Abstract

A novel, to our knowledge, sensor for measuring the stretch in soft tissues such as skin is described. The technique, which is a modification of two-dimensional polarization imaging, uses changes in the reflectivity of polarized light as a monitor of skin stretch. Measurements show that the reflectivity increases with stretch. Measurements were made on guinea pig skin and on nonbiological materials. The changes in reflectivity result from the changes that take place in the interface roughness between skin or material layers and the consequential changes in the diffuse reflective characteristics of the skin. Conceptually, as the roughness of an interface decreases, a smoother reflecting interface is produced, resulting in a commensurate increase in specular reflection. A simple roughness model correctly predicts the main experimental results. Results can be extended easily to real-time stretch analysis of large tissue areas that would be applicable for predicting stresses in skin during and after the surgical closure of wounds.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  4. B. D. Bucalo, M. Iriondo, “Photoelastic models of wound closure stress,” Dermatol. Surg. 21, 210–212 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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  7. M. U. Nollert, E. R. Hall, S. G. Eskin, L. V. McIntire, “Effect of flow on arachidonic acid metabolism in human endothelial cells,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 72–78 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. V. Tuchin, “Lasers and fiber optics in biomedicine,” Laser Phys. 3, 767–820 (1993).
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  26. B. D. Cameron, M. J. Rakovic, M. Mehrubeoglu, G. Kattawar, S. Rastegar, L. V. Wang, G. L. Cote, “Measurement and calculation of the two-dimensional backscattering Mueller matrix of a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 23, 485–487 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. N. Guzelsu, T. W. Findley, J. F. Federici, H. R. Chaudhry, A. B. Ritter, “Apparatus and method for noninvasive measurement of stretch,” U.S. patent pending, application 27October1998.
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    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Assoul, M. Zahidi, P. Corcuff, J. Mignot, “Three-dimensional measurements of skin surface topography by triangulation with a new laser profilometer,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 18, 11–21 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. E. E. Peacock, I. K. Cohen, “Wound healing,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 161–181.
  33. R. K. Daniel, C. L. Kerrigan, “Principles and physiology of skin flap surgery,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 275–328.
  34. L. C. Argenta, E. D. Austad, “Principles and techniques of tissue expansion,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 475–507.

1998 (3)

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukeit, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, “Evaluation of residual stress in rabbit skin and the relevant material constants,” J. Theor. Biol. 192, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Cameron, M. J. Rakovic, M. Mehrubeoglu, G. Kattawar, S. Rastegar, L. V. Wang, G. L. Cote, “Measurement and calculation of the two-dimensional backscattering Mueller matrix of a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett. 23, 485–487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. P. Sinichkin, S. P. Uts, E. A. Pilipenko, “Spectroscopy of human skin in vivo: 1. Reflection spectra,” Phys. Opt. 80, 228–234 (1996).

1995 (2)

C. Cacou, I. F. K. Muir, “Effects of plane mechanical forces in wound healing in humans,” J. R. Coll. Surg. Edinburgh 40, 38–41 (1995).

B. D. Bucalo, M. Iriondo, “Photoelastic models of wound closure stress,” Dermatol. Surg. 21, 210–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

C. Cacou, J. M. Anderson, I. F. K. Muir, “Measurement of closing force of surgical wounds and relation to the appearances of resultant scars,” Med. Biolog. Eng. Comput. 32, 638–642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Assoul, M. Zahidi, P. Corcuff, J. Mignot, “Three-dimensional measurements of skin surface topography by triangulation with a new laser profilometer,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 18, 11–21 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

V. V. Tuchin, “Lasers and fiber optics in biomedicine,” Laser Phys. 3, 767–820 (1993).

H. Zeng, C. MacAulay, B. Palcic, D. I. McLean, “A computerized autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroanalyser system for in vivo skin studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 231–240 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (5)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Sumpio, M. Windmann, “Enhanced production of an endothelium derived contracting factor by endothelial cells subject to pulsative stretch,” Surgery 108, 277–282 (1990).

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Spectral reflectance of human skin in vivo,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 5–12 (1990).
[PubMed]

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Noninvasive computerized analysis of skin chromophores in vivo by reflectance spectroscopy,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 249–257 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (2)

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. U. Nollert, E. R. Hall, S. G. Eskin, L. V. McIntire, “Effect of flow on arachidonic acid metabolism in human endothelial cells,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 72–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

B. Sumpio, A. Banes, L. Levin, “Mechanical stress stimulates aortic endothelial cells to proliferate,” J. Vasc. Surg. 6, 252–256 (1987).
[PubMed]

P. Bjerring, P. H. Andersen, “Skin reflectance,” Spectrophotom. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 4, 167–171 (1987).

