Abstract

A pentagon-shaped 0°-cut undoped BaTiO3 crystal was used to construct a high-quality self-pumped phase conjugator. The conjugator shows a steady phase-conjugate output with a high reflectivity (as high as ∼68%), a fast rising time, and a large angular range of acceptance. It also shows a good fidelity in the phase-conjugate reconstructed image; the resolution reaches 17 µm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Dou, Y. Ding, H. Eichler, P. Ye, X. Lu, H. Chen, “Anomalous power dependence of reflectivity and response time of KNSBN:Cu self-pumped phase conjugators,” Opt. Commun. 145, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Zhu, D. Zhang, X. Niu, X. Wu, “High efficiency self-pumped phase conjugation from 45°-cut Ce:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 134, 205–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Gao, S. Dou, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, P. Ye, “Power and beam-width dependence of a BaTiO3:Ce self-pumped phase conjugator,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 153–158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Ding, Z. Zhang, H. Eichler, D. Shen, X. Ma, J. Chen, “Mirrorless self-pumped phase conjugation in KnbO3:Mn and KnbO3:Co,” Opt. Lett. 20, 686–688 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, Q. Guan, J. Wang, X. Yue, Z. Shao, Y. Liu, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of KLTN crystal,” Opt. Commun. 107, 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Mechanism transformation with wavelength of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce,” Opt. Lett. 19, 610–612 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Dynamic self-pumped phase-conjugating mirror based on the bacteriorhodopsin variant D96N,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1412–1412 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

T. Aoyama, S. Mizuta, S. Kurimura, Y. Liu, I. Seo, “Emission characteristics of internally self-pumped phase-conjugate wave in photorefractive KNbO3:Fe and BaTiO3 crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4307–4310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, “Impurity enhanced self-pumped phase conjugation in the near infrared in ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 101, 60–64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jensen, C. Warde, “Self-pumped phase conjugation and four-wave mixing in 0°- and 45°-cut n-type BaTiO3:Co,” Opt. Lett. 18, 405–407 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bian, J. Zhang, Z. X. Su, K. Xu, W. Sun, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, D. Sun, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of 18°-cut Ce-doped KNSBN crystal at 632.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 769–771 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

P. Chua, D. Liu, L. Cheng, “Self-pumped and double phase conjugation in GaAs with applied dc electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2880–2882 (1991).

1989 (2)

D. Rytz, D. Shen, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in potassium niobate (KNbO3),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2625–2627 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, “Enhanced photorefractive performance from 45°-cut BaTiO3,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4808–4815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

1986 (1)

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. Klerk, G. Wood, J. Sharp, “SBN as a self-pumped phase conjugator,” Opt. Commun. 59, 417–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

Aoyama, T.

T. Aoyama, S. Mizuta, S. Kurimura, Y. Liu, I. Seo, “Emission characteristics of internally self-pumped phase-conjugate wave in photorefractive KNbO3:Fe and BaTiO3 crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4307–4310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

Chang, J. Y.

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

Cheng, L.

P. Chua, D. Liu, L. Cheng, “Self-pumped and double phase conjugation in GaAs with applied dc electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2880–2882 (1991).

Chua, P.

P. Chua, D. Liu, L. Cheng, “Self-pumped and double phase conjugation in GaAs with applied dc electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2880–2882 (1991).

Clark, W. W.

Ding, Y.

S. Dou, Y. Ding, H. Eichler, P. Ye, X. Lu, H. Chen, “Anomalous power dependence of reflectivity and response time of KNSBN:Cu self-pumped phase conjugators,” Opt. Commun. 145, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, Z. Zhang, H. Eichler, D. Shen, X. Ma, J. Chen, “Mirrorless self-pumped phase conjugation in KnbO3:Mn and KnbO3:Co,” Opt. Lett. 20, 686–688 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dou, S.

S. Dou, Y. Ding, H. Eichler, P. Ye, X. Lu, H. Chen, “Anomalous power dependence of reflectivity and response time of KNSBN:Cu self-pumped phase conjugators,” Opt. Commun. 145, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, S. Dou, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, P. Ye, “Power and beam-width dependence of a BaTiO3:Ce self-pumped phase conjugator,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 153–158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dou, S. X.

Y. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Mechanism transformation with wavelength of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce,” Opt. Lett. 19, 610–612 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, “Impurity enhanced self-pumped phase conjugation in the near infrared in ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 101, 60–64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H.

