx, y=i gi=grx+ggy+gbx, y,
grx=k1½+½ sgncosωx, ggy=k2½+½ sgncosωy, gbx, y=k3½+½ sgncosω1x+ω2y,
sgncosωx=1,cosωx0-1,cosωx<0.
finx, y=i fix, y,  i=r, g, b,
fenx, y=fx, ygrx+fgx, yggy+fbx, ygbx, y.
fenx, y=frx, ygrx+fgx, yggy+fbx, ygbx, y,
Fenξ, η=Frξ, η*Grξ+Fgξ, η*Ggη+Fbξ, η*Gbξ, η,
F×F*ξ, η=C1Frξ-ξr, ηFr*ξ-ξr, η+C2Fgξ, η-ηgFg*ξ, η-ηg+C3Fbξ-ξb, η-ηb×Fb*ξ-ξb, η-ηb,

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