Abstract

Theoretical and experimental studies of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in biological tissues was performed by use of ultrashort laser pulses (<1 ps). A simplified one-dimensional model for the generation and the propagation of frequency-doubled light inside tissue was developed. This model was tested in vitro against measurements of pig and chicken tissue and human tooth. The experimental results indicate that the intensity of SHG varies significantly among tissue types and between test sites in individual tissue. Possibilities of using this nonlinear tissue property in imaging and diagnostics are discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 792–794 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. P. Shkurinov, A. V. Dubrovskii, N. I. Koroteev, “Second-harmonic generation optically active liquid: experimental observation of a fourth-order optical nonlinearity due to molecular chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1085–1088 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Chen, M. Sheves, A. Lewis, O. Bouevitch, “A comparison of the second-harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue and acid purple membrane,” Biophys. J. 67, 1155–1160 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Dynamic self-pumped phase-conjugating mirror based on the bacteriorhodopsin variant D96N,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1412–1414 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Freund, M. Deutsch, A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity: optical second-harminic microscopy, cross-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. B. Altshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, G. A. Martsinovski, A. A. Solounin, “Nonlinear transmission and second-harmonic generation in dentin in the field of ultrashort Nd-laser pulses,” in Advanced Laser Dentistry, G. B. Altshuler, R. J. Blankenau, H. A. Wigdor, eds., Proc. SPIE1984, 6–10 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Hovanessian, A. Lalayan, “Second-harmonic generation in biofiber-containing tissues,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’96 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1996), pp. 107–110.
  8. Y. Guo, P. P. Ho, H. Savage, D. Harris, P. Sacks, S. Schantz, F. Liu, N. Zhadin, R. R. Alfano, “Second-harmonic tomography of tissues,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1323–1325 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.
  11. M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Guo, P. P. Ho, A. Tirksliunas, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Optical harmonic generation from animal tissues by the use of picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6810–6813 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. H. Niemz, T. Hoppeler, T. Juhasz, J. F. Bille, “Intrastromal ablations for refractive corneal surgery using picosecond infrared laser pulses,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 145–152 (1993).
  16. A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, R. C. Taylor, R. J. Ference, “Refractive index of some mammalian tissues using a fiber optic cladding method,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2297–2303 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. T. Poh, “Examination of refractive index of human epidermis in-vitro and in-vivo,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’96 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1996), pp. 118–125.
  21. D. J. Maitland, “Dynamic measurements of tissue birefringence: theory and experiments,” Ph.D. dissertation (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995).
  22. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 378–406.
  23. D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 10–264.
  24. W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (4)

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (3)

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, P. P. Ho, A. Tirksliunas, F. Liu, R. R. Alfano, “Optical harmonic generation from animal tissues by the use of picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6810–6813 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

Z. Chen, M. Sheves, A. Lewis, O. Bouevitch, “A comparison of the second-harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue and acid purple membrane,” Biophys. J. 67, 1155–1160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, “Dynamic self-pumped phase-conjugating mirror based on the bacteriorhodopsin variant D96N,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1412–1414 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. H. Niemz, T. Hoppeler, T. Juhasz, J. F. Bille, “Intrastromal ablations for refractive corneal surgery using picosecond infrared laser pulses,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 145–152 (1993).

1992 (1)

A. P. Shkurinov, A. V. Dubrovskii, N. I. Koroteev, “Second-harmonic generation optically active liquid: experimental observation of a fourth-order optical nonlinearity due to molecular chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1085–1088 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity: optical second-harminic microscopy, cross-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 792–794 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Altshuler, G. B.

G. B. Altshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, G. A. Martsinovski, A. A. Solounin, “Nonlinear transmission and second-harmonic generation in dentin in the field of ultrashort Nd-laser pulses,” in Advanced Laser Dentistry, G. B. Altshuler, R. J. Blankenau, H. A. Wigdor, eds., Proc. SPIE1984, 6–10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. F.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

Barty, C. P. J.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belashenkov, N. R.

G. B. Altshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, G. A. Martsinovski, A. A. Solounin, “Nonlinear transmission and second-harmonic generation in dentin in the field of ultrashort Nd-laser pulses,” in Advanced Laser Dentistry, G. B. Altshuler, R. J. Blankenau, H. A. Wigdor, eds., Proc. SPIE1984, 6–10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. F.

