Abstract

A photopolymer for fabrication of volume-type transmission holograms, which are used primarily on the holographic reflector for reflective LCD’s, is reported. This photopolymer consists of bisphenol-type epoxy resin and an acrylic monomer with diaryliodonium salt and 3-ketocoumarin as a complex initiator. The chemistry of the imaging formation is based on the radical polymerization of the monomer initiated by a holographic exposure, followed by the cationic polymerization of epoxy resin by UV exposure after postexposure baking. The yellowish color of the hologram derivatives that resulted from the sensitizing dye and from the photospeed were improved to satisfy the specifications for the holographic reflector. The holographic reflector now gives brighter images.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Nakazawa, M. Ono, S. Takeuchi, H. Skurai, M. Hirano, “Application of DuPont photopolymer film to automotive holographic display,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 182–193 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. J. Cooke, A. A. Ward, “Reflection-hologram processing for high efficiency in silver-halide emulsions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 934–941 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Graube, “Dye-sensitized dichromate gelatin for holographic optical element fabrication,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 22, 37–41 (1978).
  4. B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).
  7. A. Sato, L. M. Murillo-Mota, F. Iwata, “Holographic reflector for reflective LCD’s,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 293–299 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Ito, Y. Ohe, N. Watanebe, “Novel photopolymer system for holograms,” in Holographic Materials II, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 2–10 (1996); Y. Ohe, H. Ito, N. Watanabe, K. Ichimura are preparing a manuscript to be called “A novel dry photopolymer for volume phase holograms.”
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Yasuike, Hikari-kinousei Koubunshi Zairyou no Shin-tenkai, 1st ed. (CMC, Tokyo, 1996), Chap. II, p. 141 (in Japanese).
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  13. Y. Toba, M. Yasuike, Y. Usui, “The ‘onium butyltriphenylborates as novel donor-acceptor initiator for free radical photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun., 675–676 (April, 1997).

1997 (1)

Y. Toba, M. Yasuike, Y. Usui, “The ‘onium butyltriphenylborates as novel donor-acceptor initiator for free radical photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun., 675–676 (April, 1997).

1996 (1)

A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

J. P. Fouassier, D. Ruhlmann, B. Graff, Y. Takimoto, M. Kawabata, M. Harada, “A new three-component system in visible laser photo-induced polymerization,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 37, 208–210 (1993).

1991 (1)

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

1984 (1)

1978 (1)

A. Graube, “Dye-sensitized dichromate gelatin for holographic optical element fabrication,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 22, 37–41 (1978).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, M. K.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Chan, D. M. T.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Chen, A. G.

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

Cooke, D. J.

De Raaff, A. M.

A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fouassier, J. P.

J. P. Fouassier, D. Ruhlmann, B. Graff, Y. Takimoto, M. Kawabata, M. Harada, “A new three-component system in visible laser photo-induced polymerization,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 37, 208–210 (1993).

Graff, B.

J. P. Fouassier, D. Ruhlmann, B. Graff, Y. Takimoto, M. Kawabata, M. Harada, “A new three-component system in visible laser photo-induced polymerization,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 37, 208–210 (1993).

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Dye-sensitized dichromate gelatin for holographic optical element fabrication,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 22, 37–41 (1978).

Harada, M.

J. P. Fouassier, D. Ruhlmann, B. Graff, Y. Takimoto, M. Kawabata, M. Harada, “A new three-component system in visible laser photo-induced polymerization,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 37, 208–210 (1993).

Harrington, A. F.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Hirano, M.

N. Nakazawa, M. Ono, S. Takeuchi, H. Skurai, M. Hirano, “Application of DuPont photopolymer film to automotive holographic display,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 182–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, Y. Ohe, N. Watanebe, “Novel photopolymer system for holograms,” in Holographic Materials II, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 2–10 (1996); Y. Ohe, H. Ito, N. Watanabe, K. Ichimura are preparing a manuscript to be called “A novel dry photopolymer for volume phase holograms.”
[Crossref]

Iwata, F.

A. Sato, L. M. Murillo-Mota, F. Iwata, “Holographic reflector for reflective LCD’s,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 293–299 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jelley, K. W.

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

Kawabata, M.

Keys, D. E.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Krebs, R. R.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Kubota, T.

Marino, T. M.

A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mickish, D. J.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Molteni, W. J.

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

Monroe, B. M.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Murillo-Mota, L. M.

A. Sato, L. M. Murillo-Mota, F. Iwata, “Holographic reflector for reflective LCD’s,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 293–299 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, N.

