Abstract

A simple method of measuring the scattering losses of optical fibers was developed. The method permits the measurement of the scattering-loss spectra by use of photon counting. Measurement is based on right-angle scattering, which is dominated by Rayleigh scattering, a material-intrinsic loss. A reference fiber for which the scattering loss is known is used to cancel out the unknown factors that are dependent on the optical setup. The scattering-loss measurement was demonstrated by use of two different low-loss fibers and was found to agree with predetermined figures to within 10% over the wavelength range 0.44–1.0 µm. Finally, the method was applied to a new high-numerical-aperture optical fiber to find its material scattering loss.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “New optical fiber fabrication method,” Electron. Lett. 18, 499–500 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21–28 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. II. Excess optical loss,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 128, 118–125 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Satoh, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “High refractive index doped silica glasses prepared by Sol-Gel method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 141, 121–128 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Susa, S. Satoh, I. Matsuyama, “Optical properties of Sol-Gel derived Sb-doped silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 221, 125–134 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437–439 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. T. Stone, “Separation of total-loss data into its absorption and scattering component: a more accurate model for fiber loss,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2721–2726 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1997 (1)

K. Susa, S. Satoh, I. Matsuyama, “Optical properties of Sol-Gel derived Sb-doped silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 221, 125–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Satoh, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “High refractive index doped silica glasses prepared by Sol-Gel method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 141, 121–128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. II. Excess optical loss,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 128, 118–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

G. Lu, K. H. Levin, M. J. Burk, D. C. Tran, “Scattering measurements on a low-loss fluorozirconate optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 22, 602–603 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Hattori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, S. Takahashi, “Scattering loss measurement for small segments of fluoride optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3549–3551 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

I. Matsuyama, K. Susa, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Synthesis of high-purity silica glass by the Sol-Gel method,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 63, 1408–1411 (1984).

1982 (2)

1979 (1)

T. Izawa, S. Sudo, F. Hanawa, “Continuous fabrication process of high silica fiber preforms,” Trans. IECE Jpn. E62, 779–785 (1979).

1978 (2)

1976 (1)

K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437–439 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

1973 (2)

R. D. Maurer, “Glass fibers for optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 61, 452–462 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, “Research toward optical transmission system—Part 1: the transmission medium,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1703–1726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Benson, W. W.

Burk, M. J.

G. Lu, K. H. Levin, M. J. Burk, D. C. Tran, “Scattering measurements on a low-loss fluorozirconate optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 22, 602–603 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, W. B.

Hanawa, F.

T. Izawa, S. Sudo, F. Hanawa, “Continuous fabrication process of high silica fiber preforms,” Trans. IECE Jpn. E62, 779–785 (1979).

Hattori, H.

Inada, K.

K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437–439 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, S. Sudo, F. Hanawa, “Continuous fabrication process of high silica fiber preforms,” Trans. IECE Jpn. E62, 779–785 (1979).

Kaiser, P.

Kanamori, T.

Lazay, P. D.

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, F. V. Marcello, J. R. Simpson, P. D. Lazay, “Preparation of low loss optical fibers using simultaneous vapor phase deposition and fusion,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Glass (The Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1974), pp. 6-40–6-45.

Levin, K. H.

G. Lu, K. H. Levin, M. J. Burk, D. C. Tran, “Scattering measurements on a low-loss fluorozirconate optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 22, 602–603 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, “Research toward optical transmission system—Part 1: the transmission medium,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1703–1726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lovelace, C. R.

Lu, G.

G. Lu, K. H. Levin, M. J. Burk, D. C. Tran, “Scattering measurements on a low-loss fluorozirconate optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 22, 602–603 (1986).
[CrossRef]

MacChesney, J. B.

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, F. V. Marcello, J. R. Simpson, P. D. Lazay, “Preparation of low loss optical fibers using simultaneous vapor phase deposition and fusion,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Glass (The Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1974), pp. 6-40–6-45.

Marcatili, E. A. J.

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, “Research toward optical transmission system—Part 1: the transmission medium,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1703–1726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Marcello, F. V.

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, F. V. Marcello, J. R. Simpson, P. D. Lazay, “Preparation of low loss optical fibers using simultaneous vapor phase deposition and fusion,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Glass (The Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1974), pp. 6-40–6-45.

Matsuyama, I.

K. Susa, S. Satoh, I. Matsuyama, “Optical properties of Sol-Gel derived Sb-doped silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 221, 125–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Satoh, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “High refractive index doped silica glasses prepared by Sol-Gel method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 141, 121–128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. II. Excess optical loss,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 128, 118–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Matsuyama, K. Susa, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Synthesis of high-purity silica glass by the Sol-Gel method,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 63, 1408–1411 (1984).

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “New optical fiber fabrication method,” Electron. Lett. 18, 499–500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, R. D.

R. D. Maurer, “Glass fibers for optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 61, 452–462 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, “Research toward optical transmission system—Part 1: the transmission medium,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1703–1726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mitachi, S.

O’Connor, P.

