Abstract

In a new nonintrusive, instantaneous flow tagging method called hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV), a molecular grid of hydroxyl (OH) radicals is written into a flame and the displaced grid is imaged at a later time to give the flame’s velocity profile. Single-photon photodissociation of vibrationally excited H2O, when a 193-nm ArF excimer laser is used, produces a tag line of superequilibrium OH and H photoproducts in a high-temperature flow field that itself may contain ambient OH. The tag line OH concentration is composed mostly of direct OH photoproducts, but OH is also indirectly produced through H photoproduct reactions with oxygen-bearing species. For lean and modestly rich flames the OH tag lifetime is of the order of 1 ms. For very rich H2-air flames (equivalence ratio of 4.4) the lifetime drops to 200 ns. After displacement the position of the OH tag line is revealed through fluorescence caused by OH (AX) (3 ← 0) excitation by using a 248-nm tunable KrF excimer laser. A HTV grid of multiple tag lines, providing multipoint velocity information, is experimentally demonstrated in a turbulent H2/N2–air diffusion flame.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Ainsworth, S. J. Thorpe, R. J. Manners, “A new approach to flow-field measurement—a view of Doppler global velocimetry techniques,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 18, 116–130 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. McDaniel, B. Hiller, R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous multiple-point velocity measurements using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 8, 51–53 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Grünefeld, A. Gräber, A. Diekmann, S. Krüger, P. Andresen, “Measurement system for simultaneous species densities, temperature, and velocity double-pulse measurements in turbulent hydrogen flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135, 135–152 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, R. K. Hanson, “Velocity visualization in gas flows using laser-induced phosphorescence of biacetyl,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964–1967 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Stier, M. M. Koochesfahani, “Molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) measurements in gas phase flows,” Exp. Fluids 26, 297–304 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. R. Boedecker, “Velocity measurements by H2O photolysis and laser-induced fluorescence of OH,” Opt. Lett. 14, 473–475 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Starka, A. S. Nejad, “Flow-tagging velocimetry using UV-photodissociation of water vapor,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, AIAA-91-0355 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1991).
  9. R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Quantitative flow visualization in unseeded flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 29, 285–326 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. DeBarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurement by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Ozone tagging velocimetry using narrow-band excimer lasers,” AIAA J. 37, 708–714 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. S. Sorbie, J. N. Murrell, “Theoretical study of the O(1D) + H2(1Σg+) reactive quenching process,” Mol. Phys. 31, 905–920 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Staemmler, A. Palma, “CEPA calculations of potential energy surfaces for open-shell systems. IV. Photodissociation of H2O in the Ã1B1 State,” Chem. Phys. 93, 63–69 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Watanabe, M. Zelikoff, “Absorption coefficients of water vapor in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 753–755 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Häusler, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “State to state photodissociation of H2O in the first absorption band,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3949–3957 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Andresen, A. Bath, W. Gröger, H. W. Lülf, G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence with tunable excimer lasers as a possible method for instantaneous temperature field measurements at high pressures: checks with an atmospheric flame,” Appl. Opt. 27, 365–378 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. E. Lutz, R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, “senkin: a Fortran program for predicting homgeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis,” (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1988).
  18. J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Flow tagging velocimetry for low- and high-temperature flow fields,” presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999, AIAA paper 99-0646 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1999).
  19. M. C. van Hemert, R. van Harrevelt, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 R A Leiden, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1999).
  20. G.-J. Kroes, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. A. Beärda, M. C. van Hemert, “Photodissociation of CH2. II. Three-dimensional wave packet calculations on dissociation through the first excited triplet state,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 228–236 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Polyansky, P. Jensen, J. Tennyson, “The potential energy surface of H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6490–6497 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Miles, W. Lempert, B. Zhang, “Turbulent structure measurements by RELIEF flow tagging,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 8, No. 1, 9–17 (1991).