N. Nakazawa, M. Ono, S. Takeuchi, H. Skurai, M. Hirano, “Application of DuPont photopolymer film to automotive holographic display,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 182–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Neckers, D. C.

A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ohe, Y.

H. Ito, Y. Ohe, N. Watanebe, “Novel photopolymer system for holograms,” in Holographic Materials II, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 2–10 (1996); Y. Ohe, H. Ito, N. Watanabe, K. Ichimura are preparing a manuscript to be called “A novel dry photopolymer for volume phase holograms.”
[Crossref]

Ono, M.

N. Nakazawa, M. Ono, S. Takeuchi, H. Skurai, M. Hirano, “Application of DuPont photopolymer film to automotive holographic display,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 182–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Polykarpov, A. Y.

A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ralli, P. J.

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

Ruhlmann, D.

J. P. Fouassier, D. Ruhlmann, B. Graff, Y. Takimoto, M. Kawabata, M. Harada, “A new three-component system in visible laser photo-induced polymerization,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 37, 208–210 (1993).

Sarker, A. M.

A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sato, A.

Schicker, S. R.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Skurai, H.

N. Nakazawa, M. Ono, S. Takeuchi, H. Skurai, M. Hirano, “Application of DuPont photopolymer film to automotive holographic display,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 182–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smothers, W. K.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Sumiyoshi, I.

Takeuchi, S.

N. Nakazawa, M. Ono, S. Takeuchi, H. Skurai, M. Hirano, “Application of DuPont photopolymer film to automotive holographic display,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 182–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Takimoto, Y.

J. P. Fouassier, D. Ruhlmann, B. Graff, Y. Takimoto, M. Kawabata, M. Harada, “A new three-component system in visible laser photo-induced polymerization,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 37, 208–210 (1993).

Toba, Y.

Y. Toba, M. Yasuike, Y. Usui, “The ‘onium butyltriphenylborates as novel donor-acceptor initiator for free radical photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun., 675–676 (April, 1997).

Usui, Y.

Y. Toba, M. Yasuike, Y. Usui, “The ‘onium butyltriphenylborates as novel donor-acceptor initiator for free radical photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun., 675–676 (April, 1997).

Valliash, G. T.

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

Ward, A. A.

Watanebe, N.

H. Ito, Y. Ohe, N. Watanebe, “Novel photopolymer system for holograms,” in Holographic Materials II, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 2–10 (1996); Y. Ohe, H. Ito, N. Watanabe, K. Ichimura are preparing a manuscript to be called “A novel dry photopolymer for volume phase holograms.”
[Crossref]

Weathers, C. W.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

Wenyon, M. M.

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

Yasuike, M.

Y. Toba, M. Yasuike, Y. Usui, “The ‘onium butyltriphenylborates as novel donor-acceptor initiator for free radical photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun., 675–676 (April, 1997).

M. Yasuike, Hikari-kinousei Koubunshi Zairyou no Shin-tenkai, 1st ed. (CMC, Tokyo, 1996), Chap. II, p. 141 (in Japanese).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (1)

Y. Toba, M. Yasuike, Y. Usui, “The ‘onium butyltriphenylborates as novel donor-acceptor initiator for free radical photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun., 675–676 (April, 1997).

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (2)

J. P. Fouassier, D. Ruhlmann, B. Graff, Y. Takimoto, M. Kawabata, M. Harada, “A new three-component system in visible laser photo-induced polymerization,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 37, 208–210 (1993).

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. W. Weathers, “Improved photo-polymers for holographic recording. I. Imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 19–25 (1991); B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording. II. Mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 35, 25–29 (1991); Tipton, “New hologram replicator for volume holograms and holographic optical elements,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 136–144 (1998).

J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. (1)

A. M. Sarker, A. Y. Polykarpov, A. M. De Raaff, T. M. Marino, D. C. Neckers, “Visible light photopolymerization employing 2,4-diiodo-6-butoxy-3-fluorone and tetraorganylborate salts as photoinitiators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 34, 2817–2824 (1996);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Photoalkylation of dicyanoarenes with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 6710–6711 (1985);J. Y. Lan, G. B. Schuster, “Free radical formation in the photooxidative alkylations of dicyanonaphthalene with alkyltriphenylborate salts,” Tetrahedron Lett. 27, 4261–4264 (1986);S. Hassoon, D. C. Neckers, “Electron transfer photoreduction of 5,7-dioodo-3-butoxy-6-fluorone with tetrabutylammonium triphenylbutylborate and N,N-dimethyl-2,6-diisopropylaniline,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 9416–9424 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

A. G. Chen, K. W. Jelley, G. T. Valliash, W. J. Molteni, P. J. Ralli, M. M. Wenyon, “Holographically reflective liquid crystal display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3/4, 159–163 (1995); A. G. Chen, Q. Gao, R. Fan, A. Harton, K. Wyatt, T. C. Felder, W. J. Gambogi, S. R. Mackara, K. Steijn, T. J. Trout, “Enhanced reflective liquid crystal displays using DuPont holographic recording films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 3294, 201–206 (1998).

