Abstract

Data stored as volume holograms—optical interference patterns imprinted into a photosensitive storage material—can be accessed both by address and by content. An optical correlation-based search compares each input query against all stored records simultaneously, a massively parallel but inherently noisy analog process. With data encoding and signal postprocessing we demonstrate a holographic content-addressable data-storage system that searches digital data with high search fidelity.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Psaltis, F. Mok, “Holographic memories,” Sci. Am. 273, 70–76 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. D. Henshaw, S. A. Lis, “Content addressable optical data-storage system,” U.S. Patent5,319,629 (7June1994).
  5. B. J. Goertzen, P. A. Mitkas, “Volume holographic storage for large relational databases,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1847–1853 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Goertzen, K. G. Richling, P. A. Mitkas, “Implementation of a volume holographic database system,” Opt. Rev. 3, 385–387 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. A. Mitkas, G. A. Betzos, S. Mailis, A. Vainos, “Characterization of associative recall in a volume holographic database system for multimedia applications,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing VIII, D. R. Pap, ed., Proc. SPIE3388, 198–208 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Burr, F. H. Mok, D. Psaltis, “Storage of 10,000 holograms in LiNbO3:Fe,” in Digest on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 1994 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), Paper CMB7.
  9. R. M. Shelby, J. A. Hoffnagle, G. W. Burr, C. M. Jefferson, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, H. Günther, R. M. Macfarlane, G. T. Sincerbox, “Pixel-matched holographic data storage with megabit pages,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1509–1511 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. S. H. Lee, ed., Optical Information Processing—Fundamentals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy sets,” Inf. Control 8, 338–353 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Kobras, “Associative recall of digital data in volume holographic storage systems,” Master of Science thesis (Technische Universität München, München, 1998).
  15. M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kobras, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, G. Abstreiter are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical correlation of digital data using volume holograms: diffraction analysis.”
  17. G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, “Noise reduction of page-oriented data storage by inverse filtering during recording,” Opt. Lett. 23, 289–291 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

B. J. Goertzen, K. G. Richling, P. A. Mitkas, “Implementation of a volume holographic database system,” Opt. Rev. 3, 385–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, F. Mok, “Holographic memories,” Sci. Am. 273, 70–76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Goertzen, P. A. Mitkas, “Volume holographic storage for large relational databases,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1847–1853 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy sets,” Inf. Control 8, 338–353 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

S. Kobras, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, G. Abstreiter are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical correlation of digital data using volume holograms: diffraction analysis.”

Ashley, J.

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, B. Marcus, “Modulation coding for pixel-matched holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 22, 639–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M. C.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernal, M.-P.

Betzos, G. A.

P. A. Mitkas, G. A. Betzos, S. Mailis, A. Vainos, “Characterization of associative recall in a volume holographic database system for multimedia applications,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing VIII, D. R. Pap, ed., Proc. SPIE3388, 198–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

Chang, T. Y.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Christian, W.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coufal, H.

Dom, B.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flickner, M.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goertzen, B. J.

B. J. Goertzen, K. G. Richling, P. A. Mitkas, “Implementation of a volume holographic database system,” Opt. Rev. 3, 385–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Goertzen, P. A. Mitkas, “Volume holographic storage for large relational databases,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1847–1853 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Gorkani, M.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grygier, R. K.

Günther, H.

Hafner, J.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heanue, J. F.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henshaw, P. D.

P. D. Henshaw, S. A. Lis, “Content addressable optical data-storage system,” U.S. Patent5,319,629 (7June1994).

Hesselink, L.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffnagle, J. A.

Hong, J. H.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, C. M.

Kobras, S.

S. Kobras, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, G. Abstreiter are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical correlation of digital data using volume holograms: diffraction analysis.”

S. Kobras, “Associative recall of digital data in volume holographic storage systems,” Master of Science thesis (Technische Universität München, München, 1998).

Lee, D.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lis, S. A.

P. D. Henshaw, S. A. Lis, “Content addressable optical data-storage system,” U.S. Patent5,319,629 (7June1994).

Macfarlane, R. M.

Mailis, S.

P. A. Mitkas, G. A. Betzos, S. Mailis, A. Vainos, “Characterization of associative recall in a volume holographic database system for multimedia applications,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing VIII, D. R. Pap, ed., Proc. SPIE3388, 198–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, B.

McMichael, I.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitkas, P. A.