S. Dou, Y. Ding, H. Eichler, P. Ye, X. Lu, H. Chen, “Anomalous power dependence of reflectivity and response time of KNSBN:Cu self-pumped phase conjugators,” Opt. Commun. 145, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, Z. Zhang, H. Eichler, D. Shen, X. Ma, J. Chen, “Mirrorless self-pumped phase conjugation in KnbO3:Mn and KnbO3:Co,” Opt. Lett. 20, 686–688 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Feinberg, J.

Ford, J. E.

Gao, H.

H. Gao, S. Dou, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, P. Ye, “Power and beam-width dependence of a BaTiO3:Ce self-pumped phase conjugator,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 153–158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Mechanism transformation with wavelength of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce,” Opt. Lett. 19, 610–612 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M. H.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, “Impurity enhanced self-pumped phase conjugation in the near infrared in ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 101, 60–64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jensen, C. Warde, “Self-pumped phase conjugation and four-wave mixing in 0°- and 45°-cut n-type BaTiO3:Co,” Opt. Lett. 18, 405–407 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, Q.

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, Q. Guan, J. Wang, X. Yue, Z. Shao, Y. Liu, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of KLTN crystal,” Opt. Commun. 107, 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hampp, N.

Hribek, P.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, “Impurity enhanced self-pumped phase conjugation in the near infrared in ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 101, 60–64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, H. P.

Jiang, M.

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q.

Klerk, W.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. Klerk, G. Wood, J. Sharp, “SBN as a self-pumped phase conjugator,” Opt. Commun. 59, 417–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kurimura, S.

T. Aoyama, S. Mizuta, S. Kurimura, Y. Liu, I. Seo, “Emission characteristics of internally self-pumped phase-conjugate wave in photorefractive KNbO3:Fe and BaTiO3 crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4307–4310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lian, Y.

Y. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Mechanism transformation with wavelength of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce,” Opt. Lett. 19, 610–612 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

P. Chua, D. Liu, L. Cheng, “Self-pumped and double phase conjugation in GaAs with applied dc electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2880–2882 (1991).

Liu, Y.

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, Q. Guan, J. Wang, X. Yue, Z. Shao, Y. Liu, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of KLTN crystal,” Opt. Commun. 107, 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoyama, S. Mizuta, S. Kurimura, Y. Liu, I. Seo, “Emission characteristics of internally self-pumped phase-conjugate wave in photorefractive KNbO3:Fe and BaTiO3 crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4307–4310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

S. Dou, Y. Ding, H. Eichler, P. Ye, X. Lu, H. Chen, “Anomalous power dependence of reflectivity and response time of KNSBN:Cu self-pumped phase conjugators,” Opt. Commun. 145, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, X. Lu, Y. Song, D. Sun, H. Chen, J. Zhang, S. Bian, Y. Yuan, K. Xu, “Enhanced self-pumped phase conjugation from 16°-cut KNSBN:Cu,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6299–6302 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

MacDonald, K.

Miller, M. J.

Mizuta, S.

T. Aoyama, S. Mizuta, S. Kurimura, Y. Liu, I. Seo, “Emission characteristics of internally self-pumped phase-conjugate wave in photorefractive KNbO3:Fe and BaTiO3 crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4307–4310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

Niu, X.

Y. Zhu, D. Zhang, X. Niu, X. Wu, “High efficiency self-pumped phase conjugation from 45°-cut Ce:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 134, 205–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, M.

S. Sochava, S. Stepanov, M. Petrov, “Ring oscillator using a photorefractive BTO crystal,” Sov. Phys. Lett. 13, 274–276 (1987).

Rodriguez, J.

Ross, G. W.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, “Impurity enhanced self-pumped phase conjugation in the near infrared in ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 101, 60–64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, “Impurity enhanced self-pumped phase conjugation in the near infrared in ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 101, 60–64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, D. Shen, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in potassium niobate (KNbO3),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2625–2627 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

Salamo, G. J.

Seo, I.

T. Aoyama, S. Mizuta, S. Kurimura, Y. Liu, I. Seo, “Emission characteristics of internally self-pumped phase-conjugate wave in photorefractive KNbO3:Fe and BaTiO3 crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4307–4310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, Q. Guan, J. Wang, X. Yue, Z. Shao, Y. Liu, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of KLTN crystal,” Opt. Commun. 107, 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, E. J.

Sharp, J.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. Klerk, G. Wood, J. Sharp, “SBN as a self-pumped phase conjugator,” Opt. Commun. 59, 417–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Y. Ding, Z. Zhang, H. Eichler, D. Shen, X. Ma, J. Chen, “Mirrorless self-pumped phase conjugation in KnbO3:Mn and KnbO3:Co,” Opt. Lett. 20, 686–688 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rytz, D. Shen, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in potassium niobate (KNbO3),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2625–2627 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Siahmakoun, A.