1999 (2)

B. Stier, M. M. Koochesfahani, “Molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) measurements in gas phase flows,” Exp. Fluids 26, 297–304 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Ozone tagging velocimetry using narrow-band excimer lasers,” AIAA J. 37, 708–714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Grünefeld, A. Gräber, A. Diekmann, S. Krüger, P. Andresen, “Measurement system for simultaneous species densities, temperature, and velocity double-pulse measurements in turbulent hydrogen flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135, 135–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. W. Ainsworth, S. J. Thorpe, R. J. Manners, “A new approach to flow-field measurement—a view of Doppler global velocimetry techniques,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 18, 116–130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Quantitative flow visualization in unseeded flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 29, 285–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Polyansky, P. Jensen, J. Tennyson, “The potential energy surface of H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6490–6497 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. DeBarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurement by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G.-J. Kroes, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. A. Beärda, M. C. van Hemert, “Photodissociation of CH2. II. Three-dimensional wave packet calculations on dissociation through the first excited triplet state,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 228–236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Miles, W. Lempert, B. Zhang, “Turbulent structure measurements by RELIEF flow tagging,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 8, No. 1, 9–17 (1991).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

D. Häusler, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “State to state photodissociation of H2O in the first absorption band,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3949–3957 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

V. Staemmler, A. Palma, “CEPA calculations of potential energy surfaces for open-shell systems. IV. Photodissociation of H2O in the Ã1B1 State,” Chem. Phys. 93, 63–69 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, R. K. Hanson, “Velocity visualization in gas flows using laser-induced phosphorescence of biacetyl,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964–1967 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1976 (1)

K. S. Sorbie, J. N. Murrell, “Theoretical study of the O(1D) + H2(1Σg+) reactive quenching process,” Mol. Phys. 31, 905–920 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

Ainsworth, R. W.

R. W. Ainsworth, S. J. Thorpe, R. J. Manners, “A new approach to flow-field measurement—a view of Doppler global velocimetry techniques,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 18, 116–130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, P.

G. Grünefeld, A. Gräber, A. Diekmann, S. Krüger, P. Andresen, “Measurement system for simultaneous species densities, temperature, and velocity double-pulse measurements in turbulent hydrogen flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135, 135–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, A. Bath, W. Gröger, H. W. Lülf, G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence with tunable excimer lasers as a possible method for instantaneous temperature field measurements at high pressures: checks with an atmospheric flame,” Appl. Opt. 27, 365–378 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Häusler, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “State to state photodissociation of H2O in the first absorption band,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3949–3957 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bath, A.

Batliwala, F.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Ozone tagging velocimetry using narrow-band excimer lasers,” AIAA J. 37, 708–714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Flow tagging velocimetry for low- and high-temperature flow fields,” presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999, AIAA paper 99-0646 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1999).

Beärda, R. A.

G.-J. Kroes, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. A. Beärda, M. C. van Hemert, “Photodissociation of CH2. II. Three-dimensional wave packet calculations on dissociation through the first excited triplet state,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 228–236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boedecker, L. R.

Booman, R. A.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, R. K. Hanson, “Velocity visualization in gas flows using laser-induced phosphorescence of biacetyl,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964–1967 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

Brown, T. M.

Chen, T. H.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Starka, A. S. Nejad, “Flow-tagging velocimetry using UV-photodissociation of water vapor,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, AIAA-91-0355 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1991).

DeBarber, P. A.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Ozone tagging velocimetry using narrow-band excimer lasers,” AIAA J. 37, 708–714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. DeBarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurement by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Flow tagging velocimetry for low- and high-temperature flow fields,” presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999, AIAA paper 99-0646 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1999).

Diekmann, A.

G. Grünefeld, A. Gräber, A. Diekmann, S. Krüger, P. Andresen, “Measurement system for simultaneous species densities, temperature, and velocity double-pulse measurements in turbulent hydrogen flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135, 135–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Finkelstein, N. D.

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forkey, J. N.

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goss, L. P.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Starka, A. S. Nejad, “Flow-tagging velocimetry using UV-photodissociation of water vapor,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, AIAA-91-0355 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1991).

Gräber, A.

G. Grünefeld, A. Gräber, A. Diekmann, S. Krüger, P. Andresen, “Measurement system for simultaneous species densities, temperature, and velocity double-pulse measurements in turbulent hydrogen flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135, 135–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gröger, W.