1984 (1)

W. F. Larabee, G. A. Holloway, D. Sutton, “Wound tension and blood flow in skin flaps,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 93, 112–115 (1984).

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Andersen, P. H.

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Spectral reflectance of human skin in vivo,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 5–12 (1990).
[PubMed]

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Noninvasive computerized analysis of skin chromophores in vivo by reflectance spectroscopy,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 249–257 (1990).
[PubMed]

P. Bjerring, P. H. Andersen, “Skin reflectance,” Spectrophotom. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 4, 167–171 (1987).

Anderson, J. M.

C. Cacou, J. M. Anderson, I. F. K. Muir, “Measurement of closing force of surgical wounds and relation to the appearances of resultant scars,” Med. Biolog. Eng. Comput. 32, 638–642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parish, “Optical properties of human skin,” in The Science of Photomedicine, J. D. Regan, J. A. Parrish, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 147–194.
[CrossRef]

Argenta, L. C.

L. C. Argenta, E. D. Austad, “Principles and techniques of tissue expansion,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 475–507.

Assoul, M.

M. Assoul, M. Zahidi, P. Corcuff, J. Mignot, “Three-dimensional measurements of skin surface topography by triangulation with a new laser profilometer,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 18, 11–21 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austad, E. D.

L. C. Argenta, E. D. Austad, “Principles and techniques of tissue expansion,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 475–507.

Banes, A.

B. Sumpio, A. Banes, L. Levin, “Mechanical stress stimulates aortic endothelial cells to proliferate,” J. Vasc. Surg. 6, 252–256 (1987).
[PubMed]

Barbenel, J. C.

J. Ferguson, J. C. Barbenel, “Skin surface patterns and the directional mechanical properties of the dermis,” in Bioengineering and the Skin, R. Marks, P. A. Payne, eds. (MTP, Lancaster, Pa., 1981), pp. 83–92.
[CrossRef]

Barker, D. J.

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjerring, P.

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Noninvasive computerized analysis of skin chromophores in vivo by reflectance spectroscopy,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 249–257 (1990).
[PubMed]

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Spectral reflectance of human skin in vivo,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 5–12 (1990).
[PubMed]

P. Bjerring, P. H. Andersen, “Skin reflectance,” Spectrophotom. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 4, 167–171 (1987).

Bucalo, B. D.

B. D. Bucalo, M. Iriondo, “Photoelastic models of wound closure stress,” Dermatol. Surg. 21, 210–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukeit, B.

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukeit, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, “Evaluation of residual stress in rabbit skin and the relevant material constants,” J. Theor. Biol. 192, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukiet, B.

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cacou, C.

C. Cacou, I. F. K. Muir, “Effects of plane mechanical forces in wound healing in humans,” J. R. Coll. Surg. Edinburgh 40, 38–41 (1995).

C. Cacou, J. M. Anderson, I. F. K. Muir, “Measurement of closing force of surgical wounds and relation to the appearances of resultant scars,” Med. Biolog. Eng. Comput. 32, 638–642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, B. D.

Chaudhry, H. R.

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukeit, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, “Evaluation of residual stress in rabbit skin and the relevant material constants,” J. Theor. Biol. 192, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Guzelsu, T. W. Findley, J. F. Federici, H. R. Chaudhry, A. B. Ritter, “Apparatus and method for noninvasive measurement of stretch,” U.S. patent pending, application 27October1998.

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, I. K.

E. E. Peacock, I. K. Cohen, “Wound healing,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 161–181.

Corcuff, P.

M. Assoul, M. Zahidi, P. Corcuff, J. Mignot, “Three-dimensional measurements of skin surface topography by triangulation with a new laser profilometer,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 18, 11–21 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cote, G. L.

Cotterill, J. A.

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, R. K.

R. K. Daniel, C. L. Kerrigan, “Principles and physiology of skin flap surgery,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 275–328.

Dawson, J. B.

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demos, S. G.

Ellis, D. J.

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eskin, S. G.

M. U. Nollert, E. R. Hall, S. G. Eskin, L. V. McIntire, “Effect of flow on arachidonic acid metabolism in human endothelial cells,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 72–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feather, J. W.

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

N. Guzelsu, T. W. Findley, J. F. Federici, H. R. Chaudhry, A. B. Ritter, “Apparatus and method for noninvasive measurement of stretch,” U.S. patent pending, application 27October1998.

Ferdman, A. G.

A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, J.

J. Ferguson, J. C. Barbenel, “Skin surface patterns and the directional mechanical properties of the dermis,” in Bioengineering and the Skin, R. Marks, P. A. Payne, eds. (MTP, Lancaster, Pa., 1981), pp. 83–92.
[CrossRef]

Findley, T.

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukeit, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, “Evaluation of residual stress in rabbit skin and the relevant material constants,” J. Theor. Biol. 192, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Findley, T. W.

