Abstract

We have developed and evaluated a transfer standard for the calibration of optical fiber power meters over the wavelength range from 750–1800 nm. The transfer standard is an optical-trap detector consisting of two germanium (Ge) photodiodes, and a spherical mirror. The photodiodes and mirror are contained in a package that is thermally stable and accepts a variety of optical fiber connectors. Spatial uniformity measurements indicate that the variation of detector response as a function of beam position is less than ±0.15%. Comparison of the absolute responsivity for three different input conditions indicates that the detector responsivity is nearly the same for collimated beams transmitted through air, as for diverging input from an optical fiber. Small measurement-result differences between collimated and diverging inputs still remain and are discussed briefly.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 327–333 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Theocharous et al., “A Comparison of the Performance of Infrared Detectors for Radiometric Applications,” Proc. SPIE (Optical Radiation Measurements III)2815(SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 1996), pp. 56–68.
  3. N.P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 321–325 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C.A. Hamilton et al., “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note678(1976).
  5. M.G. White, A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30(4), 361–364 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R.L. Gallawa, X. Li, “Calibration of optical fiber power meters: The effect of connectors,” Appl. Opt. 26(7), 1170–1174 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.H. Lehman, “Pyroelectric trap detector for spectral responsivity measurements,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 8(11) (1997). archived in Appl. Opt. 36(34) (1997).
  8. I. Vayshenker et al., “Errors due to connectors in optical fiber power measurements,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ.905,49–52 (1996).

1997 (1)

J.H. Lehman, “Pyroelectric trap detector for spectral responsivity measurements,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 8(11) (1997). archived in Appl. Opt. 36(34) (1997).

1993 (3)

J.M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 327–333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N.P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 321–325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M.G. White, A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30(4), 361–364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Bittar, A.

M.G. White, A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30(4), 361–364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N.P.

N.P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 321–325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gallawa, R.L.

Hamilton, C.A.

C.A. Hamilton et al., “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note678(1976).

Lehman, J.H.

J.H. Lehman, “Pyroelectric trap detector for spectral responsivity measurements,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 8(11) (1997). archived in Appl. Opt. 36(34) (1997).

Li, X.

Palmer, J.M.

J.M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 327–333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Theocharous, E.

E. Theocharous et al., “A Comparison of the Performance of Infrared Detectors for Radiometric Applications,” Proc. SPIE (Optical Radiation Measurements III)2815(SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 1996), pp. 56–68.

Vayshenker, I.

I. Vayshenker et al., “Errors due to connectors in optical fiber power measurements,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ.905,49–52 (1996).

White, M.G.

M.G. White, A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30(4), 361–364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News (1)

J.H. Lehman, “Pyroelectric trap detector for spectral responsivity measurements,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 8(11) (1997). archived in Appl. Opt. 36(34) (1997).

Metrologia (3)

M.G. White, A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30(4), 361–364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 327–333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N.P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30(4), 321–325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C.A. Hamilton et al., “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note678(1976).

E. Theocharous et al., “A Comparison of the Performance of Infrared Detectors for Radiometric Applications,” Proc. SPIE (Optical Radiation Measurements III)2815(SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 1996), pp. 56–68.

I. Vayshenker et al., “Errors due to connectors in optical fiber power measurements,” Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ.905,49–52 (1996).

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Figures (3)

Figure 1
Figure 1

Relative orientation of the photodiodes (round elements on a square carrier), the concave mirror, and diverging input beam in three views.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Spatial uniformity of the Ge trap detector.

Figure 3
Figure 3

Absolute spectral responsivity measured using a lamp and monochromator source and a pyroelectric trap detector reference.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absolute spectral responsivity results.

Metrics