Abstract

We used an instrumental synergy of both ground-based (sunphotometer) and spaceborne [POLDER (polarization and directionality of the Earth’s reflectances) and Meteosat] passive remote-sensing devices to determine the aerosol optical thickness over the suburban area of Thessaloniki, Greece, from April 1996 to June 1997. The POLDER spaceborne instrument measures the degree of polarization of the solar radiance reflected by the Earth–atmosphere system. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieval needs an accurate estimate of the contribution of the ground surface to the top of atmosphere’s polarized radiance. We tested existing surface reflectance models and fitted their parameters to find the best model for the Thessaloniki area. The model was constrained and validated by use of independent data sets of coincident sunphotometer and POLDER measurements. The comparison indicated that the urban AOT over Thessaloniki was retrieved by the POLDER instrument with an accuracy of ±0.05. From analysis of Meteosat data we found that ∼40% of the days with high AOT (>0.18) are associated with African dust transport events, all observed in the period March–July. Excluding dust events, the 15-month AOT averages 0.12 ± 0.04. During the 15-month period that the study was conducted, we observed aerosol pollution peaks with an AOT of >0.24 on 15 of the 164 days on which measurements were possible.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  46. N. Mihalopoulos, E. Stephanou, M. Kanakidou, S. Pilitsidis, P. Bousquet, “Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region,” Tellus 49B, 314–326 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (4)

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, F. M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Nadal, F. M. Bréon, “Parametrisation of surface polarised reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1709–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, X. Schneider, “Calibration of the Meteosat-5 sensor visible channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 195–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

D. Paronis, F. Dulac, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, G. L. Liberti, “Aerosol optical thickness monitoring in the Mediterranean,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S671–S672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

P. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanré, A. Da Silva, S. Schubert, J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature (London) 395, 367–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (12)

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adi, K. S. J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithms for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,173–17,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, E. Celarier, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosol from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,911–16,922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Husar, M. Prospero, L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, F. Dulac, U. Dayan, “Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation,” Nature (London) 387, 691–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Dickerson, S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge, B. N. Holben, “The impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation and photochemical smog,” Science 278, 827–830 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russel, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Loveland, A. S. Belward, “The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DIScover: first results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3289–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, F. Guillard, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 1. Methodology and preliminary results for 1983–1994 in the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,947–16,958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, P. Chazette, I. Jankowiak, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 2. Accuracy of the method and validation using Sun photometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,959–16,969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Mihalopoulos, E. Stephanou, M. Kanakidou, S. Pilitsidis, P. Bousquet, “Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region,” Tellus 49B, 314–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, J. Poitou, F. Dulac, “Long term (1983–1994) calibration of the Meteosat solar (VIS) channel using desert and ocean targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 1183–1200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

O. Boucher, T. L. Anderson, “GCM assesment of the sensitivity of direct climate forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosol size and chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 26,117–26,134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lorente, A. Renado, X. De Cabro, “Influence of urban aerosol on spectral solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 33, 406–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, “Detection of forests using mid-IR reflectance: an application for aerosol studies,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 672–683 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, V. Kalb, “Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data—application for atmospheric correction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Jankowiak, D. Tanré, “Satellite climatology of Saharan dust outbreaks: method and preliminary results,” J. Clim. 5, 646–656 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Rondeaux, M. Herman, “Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 63–75 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. Tanré, C. Deroo, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, J. Perbos, P. Y. Deschamps, “Description of a computer code to simulate the satellite signal in the solar spectrum: the 5S code,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 2, 659–668 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of the Saharan aerosol optical thickness from bluring effect in Thematic Mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15,955–15,964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fouquart, B. Bonnel, M. C. Roquai, R. Santer, A. Cerf, “Observations of Saharan aerosols: results of ECLATS field experiment. I. Optical thicknesses and aerosol size distributions,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 26, 28–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. V. Vanderbilt, “Plant canopy specular reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 23, 722–730 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, T. L. Wolfe, “An assessment of the impact of pollution on the global cloud albedo,” Tellus 36B, 356–366 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

Albers, F.

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Alpert, P.

P. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanré, A. Da Silva, S. Schubert, J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature (London) 395, 367–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

Anderson, T. L.

O. Boucher, T. L. Anderson, “GCM assesment of the sensitivity of direct climate forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosol size and chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 26,117–26,134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

Balkanski, Y. J.

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belward, A. S.

T. R. Loveland, A. S. Belward, “The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DIScover: first results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3289–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergametti, G.

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, E. Celarier, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosol from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,911–16,922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonnel, B.