Photograph. Sci. Eng. (1)

A. Graube, “Dye-sensitized dichromate gelatin for holographic optical element fabrication,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 22, 37–41 (1978).

Other (4)

N. Nakazawa, M. Ono, S. Takeuchi, H. Skurai, M. Hirano, “Application of DuPont photopolymer film to automotive holographic display,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 182–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Sato, L. M. Murillo-Mota, F. Iwata, “Holographic reflector for reflective LCD’s,” in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE3010, 293–299 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Ito, Y. Ohe, N. Watanebe, “Novel photopolymer system for holograms,” in Holographic Materials II, T. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 2–10 (1996); Y. Ohe, H. Ito, N. Watanabe, K. Ichimura are preparing a manuscript to be called “A novel dry photopolymer for volume phase holograms.”
[Crossref]

M. Yasuike, Hikari-kinousei Koubunshi Zairyou no Shin-tenkai, 1st ed. (CMC, Tokyo, 1996), Chap. II, p. 141 (in Japanese).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conventional reflector (dashed arrow, light not utilized).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Holographic reflector with a volume-type reflection hologram, (B) a transmission hologram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency of a volume-type transmission hologram calculated with Kogelnik’s coupled-wave theory. The parameters used for calculation are as follows: the thickness of the photosensitive layer is (A) 10 µm, Δn = 0.022 or (B) 7 µm, Δn = 0.032. The recording reference angle is 30°, and the recording wavelength is 488 nm. Reconstructed angles: dashed curve, 28°; solid curve, 30°; dotted–dashed curve, 32°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical setup for recording (A) the holographic master and for replicating the holograms with (B) the master plate and (C) the rod-like master.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement setup for holographic reflector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Holographic performance of the transmission type made by contact copying of the master hologram with various amounts of monomer: (A) 40 wt. %, (B) 50 wt. %, (C) 60 wt. %, (D) 70 wt. %. Reconstructed angles: dashed curve, 28°; solid curve, 30°; dotted–dashed curve, 32°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiency of transmission gratings. Recording wavelength: dashed curve, 488 nm; solid curve, 514.5 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Holographic performance of the transmission type made by contact copying of the master hologram. (A) At 488-nm light. Reconstructed angles: dashed curve 39°; solid curve, 44°; dotted–dashed curve, 48°. (B) At 514.5-nm light. Reconstructed angles: dashed curve, 25°; solid curve, 28°; dotted-dashed curve, 30°.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reaction pathway for KCD and BBI systems with added BTPB.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Proposed mechanism for KCD-sensitized system.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Structure for holographic reflector.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Flow chart for processes of manufacturing a holographic reflector.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Holographic performance of a transmission type made under various PEB conditions. (A) 100 °C/10 min. Reconstructed angles: dashed curve, 40°; solid curve, 45°; dotted–dashed curve, 50°. (B) 120 °C/10 min. Reconstructed angles: dashed curve, 35°; solid curve, 40°; dotted-dashed curve, 45°. (C) 140 °C/10 min. Reconstructed angles: dashed curve, 40°; solid curve, 43°; dotted–dashed curve, 45°.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Luminance as a function of angle θd for conventional (dashed curve) and holographic (solid curve) reflector (2° ≤ θd ≤ 80°).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Wavelength dependence of luminance in each angle.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Photograph of the clock calculator with the holographic reflector made from this photopolymer system (the left-hand area is replaced with the holographic reflector).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Results of heat-resistant test. Initial: gray dashed curve, 33°; gray solid curve, 39°; gray dotted–dashed curve, 43° After 80 °C for 100 h: black dashed curve 32°; black solid curve, 38°; black dotted–dashed curve, 42°.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Photochemical Properties on Various Contents of KCD

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Table 2 Enthalpy (J/g) Determined by DPC in Various Contents of BTPB

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Table 3 Exposure Energy (mJ/cm2) at 488-nm Light Required for Making a Bright Hologram

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Table 4 Enthalpy (J/g) Determined by DPC on Radical and Cationic Polymerization

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η=sin2 Θ,
Θ=πΔnT/λ cos θ.
R3RB-R4N+-e-R3B + R˙ + R4N+.

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