M. H. Niemz, T. Hoppeler, T. Juhasz, J. F. Bille, “Intrastromal ablations for refractive corneal surgery using picosecond infrared laser pulses,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 145–152 (1993).

Bolin, F. P.

Bor, Z.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouevitch, O.

Z. Chen, M. Sheves, A. Lewis, O. Bouevitch, “A comparison of the second-harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue and acid purple membrane,” Biophys. J. 67, 1155–1160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

Bron, W. E.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buis, A. H.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, M. Sheves, A. Lewis, O. Bouevitch, “A comparison of the second-harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue and acid purple membrane,” Biophys. J. 67, 1155–1160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, M.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity: optical second-harminic microscopy, cross-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubrovskii, A. V.

A. P. Shkurinov, A. V. Dubrovskii, N. I. Koroteev, “Second-harmonic generation optically active liquid: experimental observation of a fourth-order optical nonlinearity due to molecular chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1085–1088 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ference, R. J.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity: optical second-harminic microscopy, cross-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordmaine, J. A.

P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 792–794 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Glinsky, M. E.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Hampp, N.

Harris, D.

Ho, P. P.

Hoppeler, T.

M. H. Niemz, T. Hoppeler, T. Juhasz, J. F. Bille, “Intrastromal ablations for refractive corneal surgery using picosecond infrared laser pulses,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 145–152 (1993).

Hovanessian, V.

V. Hovanessian, A. Lalayan, “Second-harmonic generation in biofiber-containing tissues,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’96 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1996), pp. 107–110.

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Niemz, T. Hoppeler, T. Juhasz, J. F. Bille, “Intrastromal ablations for refractive corneal surgery using picosecond infrared laser pulses,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 145–152 (1993).

Kastis, G. A.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B.-M.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koroteev, N. I.

A. P. Shkurinov, A. V. Dubrovskii, N. I. Koroteev, “Second-harmonic generation optically active liquid: experimental observation of a fourth-order optical nonlinearity due to molecular chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1085–1088 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lalayan, A.

V. Hovanessian, A. Lalayan, “Second-harmonic generation in biofiber-containing tissues,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’96 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1996), pp. 107–110.

Lewis, A.

Z. Chen, M. Sheves, A. Lewis, O. Bouevitch, “A comparison of the second-harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue and acid purple membrane,” Biophys. J. 67, 1155–1160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Maitland, D. J.

D. J. Maitland, “Dynamic measurements of tissue birefringence: theory and experiments,” Ph.D. dissertation (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995).

Mammini, B. M.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martsinovski, G. A.

G. B. Altshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, G. A. Martsinovski, A. A. Solounin, “Nonlinear transmission and second-harmonic generation in dentin in the field of ultrashort Nd-laser pulses,” in Advanced Laser Dentistry, G. B. Altshuler, R. J. Blankenau, H. A. Wigdor, eds., Proc. SPIE1984, 6–10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, M.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

Müller, M.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niemz, M. H.

M. H. Niemz, T. Hoppeler, T. Juhasz, J. F. Bille, “Intrastromal ablations for refractive corneal surgery using picosecond infrared laser pulses,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 145–152 (1993).

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poh, D. T.

D. T. Poh, “Examination of refractive index of human epidermis in-vitro and in-vivo,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’96 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1996), pp. 118–125.

Prahl, S. A.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Preuss, L. E.

Rentzepis, P. M.

P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 792–794 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, P.

Savage, H.

Schantz, S.

Sheves, M.

Z. Chen, M. Sheves, A. Lewis, O. Bouevitch, “A comparison of the second-harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue and acid purple membrane,” Biophys. J. 67, 1155–1160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shkurinov, A. P.

A. P. Shkurinov, A. V. Dubrovskii, N. I. Koroteev, “Second-harmonic generation optically active liquid: experimental observation of a fourth-order optical nonlinearity due to molecular chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1085–1088 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Small, W.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solounin, A. A.

G. B. Altshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, G. A. Martsinovski, A. A. Solounin, “Nonlinear transmission and second-harmonic generation in dentin in the field of ultrashort Nd-laser pulses,” in Advanced Laser Dentistry, G. B. Altshuler, R. J. Blankenau, H. A. Wigdor, eds., Proc. SPIE1984, 6–10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sprecher, A.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity: optical second-harminic microscopy, cross-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

Stuart, B. C.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suárez, C.