Grünefeld, G.

G. Grünefeld, A. Gräber, A. Diekmann, S. Krüger, P. Andresen, “Measurement system for simultaneous species densities, temperature, and velocity double-pulse measurements in turbulent hydrogen flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135, 135–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, R. K. Hanson, “Velocity visualization in gas flows using laser-induced phosphorescence of biacetyl,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964–1967 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. McDaniel, B. Hiller, R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous multiple-point velocity measurements using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 8, 51–53 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassa, C.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, R. K. Hanson, “Velocity visualization in gas flows using laser-induced phosphorescence of biacetyl,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964–1967 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, D.

D. Häusler, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “State to state photodissociation of H2O in the first absorption band,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3949–3957 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, B.

B. Hiller, R. A. Booman, C. Hassa, R. K. Hanson, “Velocity visualization in gas flows using laser-induced phosphorescence of biacetyl,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1964–1967 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. McDaniel, B. Hiller, R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous multiple-point velocity measurements using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 8, 51–53 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, P.

O. Polyansky, P. Jensen, J. Tennyson, “The potential energy surface of H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6490–6497 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kee, R. J.

A. E. Lutz, R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, “senkin: a Fortran program for predicting homgeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis,” (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1988).

Koochesfahani, M. M.

B. Stier, M. M. Koochesfahani, “Molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) measurements in gas phase flows,” Exp. Fluids 26, 297–304 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kroes, G.-J.

G.-J. Kroes, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. A. Beärda, M. C. van Hemert, “Photodissociation of CH2. II. Three-dimensional wave packet calculations on dissociation through the first excited triplet state,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 228–236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, S.

G. Grünefeld, A. Gräber, A. Diekmann, S. Krüger, P. Andresen, “Measurement system for simultaneous species densities, temperature, and velocity double-pulse measurements in turbulent hydrogen flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135, 135–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, B. Zhang, “Turbulent structure measurements by RELIEF flow tagging,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 8, No. 1, 9–17 (1991).

Lempert, W. R.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Quantitative flow visualization in unseeded flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 29, 285–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lülf, H. W.

Lutz, A. E.

A. E. Lutz, R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, “senkin: a Fortran program for predicting homgeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis,” (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1988).

Manners, R. J.

R. W. Ainsworth, S. J. Thorpe, R. J. Manners, “A new approach to flow-field measurement—a view of Doppler global velocimetry techniques,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 18, 116–130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, J. C.

Meijer, G.

Miles, R.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, B. Zhang, “Turbulent structure measurements by RELIEF flow tagging,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 8, No. 1, 9–17 (1991).

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles, W. R. Lempert, “Quantitative flow visualization in unseeded flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 29, 285–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. A.

A. E. Lutz, R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, “senkin: a Fortran program for predicting homgeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis,” (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1988).

Murrell, J. N.

K. S. Sorbie, J. N. Murrell, “Theoretical study of the O(1D) + H2(1Σg+) reactive quenching process,” Mol. Phys. 31, 905–920 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nandula, S. P.

Nejad, A. S.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Starka, A. S. Nejad, “Flow-tagging velocimetry using UV-photodissociation of water vapor,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, AIAA-91-0355 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1991).

Oguss, D. A.

J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Flow tagging velocimetry for low- and high-temperature flow fields,” presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999, AIAA paper 99-0646 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1999).

Palma, A.

V. Staemmler, A. Palma, “CEPA calculations of potential energy surfaces for open-shell systems. IV. Photodissociation of H2O in the Ã1B1 State,” Chem. Phys. 93, 63–69 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pitz, R. W.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Ozone tagging velocimetry using narrow-band excimer lasers,” AIAA J. 37, 708–714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. DeBarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurement by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Flow tagging velocimetry for low- and high-temperature flow fields,” presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999, AIAA paper 99-0646 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1999).

Polyansky, O.