Y. Fouquart, B. Bonnel, M. C. Roquai, R. Santer, A. Cerf, “Observations of Saharan aerosols: results of ECLATS field experiment. I. Optical thicknesses and aerosol size distributions,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 26, 28–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, O.

O. Boucher, T. L. Anderson, “GCM assesment of the sensitivity of direct climate forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosol size and chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 26,117–26,134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouffiès, S.

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Mihalopoulos, E. Stephanou, M. Kanakidou, S. Pilitsidis, P. Bousquet, “Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region,” Tellus 49B, 314–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Box, M. A.

Bréon, F. M.

F. Nadal, F. M. Bréon, “Parametrisation of surface polarised reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1709–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, F. M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cachier, H.

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Caquineau, S.

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Celarier, E.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, E. Celarier, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosol from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,911–16,922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cerf, A.

Y. Fouquart, B. Bonnel, M. C. Roquai, R. Santer, A. Cerf, “Observations of Saharan aerosols: results of ECLATS field experiment. I. Optical thicknesses and aerosol size distributions,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 26, 28–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chatenet, B.

C. Moulin, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, P. Chazette, I. Jankowiak, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 2. Accuracy of the method and validation using Sun photometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,959–16,969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

D. Paronis, F. Dulac, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, G. L. Liberti, “Aerosol optical thickness monitoring in the Mediterranean,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S671–S672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, P. Chazette, I. Jankowiak, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 2. Accuracy of the method and validation using Sun photometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,959–16,969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

Civerolo, K. L.

R. R. Dickerson, S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge, B. N. Holben, “The impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation and photochemical smog,” Science 278, 827–830 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Counil, J. L.

J. L. Counil, T. Moriyama, “POLDER on ADEOS,” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Paris, 1994).

Da Silva, A.

P. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanré, A. Da Silva, S. Schubert, J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature (London) 395, 367–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dayan, U.

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, F. Dulac, U. Dayan, “Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation,” Nature (London) 387, 691–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Cabro, X.

J. Lorente, A. Renado, X. De Cabro, “Influence of urban aerosol on spectral solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 33, 406–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deroo, C.

D. Tanré, C. Deroo, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, J. Perbos, P. Y. Deschamps, “Description of a computer code to simulate the satellite signal in the solar spectrum: the 5S code,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 2, 659–668 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Deroo, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, J. Perbos, P. Y. Deschamps, “Description of a computer code to simulate the satellite signal in the solar spectrum: the 5S code,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 2, 659–668 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of the Saharan aerosol optical thickness from bluring effect in Thematic Mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15,955–15,964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, F. M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, C.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of the Saharan aerosol optical thickness from bluring effect in Thematic Mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15,955–15,964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dickerson, R. R.

R. R. Dickerson, S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge, B. N. Holben, “The impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation and photochemical smog,” Science 278, 827–830 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doddridge, B. G.

R. R. Dickerson, S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge, B. N. Holben, “The impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation and photochemical smog,” Science 278, 827–830 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duhaut, P.

D. Tanré, C. Deroo, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, J. Perbos, P. Y. Deschamps, “Description of a computer code to simulate the satellite signal in the solar spectrum: the 5S code,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 2, 659–668 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dulac, F.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Paronis, F. Dulac, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, G. L. Liberti, “Aerosol optical thickness monitoring in the Mediterranean,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S671–S672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, F. Guillard, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 1. Methodology and preliminary results for 1983–1994 in the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,947–16,958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, P. Chazette, I. Jankowiak, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 2. Accuracy of the method and validation using Sun photometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,959–16,969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, F. Dulac, U. Dayan, “Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation,” Nature (London) 387, 691–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, J. Poitou, F. Dulac, “Long term (1983–1994) calibration of the Meteosat solar (VIS) channel using desert and ocean targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 1183–1200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. M.

Ezat, U.

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Fallah-Adi, H.

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adi, K. S. J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithms for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,173–17,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Filippi, D.

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Fouquart, Y.

Y. Fouquart, B. Bonnel, M. C. Roquai, R. Santer, A. Cerf, “Observations of Saharan aerosols: results of ECLATS field experiment. I. Optical thicknesses and aerosol size distributions,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 26, 28–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Galani, E.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

Gallery, O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

Gaudichet, A.

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Goloub, P.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, F. M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guelle, W.

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillard, F.

C. Moulin, F. Guillard, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 1. Methodology and preliminary results for 1983–1994 in the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,947–16,958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hamonou, E.

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

D. Paronis, F. Dulac, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, G. L. Liberti, “Aerosol optical thickness monitoring in the Mediterranean,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S671–S672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hautecoeur, O.

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hegg, D. A.