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. C.

Tirksliunas, A.

Tsang, T. Y. F.

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wecht, K. W.

P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 792–794 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. R.

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 378–406.

Zeisel, D.

Zhadin, N.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B.-M. Kim, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Perry, “Physical characterization of ultrashort laser pulse drilling of biological tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 869–874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (2)

Z. Chen, M. Sheves, A. Lewis, O. Bouevitch, “A comparison of the second-harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue and acid purple membrane,” Biophys. J. 67, 1155–1160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity: optical second-harminic microscopy, cross-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50, 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Light Ophthalmol. (1)

M. H. Niemz, T. Hoppeler, T. Juhasz, J. F. Bille, “Intrastromal ablations for refractive corneal surgery using picosecond infrared laser pulses,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 145–152 (1993).

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suárez, Z. Bor, W. E. Bron, “Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 23–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Characterization of femtosecond pulses focused with high numerical aperture optics using interferometric surface-third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 147, 153–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 792–794 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Shkurinov, A. V. Dubrovskii, N. I. Koroteev, “Second-harmonic generation optically active liquid: experimental observation of a fourth-order optical nonlinearity due to molecular chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1085–1088 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. A. Squier, D. N. Fittinghoff, C. P. F. Barty, K. R. Wilson, M. Mueller, A. H. Buis, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Two-photon imaging with 15 fs pulses and third harmonic microscopy imaging techniques,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 33–34.

G. B. Altshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, G. A. Martsinovski, A. A. Solounin, “Nonlinear transmission and second-harmonic generation in dentin in the field of ultrashort Nd-laser pulses,” in Advanced Laser Dentistry, G. B. Altshuler, R. J. Blankenau, H. A. Wigdor, eds., Proc. SPIE1984, 6–10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Hovanessian, A. Lalayan, “Second-harmonic generation in biofiber-containing tissues,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’96 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1996), pp. 107–110.

D. T. Poh, “Examination of refractive index of human epidermis in-vitro and in-vivo,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’96 (Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics, McLean, Va., 1996), pp. 118–125.

D. J. Maitland, “Dynamic measurements of tissue birefringence: theory and experiments,” Ph.D. dissertation (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 378–406.

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 10–264.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Behavior of SHG for various δ/l c . The SHG was normalized so that it became 1 when δ/l c = 0, in which case the phase was matched.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the 90% effective depth for SHG as a function of the effective attenuation coefficients at ω and 2ω.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup. A high-wavelength-pass filter was placed after the focusing lens to remove higher harmonics from the optical system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quadratic dependence of the SHG on the pulse energy. The pulse width was approximately 500 fs, and the beam size was fixed at 260 µm (FWHM).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decrease of the SHG with larger beam sizes. The curve-fitting results imply that SHG is inversely proportional to the square of the beam size. The pulse width was 500 fs, and the pulse energy was fixed at 100 µJ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of the pulse width on SHG: The energy per pulse was fixed at 50 µJ, and the beam size was 260 µm. The slit of the monochrometer was opened slightly to increase the signal intensity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SHG in Various Tissuesa

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P2ω=8μ0ε03/2ω2d2δ2n3Pω2Asin2πδ/lcπδ/lc2,
lc=λ2n2ω-nω.
dQ2ω=8μ0ε03/2ω2d*2μs2n3Qω2AT+ΔTsin2π/μslcπ/μslc2 μsdz,
d*=d VcollagenVtissue,
Qω=kωQω,surf exp-μeff,ωz,
dQ2ω,surf=C Qω2μsAT+ΔTsin2π/μslcπ/μslc2×12 k2ω exp-μeff,2ωzdz,
Q2ω,surf=C kω2k2ωQω,surf22μsAT+ΔTsin2π/μslcπ/μslc2×1-exp-2μeff,ω+μeff,2ωL2μeff,ω+μeff,2ω,
Q2ω,surf=C kω2k2ωQω,surf22μsAT+ΔT×sin2π/μslcπ/μslc212μeff,ω+μeff,2ω.
Q2ω,surf=C kω2k2ωQω,surf24μsAT+ΔT1π/μslc212μeff,ω+μeff,2ω.
90% depth=-ln0.12μeff,ω+μeff,2ω.

Metrics