B. J. Goertzen, K. G. Richling, P. A. Mitkas, “Implementation of a volume holographic database system,” Opt. Rev. 3, 385–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Goertzen, P. A. Mitkas, “Volume holographic storage for large relational databases,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1847–1853 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Mitkas, G. A. Betzos, S. Mailis, A. Vainos, “Characterization of associative recall in a volume holographic database system for multimedia applications,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing VIII, D. R. Pap, ed., Proc. SPIE3388, 198–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F.

D. Psaltis, F. Mok, “Holographic memories,” Sci. Am. 273, 70–76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F. H.

G. W. Burr, F. H. Mok, D. Psaltis, “Storage of 10,000 holograms in LiNbO3:Fe,” in Digest on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 1994 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), Paper CMB7.

Niblack, W.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paek, E. G.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petkovic, D.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, F. Mok, “Holographic memories,” Sci. Am. 273, 70–76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Burr, F. H. Mok, D. Psaltis, “Storage of 10,000 holograms in LiNbO3:Fe,” in Digest on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 1994 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), Paper CMB7.

Richling, K. G.

B. J. Goertzen, K. G. Richling, P. A. Mitkas, “Implementation of a volume holographic database system,” Opt. Rev. 3, 385–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, H.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

Sincerbox, G. T.

Steele, D.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, A.

P. A. Mitkas, G. A. Betzos, S. Mailis, A. Vainos, “Characterization of associative recall in a volume holographic database system for multimedia applications,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing VIII, D. R. Pap, ed., Proc. SPIE3388, 198–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yanker, P.

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zadeh, L. A.

L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy sets,” Inf. Control 8, 338–353 (1965).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. (1)

M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, P. Yanker, “Query by image and video content: the QBIC system,” IEEE Comput. 28, 23–32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inf. Control (1)

L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy sets,” Inf. Control 8, 338–353 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, E. G. Paek, “Volume holographic memory systems: techniques and architectures,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2193–2203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Goertzen, P. A. Mitkas, “Volume holographic storage for large relational databases,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1847–1853 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

B. J. Goertzen, K. G. Richling, P. A. Mitkas, “Implementation of a volume holographic database system,” Opt. Rev. 3, 385–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (1)

D. Psaltis, F. Mok, “Holographic memories,” Sci. Am. 273, 70–76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265, 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

P. D. Henshaw, S. A. Lis, “Content addressable optical data-storage system,” U.S. Patent5,319,629 (7June1994).

P. A. Mitkas, G. A. Betzos, S. Mailis, A. Vainos, “Characterization of associative recall in a volume holographic database system for multimedia applications,” in Advances in Optical Information Processing VIII, D. R. Pap, ed., Proc. SPIE3388, 198–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Burr, F. H. Mok, D. Psaltis, “Storage of 10,000 holograms in LiNbO3:Fe,” in Digest on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 1994 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), Paper CMB7.

S. Kobras, G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, G. Abstreiter are preparing a manuscript to be called “Optical correlation of digital data using volume holograms: diffraction analysis.”

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

S. H. Lee, ed., Optical Information Processing—Fundamentals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobras, “Associative recall of digital data in volume holographic storage systems,” Master of Science thesis (Technische Universität München, München, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Holographic data-storage system. (a) Two coherent beams, one carrying a spatial page of information, interfere within a photosensitive material to record a hologram. (b) Illuminating the hologram with the reference beam reconstructs a weak copy of the original information-bearing beam for capture with a detector array. (c) Illuminating the hologram with a new page of information reconstructs all the reference beams, computing in parallel the correlation between the search data and each of the stored pages.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data encoding for fuzzy searching. (a) When a hologram is stored, a small block of SLM pixels are turned on at some location within a predefined rectangular portion (slider track) of the data page. (b) For correlation readout an input query is encoded as a similar block within the same track. (c) Any offset between the two blocks causes the brightness of the correlation peak to decrease. By encoding data values with the center position of the pixel block, the holographic system can now measure the similarity between data records and the input query, thereby implementing fuzzy searching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three experimental search results from an all-holographic search-and-retrieve engine, operating on a database of 100 feature vectors from the IBM QBIC image database.15 (a) Four best images found when the search query was the color feature vector for the leftmost image. (b) Measured correlation score (ratio of the detected signal to the dark calibration value) for each of the 100 database records, as a function of the expected response (the number of SLM pixels in common between the input and each stored page). (c) Four best images found when the color sliders for 20% white and 20% light gray were input. (d) Measured versus expected correlation score. (e) Four best images found when we search for the keyword “shore,” encoded into five characters with three nonbinary subfields per character. (f) Measured versus expected correlation score.

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