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russel, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

Herman, J. R.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, E. Celarier, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosol from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,911–16,922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Rondeaux, M. Herman, “Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 63–75 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Deroo, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, J. Perbos, P. Y. Deschamps, “Description of a computer code to simulate the satellite signal in the solar spectrum: the 5S code,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 2, 659–668 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of the Saharan aerosol optical thickness from bluring effect in Thematic Mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15,955–15,964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russel, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

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[CrossRef]

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F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

Sendra, C.

Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sèze, G.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shay-El, Y.

P. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanré, A. Da Silva, S. Schubert, J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature (London) 395, 367–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Sluster, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, Z.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Söderman, J. K. D.

J. K. D. Söderman, “Project Meduse final report,” (Mediterranean Research Center, Erice, Italy, 1998).

Stenchikov, G.

R. R. Dickerson, S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge, B. N. Holben, “The impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation and photochemical smog,” Science 278, 827–830 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephanou, E.

N. Mihalopoulos, E. Stephanou, M. Kanakidou, S. Pilitsidis, P. Bousquet, “Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region,” Tellus 49B, 314–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L.

R. B. Husar, M. Prospero, L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, F. M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanré, A. Da Silva, S. Schubert, J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature (London) 395, 367–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Jankowiak, D. Tanré, “Satellite climatology of Saharan dust outbreaks: method and preliminary results,” J. Clim. 5, 646–656 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, V. Kalb, “Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data—application for atmospheric correction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Deroo, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, J. Perbos, P. Y. Deschamps, “Description of a computer code to simulate the satellite signal in the solar spectrum: the 5S code,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 2, 659–668 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of the Saharan aerosol optical thickness from bluring effect in Thematic Mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15,955–15,964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Torres, O.

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, E. Celarier, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosol from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,911–16,922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Townshend, J. R. G.

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adi, K. S. J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithms for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,173–17,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S. A.

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, T. L. Wolfe, “An assessment of the impact of pollution on the global cloud albedo,” Tellus 36B, 356–366 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, C. V.

C. V. Vanderbilt, “Plant canopy specular reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 23, 722–730 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, V. Kalb, “Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data—application for atmospheric correction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Warneck, P.

P. Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, Vol. 41 of the International Geophysics Series, R. Dmowska, J. R. Holton, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1988).

Warren, S. G.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wirdth, M.

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Wolfe, T. L.

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, T. L. Wolfe, “An assessment of the impact of pollution on the global cloud albedo,” Tellus 36B, 356–366 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

F. Dulac, D. Filippi, H. Cachier, U. Ezat, J. C. L. Roulley, D. Paronis, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, N. Mihalopoulos, G. Kouvarakis, A. Gaudichet, S. Caquineau, R. Losno, G. Malingre, J. P. Quisefit, F. Albers, M. Wirdth, M. Krautstrunk, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean from airborne and other measurements during the June 1997 STAAARTE campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 16, Suppl. IVC1157 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (7)

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, J. L. Deuzé, A. Bricaud, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Nadal, F. M. Bréon, “Parametrisation of surface polarised reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1709–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, F. M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, V. Kalb, “Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data—application for atmospheric correction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, “Detection of forests using mid-IR reflectance: an application for aerosol studies,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 672–683 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Vanderbilt, “Plant canopy specular reflectance model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 23, 722–730 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (4)

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, J. Poitou, F. Dulac, “Long term (1983–1994) calibration of the Meteosat solar (VIS) channel using desert and ocean targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 1183–1200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Deroo, P. Duhaut, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, J. Perbos, P. Y. Deschamps, “Description of a computer code to simulate the satellite signal in the solar spectrum: the 5S code,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 2, 659–668 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, X. Schneider, “Calibration of the Meteosat-5 sensor visible channel,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 195–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Loveland, A. S. Belward, “The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DIScover: first results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3289–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sensing (1)

Y. J. Kaufman, C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

D. Paronis, F. Dulac, P. Chazette, E. Hamonou, G. L. Liberti, “Aerosol optical thickness monitoring in the Mediterranean,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S671–S672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

J. Lorente, A. Renado, X. De Cabro, “Influence of urban aerosol on spectral solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 33, 406–415 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. (1)

I. Jankowiak, D. Tanré, “Satellite climatology of Saharan dust outbreaks: method and preliminary results,” J. Clim. 5, 646–656 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

Y. Fouquart, B. Bonnel, M. C. Roquai, R. Santer, A. Cerf, “Observations of Saharan aerosols: results of ECLATS field experiment. I. Optical thicknesses and aerosol size distributions,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 26, 28–37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (13)

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14,223–14,231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider, E. Galani, G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, “Characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the mediterranean bassin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2257–2270 (1999).

