Abstract

We describe a color separation optical element with potential display applications that is designed to separate light into an array of red, green, and blue stripes formed at a certain distance from the component. The stripe color separation grating is a surface-relief diffractive optical element composed of a repeated pattern of three constituent gratings. We describe the design principles and a numerical analysis of the component, showing that a maximum theoretical efficiency with which the colors are directed into the stripes is ∼80%. We also examine the dependence of the efficiency on the grating feature size. In addition, we report on the fabrication of four of these components, using a combination of electron-beam lithography and photolithography with a backexposure technique. Measurements are presented to show the color separation property.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Dammann, “Color separation gratings,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2273–2279 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbe, J. P. Huignard, “Phase volume holographic optical components for high-brightness single-LCD projectors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4761–4771 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. P. Gale, G. J. Swanson, “Efficient illumination of color AMLCD projection displays using binary optical phase plates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5, 375–378 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Layet, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Analysis of gratings with large periods and small feature sizes by stitching of the electromagnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1508–1510 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Knop, “Rigorous diffraction theory for transmission phase gratings with deep rectangular grooves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1206–1210 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbe, J. P. Huignard, “Phase volume holographic optical components for high-brightness single-LCD projectors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4761–4771 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Gale, G. J. Swanson, “Efficient illumination of color AMLCD projection displays using binary optical phase plates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1978 (2)

Dammann, H.

Delboulbe, A.

Farn, M. W.

Gale, R. P.

R. P. Gale, G. J. Swanson, “Efficient illumination of color AMLCD projection displays using binary optical phase plates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

Joubert, C.

Knop, K.

Layet, B.

Loiseaux, B.

Medeiros, S.

Stern, M. B.

Swanson, G. J.

R. P. Gale, G. J. Swanson, “Efficient illumination of color AMLCD projection displays using binary optical phase plates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 5, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Veldkamp, W. B.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plan view of part of pixel plane showing arrangement of red, green, and blue subpixels in a color pixel. The dashed square outlines a single pixel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Side view showing principle of operation of the SCSG in a display. The three CSG’s in one period of the SCSG are shown directing colors in the incident white light onto a red–green–blue (RGB) display pixel in the color separation plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pixel efficiencies of a SCSG calculated with (a) approximate theory and (b) Knop’s rigorous method by use of the field-stitching technique.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stages in the fabrication of the SCSG by use of e-beam lithography and photolithography. The arrow from stage (g) to stage (d) indicates an iteration that permits the creation of further relief levels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Development of the SCSG by successive etches. The three CSG columns show a single period of the grating to which they refer. The numbers refer to the etch depth in micrometers. A single number is underlined in each of the six stages to show the etch depth of the most recent process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning-electron microscopy images of the SCSG with a 2-mm working distance at (a) low magnification, (b) high magnification. The feature size is ∼3 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color separation patterns of (a) the D = 2 mm SCSG and (b) the D = 1 mm SCSG, both obtained with a color camera and frame grabber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity cross section in the color separation plane of two SCSG’s. Experimental data for SCSG’s with (a) D = 4 mm and (b) D = 2 mm. Computational data for the D = 4 mm case is shown in (c).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Grating Periods within the Three CSG’s that Compose a SCSG with H = 80 µm and D = 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm

Equations (1)

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n sin θm=mλ/d,

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