O. Polyansky, P. Jensen, J. Tennyson, “The potential energy surface of H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6490–6497 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ribarov, L. A.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Ozone tagging velocimetry using narrow-band excimer lasers,” AIAA J. 37, 708–714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Flow tagging velocimetry for low- and high-temperature flow fields,” presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999, AIAA paper 99-0646 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1999).

Schinke, R.

D. Häusler, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “State to state photodissociation of H2O in the first absorption band,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3949–3957 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Segall, J.

Skaggs, P. A.

Sorbie, K. S.

K. S. Sorbie, J. N. Murrell, “Theoretical study of the O(1D) + H2(1Σg+) reactive quenching process,” Mol. Phys. 31, 905–920 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Staemmler, V.

V. Staemmler, A. Palma, “CEPA calculations of potential energy surfaces for open-shell systems. IV. Photodissociation of H2O in the Ã1B1 State,” Chem. Phys. 93, 63–69 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Starka, B.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Starka, A. S. Nejad, “Flow-tagging velocimetry using UV-photodissociation of water vapor,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, AIAA-91-0355 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1991).

Stier, B.

B. Stier, M. M. Koochesfahani, “Molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) measurements in gas phase flows,” Exp. Fluids 26, 297–304 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

O. Polyansky, P. Jensen, J. Tennyson, “The potential energy surface of H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6490–6497 (1996).
[CrossRef]

ter Meulen, J. J.

Thorpe, S. J.

R. W. Ainsworth, S. J. Thorpe, R. J. Manners, “A new approach to flow-field measurement—a view of Doppler global velocimetry techniques,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 18, 116–130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trump, D. D.

L. P. Goss, T. H. Chen, D. D. Trump, B. Starka, A. S. Nejad, “Flow-tagging velocimetry using UV-photodissociation of water vapor,” presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, AIAA-91-0355 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1991).

van Dishoeck, E. F.

G.-J. Kroes, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. A. Beärda, M. C. van Hemert, “Photodissociation of CH2. II. Three-dimensional wave packet calculations on dissociation through the first excited triplet state,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 228–236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Harrevelt, R.

M. C. van Hemert, R. van Harrevelt, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 R A Leiden, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1999).

van Hemert, M. C.

G.-J. Kroes, E. F. van Dishoeck, R. A. Beärda, M. C. van Hemert, “Photodissociation of CH2. II. Three-dimensional wave packet calculations on dissociation through the first excited triplet state,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 228–236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. C. van Hemert, R. van Harrevelt, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 R A Leiden, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1999).

Watanabe, K.

Wehrmeyer, J. A.

L. A. Ribarov, J. A. Wehrmeyer, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Ozone tagging velocimetry using narrow-band excimer lasers,” AIAA J. 37, 708–714 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, L. A. Ribarov, D. A. Oguss, F. Batliwala, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Flow tagging velocimetry for low- and high-temperature flow fields,” presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1999, AIAA paper 99-0646 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Va., 1999).

Zelikoff, M.

Zhang, B.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, B. Zhang, “Turbulent structure measurements by RELIEF flow tagging,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 8, No. 1, 9–17 (1991).

AIAA J. (2)

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

H2O energy level diagram. Ground-state data from Ref. 12; excited-state data from Ref. 13. Both curves are for the equilibrium bond angle (104.5°) and equilibrium spacing (0.97 Å) for the second OH bond.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

H2O equilibrium vibrational level population fractions versus temperature for first four vibrationally excited levels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OH concentration versus time for four H2–air postflame flows, initially including H2O photodissociation OH and H photoproducts. The ϕ = 0.43 flame was also modeled without the H photoproduct.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Production rates for most significant OH production or destruction reactions for the ϕ = 0.43 H2–air flame (from Fig. 3) with initial OH and H photoproducts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Production rates for the most significant OH production or destruction reactions for the ϕ = 1.45 H2–air flame (from Fig. 3) with initial OH and H photoproducts.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental system schematic showing optics needed for two tag lines only.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Single-pulse OH fluorescence images from hot H2O photodissociation, taken in turbulent H2/N2–air diffusion flame. Write–read delays: (a) 50 µs, (b) 0 µs.

Equations (1)

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w=8 ln2ΔtD+w021/2,

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