M. Leroy, J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, O. Hautecoeur, M. Herman, J. C. Buriez, D. Tanré, S. Bouffiès, P. Chazette, J. L. Roujean, “Retrieval of atmospheric properties and surface bidirectional reflectances over land from POLDER/ADEOS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,023–17,037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, F. Guillard, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 1. Methodology and preliminary results for 1983–1994 in the Mediterranean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,947–16,958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, F. Dulac, C. E. Lambert, P. Chazette, I. Jankowiak, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, “Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using ISCCP-B2 data. 2. Accuracy of the method and validation using Sun photometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,959–16,969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,039–17,044 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, M. Legrand, Y. J. Balkanski, W. Guelle, B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, F. Dulac, “Satellite climatology of African dust transport transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13,137–13,144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hegg, J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, P. Russel, “Chemical apportionment of aerosol column optical depth off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,293–25,303 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Boucher, T. L. Anderson, “GCM assesment of the sensitivity of direct climate forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosol size and chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 26,117–26,134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, E. Celarier, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosol from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,911–16,922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, “Estimation of the Saharan aerosol optical thickness from bluring effect in Thematic Mapper data,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 15,955–15,964 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adi, K. S. J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithms for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,173–17,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Husar, M. Prospero, L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (3)

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, F. Dulac, U. Dayan, “Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation,” Nature (London) 387, 691–694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Alpert, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Shay-El, D. Tanré, A. Da Silva, S. Schubert, J. H. Joseph, “Quantification of dust-forced heating of the lower troposphere,” Nature (London) 395, 367–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

G. Rondeaux, M. Herman, “Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 63–75 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Sluster, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, Z. Smirnov, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterisation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. R. Dickerson, S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge, B. N. Holben, “The impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation and photochemical smog,” Science 278, 827–830 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus (2)

S. A. Twomey, M. Piepgrass, T. L. Wolfe, “An assessment of the impact of pollution on the global cloud albedo,” Tellus 36B, 356–366 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Mihalopoulos, E. Stephanou, M. Kanakidou, S. Pilitsidis, P. Bousquet, “Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region,” Tellus 49B, 314–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

J. L. Counil, T. Moriyama, “POLDER on ADEOS,” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Paris, 1994).

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995).

P. Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, Vol. 41 of the International Geophysics Series, R. Dmowska, J. R. Holton, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1988).

J. Lenoble, Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).

J. K. D. Söderman, “Project Meduse final report,” (Mediterranean Research Center, Erice, Italy, 1998).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” (U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Map showing the location of Thessaloniki. The three adjacent white squares are the POLDER pixels, and the dashed square is the Meteosat study area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Number of measurements during 1996 and 1997 as a function of month for sunphotometer and POLDER instruments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dust event crossing the Aegan Sea on 29 June 1997 observed by Meteosat.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured BPDF obtained for five days over the 3 pixels (squares, pixel 1; circles, pixel 2; diamonds, pixel 3) for 865 and 670 nm compared with (a) a vegetation BPDF model, (b) a bare-soil BPDF model, and (c) a parametric BPDF model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fresnel coefficient plotted versus phase angle for nine refractive-index values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured BPDF obtained for five days over the 3 pixels (squares, pixel 1; circles, pixel 2; diamonds, pixel 3) for 865 and 670 nm compared with a vegetation BPDF model with n = 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Uncertainty in the AOT as a function of polarized phase function for an AOT of 0.13 and a ground reflectance of 8 × 10-3 with a standard deviation of 1 × 10-3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of sunphotometer AOT and POLDER-retrieved AOT at 865 nm. The regression relation is Y = 1.0188 (±0.1243) X + 0.0076 (±0.0206), for a correlation coefficient R of 0.904. The sunphotometer AOT below 0.05 corresponds to the first data set used in Subsection 3.B to constrain BPDF. If these points are used, the regression is not significantly different [Y = 1.0186 (±0.5657) X + 0.0076 (±0.0080), for a correlation coefficient R of 0.971].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effective number of measurement days combining both POLDER and sunphotometer data.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Monthly mean AOT measured at Thessaloniki including both POLDER and sunphotometer data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Slopes and Intercepts for the Three Models Before and After Adjustment with Measured BPDF

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E=E0 exp-AOT×m,
Lpji=τ865aqja,i+τjmqjm,i4μvi+μsiRpsurfi×exp-micjadjaτ865a+cjmτjm,
Rp=π fϑnFγ2μs+μv,
Fγ=R2-R2/2,
R=nμt-μinμt+μi,  R=nμi-μtnμi+μt,
Rp=Fγ4μs+μv.
Rp=Fγ4μsμv,
Rp=α1-exp-βFpγμs+μv,

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