Abstract

High-average-power broadband 780-nm slab Ti:sapphire lasers, pumped by a kilohertz pulse repetition frequency copper vapor laser (CVL), were demonstrated. These lasers are designed for damage-free power scaling when pumped by CVL’s configured for maximum output power (of order 100 W) but with poor beam quality (M 2 ∼ 300). A simple Brewster-angled slab laser side pumped by a CVL produced 10-W average power (1.25-mJ pulses at 8 kHz) with 4.2-ns FWHM pulse duration at an absolute efficiency of 15% (68-W pump power). Thermal lensing in the Brewster slab laser resulted in multitransverse mode output, and pump absorption was limited to 72% by the maximum doping level for commercially available Ti:sapphire (0.25%). A slab laser with a multiply folded zigzag path was therefore designed and implemented that produced high-beam-quality (TEM00-mode) output when operated with cryogenic cooling and provided a longer absorption path for the pump. Excessive scattering of the Ti:sapphire beam at the crystal surfaces limited the efficiency of operation for the zigzag laser, but fluorescence diagnostic techniques, gain measurement, and modeling suggest that efficient power extraction (>15 W TEM00, >23% efficiency) from this laser would be possible for crystals with an optical quality surface polish.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.
  2. P. A. Schultz, S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. I. Donin, V. A. Ivanov, V. I. Kovalevskii, D. V. Yakovin, “CW generation from Ti:sapphire pumped with a high-power Ar+-laser,” Opt. Commun. 122, 40–42 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. W. Coutts, W. J. Wadsworth, C. E. Webb, “High average power blue generation from a copper vapour laser pumped titanium sapphire laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1185–1197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. R. H. Knowles, C. E. Webb, “Efficient high-power copper-vapor-laser-pumped Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 607–609 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Knowles, D. J. W. Brown, “Compact 24-kHz copper-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 569–571 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. E. Warner, “Status of copper vapor laser technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” in Conference on Lasers Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 516–518.
  9. W. J. Wadsworth, D. W. Coutts, C. E. Webb, “Damage free power scaling of copper vapour laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 104–108.
  10. P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125–132 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Korner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, H. W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A. 63, 123–131 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Richards, A. McInnes, “Versatile, efficient, diode-pumped miniature slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 371–373 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.
  15. C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. V. Hess, E. A. Modlin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. D. Raymond, A. V. Smith, “Injection-seeded titanium-doped-sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 33–35 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. W. Coutts, W. J. Wadsworth, C. E. Webb, “High average power blue generation from a copper vapour laser pumped titanium sapphire laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1185–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Korner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, H. W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A. 63, 123–131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1993 (2)

M. R. H. Knowles, C. E. Webb, “Efficient high-power copper-vapor-laser-pumped Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 607–609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

P. A. Schultz, S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Raymond, A. V. Smith, “Injection-seeded titanium-doped-sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 33–35 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. V. Hess, E. A. Modlin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Bair, C. H.

C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. V. Hess, E. A. Modlin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. C.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bartoshevich, S. G.

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bass, I.

G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.

Bergmann, H. W.

C. Korner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, H. W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A. 63, 123–131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.

Brockman, P.

C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. V. Hess, E. A. Modlin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. J. W.

Coutts, D. W.

D. W. Coutts, W. J. Wadsworth, C. E. Webb, “High average power blue generation from a copper vapour laser pumped titanium sapphire laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1185–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, D. W. Coutts, C. E. Webb, “Damage free power scaling of copper vapour laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 104–108.

Donin, V. I.

V. I. Donin, V. A. Ivanov, V. I. Kovalevskii, D. V. Yakovin, “CW generation from Ti:sapphire pumped with a high-power Ar+-laser,” Opt. Commun. 122, 40–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, W.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.

Hackel, R.

G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.

Hartmann, M.

C. Korner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, H. W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A. 63, 123–131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henion, S. R.

P. A. Schultz, S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hess, R. V.

C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. V. Hess, E. A. Modlin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.-F.

H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.

Ivanov, V. A.

V. I. Donin, V. A. Ivanov, V. I. Kovalevskii, D. V. Yakovin, “CW generation from Ti:sapphire pumped with a high-power Ar+-laser,” Opt. Commun. 122, 40–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, S.

G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.

Kanz, K.

G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.

Knowles, D. S.

Knowles, M. R. H.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Korner, C.

C. Korner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, H. W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A. 63, 123–131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kovalevskii, V. I.

V. I. Donin, V. A. Ivanov, V. I. Kovalevskii, D. V. Yakovin, “CW generation from Ti:sapphire pumped with a high-power Ar+-laser,” Opt. Commun. 122, 40–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.

Mayerhofer, R.