O’Connor, P. B.

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, F. V. Marcello, J. R. Simpson, P. D. Lazay, “Preparation of low loss optical fibers using simultaneous vapor phase deposition and fusion,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Glass (The Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1974), pp. 6-40–6-45.

Ohishi, Y.

Ostermayer, F. W.

Rawson, E. G.

Satoh, S.

K. Susa, S. Satoh, I. Matsuyama, “Optical properties of Sol-Gel derived Sb-doped silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 221, 125–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Satoh, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “High refractive index doped silica glasses prepared by Sol-Gel method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 141, 121–128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. II. Excess optical loss,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 128, 118–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Matsuyama, K. Susa, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Synthesis of high-purity silica glass by the Sol-Gel method,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 63, 1408–1411 (1984).

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “New optical fiber fabrication method,” Electron. Lett. 18, 499–500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, F. V. Marcello, J. R. Simpson, P. D. Lazay, “Preparation of low loss optical fibers using simultaneous vapor phase deposition and fusion,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Glass (The Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1974), pp. 6-40–6-45.

Stone, F. T.

Sudo, S.

T. Izawa, S. Sudo, F. Hanawa, “Continuous fabrication process of high silica fiber preforms,” Trans. IECE Jpn. E62, 779–785 (1979).

Suganuma, T.

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. II. Excess optical loss,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 128, 118–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Matsuyama, K. Susa, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Synthesis of high-purity silica glass by the Sol-Gel method,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 63, 1408–1411 (1984).

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “New optical fiber fabrication method,” Electron. Lett. 18, 499–500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Susa, K.

K. Susa, S. Satoh, I. Matsuyama, “Optical properties of Sol-Gel derived Sb-doped silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 221, 125–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Satoh, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “High refractive index doped silica glasses prepared by Sol-Gel method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 141, 121–128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. II. Excess optical loss,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 128, 118–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Matsuyama, K. Susa, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Synthesis of high-purity silica glass by the Sol-Gel method,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 63, 1408–1411 (1984).

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “New optical fiber fabrication method,” Electron. Lett. 18, 499–500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

Tauc, J.

Tran, D. C.

G. Lu, K. H. Levin, M. J. Burk, D. C. Tran, “Scattering measurements on a low-loss fluorozirconate optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 22, 602–603 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

I. Matsuyama, K. Susa, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Synthesis of high-purity silica glass by the Sol-Gel method,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 63, 1408–1411 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “New optical fiber fabrication method,” Electron. Lett. 18, 499–500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Lu, K. H. Levin, M. J. Burk, D. C. Tran, “Scattering measurements on a low-loss fluorozirconate optical fiber,” Electron. Lett. 22, 602–603 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, T. Suganuma, “Sol-Gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. II. Excess optical loss,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 128, 118–125 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Satoh, K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, “High refractive index doped silica glasses prepared by Sol-Gel method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 141, 121–128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Susa, S. Satoh, I. Matsuyama, “Optical properties of Sol-Gel derived Sb-doped silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 221, 125–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Inada, “A new graphical method relating to optical fiber attenuation,” Opt. Commun. 19, 437–439 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

R. D. Maurer, “Glass fibers for optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 61, 452–462 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, “Research toward optical transmission system—Part 1: the transmission medium,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1703–1726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Trans. IECE Jpn. (1)

T. Izawa, S. Sudo, F. Hanawa, “Continuous fabrication process of high silica fiber preforms,” Trans. IECE Jpn. E62, 779–785 (1979).

Other (1)

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, F. V. Marcello, J. R. Simpson, P. D. Lazay, “Preparation of low loss optical fibers using simultaneous vapor phase deposition and fusion,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Glass (The Ceramic Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 1974), pp. 6-40–6-45.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the setup used to measure the scattering and the total losses from fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loss spectra of optical fibers (a) and (b) and the graphical-method-determined scattering (dotted curve) plotted versus λ-4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured scattering-loss spectrum of optical fiber (b) (open circles) compared with that of optical fiber (a) (filled circles), as shown by A = 1.1 {dB/[km(λ)4]}.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rayleigh scattering and total loss spectra of optical fiber (c), a Ta-doped high-NA silica fiber prepared by the solgel process.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Structural Parameters of the Optical Fibers Used in the Experiments

Equations (11)

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dItλdL=-αtλItλ=-αsλItλ-αaλItλ,
αsλ=IsλItλ.
IsλΔL=κsγsλIsλΔL,
Itλ=κtγtλItλ,
IsλΔLItλ=κsκtIsλItλ ΔL=κΔLαsλ.
Itλ0=γtλ0Itλ0.
κt=γtλ0γtλ0Itλ0Itλ0.
IsλΔLItλItλ0Itλ0=γλ0γλ0 κsΔLαsλ.
αsλ=IsλΔLItλItλ0Itλ0IsλΔLItλItλ0Itλ0known fiberαsλknown fiber.
αaλ=1.1λ-4+1.1 dB/km,
αbλ=1.1λ-4+0.8 dB/km.

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