Abstract

The interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) was the precursor of the high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared radiometer (FTIR) onboard a satellite for observation of the Earth. The IMG endured the stress of a rocket launch, demonstrating that the high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer is indeed feasible for use onboard a satellite. The IMG adopted a newly developed lubricant-free magnetic suspension mechanism and a dynamic alignment system for the moving mirror with a maximum traveling distance of 10 cm. We present the instrumentation of the IMG, characteristics of the movable mirror drive system, and the evaluation results of sensor specifications during space operation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Persky, “A review of spaceborne infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Wetzel, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Remote sensing of trace gases in the midinfrared spectral region from a nadir view,” Appl. Opt. 34, 467–479 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Shimota, H. Kobayashi, S. Kadokura, “Radiometric calibration for the airborne interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases simulator,” Appl. Opt. 38, 571–576 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).
  9. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. Wetzel, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Remote sensing of trace gases in the midinfrared spectral region from a nadir view,” Appl. Opt. 34, 467–479 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Persky, “A review of spaceborne infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, H.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Clerbaux, C.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hadji-Lazaro, J.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, M.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imasu, T.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kadokura, K.

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kadokura, S.

Kobayashi, H.

A. Shimota, H. Kobayashi, S. Kadokura, “Radiometric calibration for the airborne interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases simulator,” Appl. Opt. 38, 571–576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

LaPorte, D. D.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.-F.

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, D. G.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, F. J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nishinomiya, S.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ono, A.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Persky, M. J.

M. J. Persky, “A review of spaceborne infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, H.

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimota, A.

A. Shimota, H. Kobayashi, S. Kadokura, “Radiometric calibration for the airborne interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases simulator,” Appl. Opt. 38, 571–576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sromovsky, L. A.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, Y.

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, G.

Yoshida, I.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshigahara, C.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, M. Hayashi, T. Imasu, A. Ono, S. Nishinomiya, H. Kobayashi, “IMG, interferometric measurement of greenhouse gases from space,” Adv. Space Res. 14, 25–28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing (1)

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, C. Yoshigahara, I. Yoshida, K. Kondo, “Satelliteborne high-resolution FTIR for lower atmosphere sounding and its evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1496–1507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

C. Clerbaux, P. Chazette, J. Hadji-Lazaro, G. Megie, J.-F. Muller, S. A. Clough, “Remote sensing of CO, CH4, and O3 using a spaceborne nadir-viewing interferometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 18,999–19,103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) (1)

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, H. Buijs, D. G. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, L. A. Sromovsky, “High-altitude aircraft measurements of upwelling IR radiance: prelude to FTIR from geosynchronous satellite,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 2, 439–444 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. J. Persky, “A review of spaceborne infrared Fourier transform spectrometers for remote sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4763–4797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Kobayashi, T. Ogawa, H. Shimoda, A. Shimota, K. Kadokura, K. Kondo, C. Yoshigahara, Y. Uehara, I. Yoshida, “IMG: precursor of the high-resolution FTIR on the satellite,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 23–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the IMG optical system. The optical aperture of the interferometer was 10 cm in diameter. The interferometer was composed of flat mirrors and a large KBr beam splitter. The moving mirror was suspended magnetically, and the alignment was controlled dynamically with a He–Ne laser interferogram equipped with four Si detectors. The optical system did not have an intermediate cold field stop.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Outline of the detector component. The vacuum vessel contained the cold field stop and the cold focal plane upon which were placed three detectors and three bandpass filters. The cold finger of the cryogenic cooler displacer was attached to the back of the vessel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Moving mirror alignment and control system diagram. The control system has double control loops. In the basic loop, the moving mirror armature was suspended and the parallelism was sustained with a predefined alignment bias. The second loop supported the dynamic alignment throughout the observation by use of the interference signal of the He–Ne laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample of the IMG-observed spectra. The range of band 3 was expanded after the data were evaluated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

IMG-observed and calculated atmospheric spectral radiances. The solid curve represents the IMG-observed spectrum and the dashed curve represents the theoretically calculated spectrum with the objective analysis temperature and humidity profile interpolated in space and time to the IMG observations. The model8 that we used for this calculation is fascode with the spectroscopic HITRAN 92 database.9 We can retrieve atmospheric constituent profiles10 by minimizing the difference between the measured and calculated spectra.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Principal characteristics of the IMG Protoflight Modela

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Table 2 Reproducibility (1 sigma: K)

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Table 4 Spectral Resolutiona

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