C. Korner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, H. W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A. 63, 123–131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McInnes, A.

Mirza, S. Y.

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Modlin, E. A.

C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. V. Hess, E. A. Modlin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Nazarenko, P. N.

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paisner, J.

G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.

Polunin, Y. P.

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, T. D.

Richards, J.

Schultz, P. A.

P. A. Schultz, S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Skripto, G. A.

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

Sukhanov, V. B.

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

D. W. Coutts, W. J. Wadsworth, C. E. Webb, “High average power blue generation from a copper vapour laser pumped titanium sapphire laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1185–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, D. W. Coutts, C. E. Webb, “Damage free power scaling of copper vapour laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 104–108.

Wang, L. G.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Warner, B. E.

B. E. Warner, “Status of copper vapor laser technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” in Conference on Lasers Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 516–518.

Webb, C. E.

D. W. Coutts, W. J. Wadsworth, C. E. Webb, “High average power blue generation from a copper vapour laser pumped titanium sapphire laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1185–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. H. Knowles, C. E. Webb, “Efficient high-power copper-vapor-laser-pumped Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 607–609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, D. W. Coutts, C. E. Webb, “Damage free power scaling of copper vapour laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 104–108.

Yakovin, D. V.

V. I. Donin, V. A. Ivanov, V. I. Kovalevskii, D. V. Yakovin, “CW generation from Ti:sapphire pumped with a high-power Ar+-laser,” Opt. Commun. 122, 40–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.

Zhang, G.

H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.

Zuev, V. V.

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A. (1)

C. Korner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, H. W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A. 63, 123–131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

P. A. Schultz, S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. V. Hess, E. A. Modlin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. W. Coutts, W. J. Wadsworth, C. E. Webb, “High average power blue generation from a copper vapour laser pumped titanium sapphire laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1185–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. I. Donin, V. A. Ivanov, V. I. Kovalevskii, D. V. Yakovin, “CW generation from Ti:sapphire pumped with a high-power Ar+-laser,” Opt. Commun. 122, 40–42 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. G. Bartoshevich, V. V. Zuev, S. Y. Mirza, P. N. Nazarenko, Y. P. Polunin, G. A. Skripto, V. B. Sukhanov, “Wide-band conversion of copper laser radiation in an Al2O3:Ti3+ crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 138–141 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. E. Warner, “Status of copper vapor laser technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” in Conference on Lasers Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 516–518.

W. J. Wadsworth, D. W. Coutts, C. E. Webb, “Damage free power scaling of copper vapour laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 1 of 1996 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 104–108.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Zhang, Y.-K. Kuo, M.-F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Novel folded-cavity design for a Ti:Al2O3 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 207–208.

G. Erbert, I. Bass, R. Hackel, S. Jenkins, K. Kanz, J. Paisner, “43-W, cw Ti:sapphire laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 390–392.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crystal dimensions with pumping and cooling directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Steady-state thermal profile in a 1-mm-high pumped region (a) at 300 K and (b) at 77 K, with 50 W of heat applied in pulses at a rate of 6.2 kHz. Two complete interpulse periods are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ti:sapphire straight-path laser layout. L1, achromatic lens, f = 750 mm; L2, cylindrical lens, f = -150 mm; C, Ti:sapphire crystal; L3, cylindrical lens, f = 150 mm; L4, cylindrical lens, f = 300 mm; M1, M2, Ti:sapphire laser high reflector and output coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ti:sapphire zigzag slab laser layout. L1, achromatic lens, f = 750 mm; L2, cylindrical lens, f = 20 mm; C, zigzag slab Ti:sapphire crystal 7 mm × 4 mm × 5 mm; L3, M3, pump retroimaging optical system; M1, M2, Ti:sapphire laser high reflector and output coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain measurement on the zigzag path for a pump power of 40 W (6.5 mJ) at 6.2 kHz with cryogenic cooling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Zigzag slab laser fluorescence profiles with increasing pump power, showing internal laser modes. Pump beam enters from the right-hand side.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Possible internal lasing mode paths (bold) compared with a 0.75-mm-wide mode on the intended zigzag path of the external cavity (spaced lines).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ti:sapphire zigzag-path slab laser fluorescence profile. (a) Not lasing (cavity blocked); (b) lasing; (c) fluorescence depletion of (a) and (b), showing Ti:sapphire laser path.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ti:sapphire crystal fluorescence and output pulse shape for the zigzag slab laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Thermal Properties of Sapphirea

Equations (4)

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τTh=cpρKh2π2,
Pout=Pinξϕf=16 W,
S=1-1-L/exp-α/FOMl1/N=1-0.55/exp-3.26/1503.81/11=4.6%.
ROC1 - S22 exp2gΣln=1,

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