Sochava, S.

S. Sochava, S. Stepanov, M. Petrov, “Ring oscillator using a photorefractive BTO crystal,” Sov. Phys. Lett. 13, 274–276 (1987).

Song, Y.

Stepanov, S.

S. Sochava, S. Stepanov, M. Petrov, “Ring oscillator using a photorefractive BTO crystal,” Sov. Phys. Lett. 13, 274–276 (1987).

Su, Z. X.

Sun, D.

Sun, W.

Wang, H.

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, Q. Guan, J. Wang, X. Yue, Z. Shao, Y. Liu, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of KLTN crystal,” Opt. Commun. 107, 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

Wei, J.

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, Q. Guan, J. Wang, X. Yue, Z. Shao, Y. Liu, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of KLTN crystal,” Opt. Commun. 107, 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wood, G.

G. Salamo, M. J. Miller, W. Klerk, G. Wood, J. Sharp, “SBN as a self-pumped phase conjugator,” Opt. Commun. 59, 417–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wood, G. L.

Wu, X.

Y. Zhu, D. Zhang, X. Niu, X. Wu, “High efficiency self-pumped phase conjugation from 45°-cut Ce:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 134, 205–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Mechanism transformation with wavelength of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce,” Opt. Lett. 19, 610–612 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

Yang, C.

Ye, P.

S. Dou, Y. Ding, H. Eichler, P. Ye, X. Lu, H. Chen, “Anomalous power dependence of reflectivity and response time of KNSBN:Cu self-pumped phase conjugators,” Opt. Commun. 145, 166–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, S. Dou, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, P. Ye, “Power and beam-width dependence of a BaTiO3:Ce self-pumped phase conjugator,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 153–158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lian, S. X. Dou, H. Gao, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, C. Yang, P. Ye, “Mechanism transformation with wavelength of self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO3:Ce,” Opt. Lett. 19, 610–612 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lian, H. Gao, S. X. Dou, H. Wang, P. Ye, Q. Guan, J. Wang, “Mechanism transition of self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa1-xNbxO3:Fe crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 655–659 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Yue, X.

Q. Guan, X. Yue, J. Wang, J. Wei, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation in KTa0.48Nb0.52O3 crystals doped with different Fe concentrations,” Opt. Commun. 116, 416–420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, Q. Guan, J. Wang, X. Yue, Z. Shao, Y. Liu, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of KLTN crystal,” Opt. Commun. 107, 129–132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zeisel, D.

Zhang, D.

Y. Zhu, D. Zhang, X. Niu, X. Wu, “High efficiency self-pumped phase conjugation from 45°-cut Ce:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 134, 205–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Z.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, D. Zhang, X. Niu, X. Wu, “High efficiency self-pumped phase conjugation from 45°-cut Ce:BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 134, 205–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, S. Dou, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, P. Ye, “Power and beam-width dependence of a BaTiO3:Ce self-pumped phase conjugator,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 153–158 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Various parameters in the study of the pentagon SPPC. (b) Light path inside the pentagon-shaped crystal as observed from the top.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for various measurements of the pentagon SPPC. λ/2 WP, half-wave plate; o wave, ordinary wave; e wave, extraordinary wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time evolution of phase-conjugate output and fanning light of the pentagon SPPC (I in = 15 mW, d = 1.8mm, and θ = 90°).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SPPC rising time of pentagon SPPC versus incident beam intensity (d = 1.8 mm and θ = 90°).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Steady-state reflectivity of pentagon SPPC versus incident beam intensity (d = 1.8 mm and θ = 90°).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase-conjugate reflectivity and rising time of the proposed SPPC versus incident beam position, d (θ =90°).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photos of optical beam path inside the crystal at different incident positions corresponding to Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase-conjugate reflectivity and rising time of the proposed SPPC against incident angle, θ (d = 1.8 mm).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photos of optical beam path inside the pentagon BaTiO3 crystal at different impinging angles corresponding to Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time evolution of phase-conjugate reflectivity in pentagon-shaped 0°-cut BaTiO3 conjugator, 0°-cut BaTiO3:Rh conjugator, and 45°-cut BaTiO3 conjugator.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Distorted image for investigation of quality of phase conjugation of the proposed SPPC input into BaTiO3 crystal. (b) Reconstructed USAF resolution chart by the conjugate beam produced by the pentagon SPPC.

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