N. Guzelsu, T. W. Findley, J. F. Federici, H. R. Chaudhry, A. B. Ritter, “Apparatus and method for noninvasive measurement of stretch,” U.S. patent pending, application 27October1998.

Fisher, G. W.

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, T.

T. Gibson, “Physical properties of skin,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 207–220.

Grassam, E.

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guzelsu, N.

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Guzelsu, T. W. Findley, J. F. Federici, H. R. Chaudhry, A. B. Ritter, “Apparatus and method for noninvasive measurement of stretch,” U.S. patent pending, application 27October1998.

Hall, E. R.

M. U. Nollert, E. R. Hall, S. G. Eskin, L. V. McIntire, “Effect of flow on arachidonic acid metabolism in human endothelial cells,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 72–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1997).

Holloway, G. A.

W. F. Larabee, G. A. Holloway, D. Sutton, “Wound tension and blood flow in skin flaps,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 93, 112–115 (1984).

Iriondo, M.

B. D. Bucalo, M. Iriondo, “Photoelastic models of wound closure stress,” Dermatol. Surg. 21, 210–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “The role of skin optics diagnostic and therapeutic uses of lasers,” in Lasers in Dermatology, R. Steiner, R. Kaufmann, M. Landthaler, O. Braun-Falco, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 1–21.
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G.

Kerrigan, C. L.

R. K. Daniel, C. L. Kerrigan, “Principles and physiology of skin flap surgery,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 275–328.

Larabee, W. F.

W. F. Larabee, G. A. Holloway, D. Sutton, “Wound tension and blood flow in skin flaps,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 93, 112–115 (1984).

Levin, L.

B. Sumpio, A. Banes, L. Levin, “Mechanical stress stimulates aortic endothelial cells to proliferate,” J. Vasc. Surg. 6, 252–256 (1987).
[PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

H. Zeng, C. MacAulay, B. Palcic, D. I. McLean, “A computerized autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroanalyser system for in vivo skin studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 231–240 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntire, L. V.

M. U. Nollert, E. R. Hall, S. G. Eskin, L. V. McIntire, “Effect of flow on arachidonic acid metabolism in human endothelial cells,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 72–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

H. Zeng, C. MacAulay, B. Palcic, D. I. McLean, “A computerized autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroanalyser system for in vivo skin studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 231–240 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehrubeoglu, M.

Mignot, J.

M. Assoul, M. Zahidi, P. Corcuff, J. Mignot, “Three-dimensional measurements of skin surface topography by triangulation with a new laser profilometer,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 18, 11–21 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muir, I. F. K.

C. Cacou, I. F. K. Muir, “Effects of plane mechanical forces in wound healing in humans,” J. R. Coll. Surg. Edinburgh 40, 38–41 (1995).

C. Cacou, J. M. Anderson, I. F. K. Muir, “Measurement of closing force of surgical wounds and relation to the appearances of resultant scars,” Med. Biolog. Eng. Comput. 32, 638–642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nollert, M. U.

M. U. Nollert, E. R. Hall, S. G. Eskin, L. V. McIntire, “Effect of flow on arachidonic acid metabolism in human endothelial cells,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 72–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

H. Zeng, C. MacAulay, B. Palcic, D. I. McLean, “A computerized autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroanalyser system for in vivo skin studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 231–240 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parish, “Optical properties of human skin,” in The Science of Photomedicine, J. D. Regan, J. A. Parrish, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 147–194.
[CrossRef]

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peacock, E. E.

E. E. Peacock, I. K. Cohen, “Wound healing,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 161–181.

Pilipenko, E. A.

Y. P. Sinichkin, S. P. Uts, E. A. Pilipenko, “Spectroscopy of human skin in vivo: 1. Reflection spectra,” Phys. Opt. 80, 228–234 (1996).

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rakovic, M. J.

Rastegar, S.

Ritter, A. B.

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukeit, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, “Evaluation of residual stress in rabbit skin and the relevant material constants,” J. Theor. Biol. 192, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Guzelsu, T. W. Findley, J. F. Federici, H. R. Chaudhry, A. B. Ritter, “Apparatus and method for noninvasive measurement of stretch,” U.S. patent pending, application 27October1998.

Siegel, M.

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinichkin, Y. P.

Y. P. Sinichkin, S. P. Uts, E. A. Pilipenko, “Spectroscopy of human skin in vivo: 1. Reflection spectra,” Phys. Opt. 80, 228–234 (1996).

Star, W. M.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumpio, B.

B. Sumpio, M. Windmann, “Enhanced production of an endothelium derived contracting factor by endothelial cells subject to pulsative stretch,” Surgery 108, 277–282 (1990).

B. Sumpio, A. Banes, L. Levin, “Mechanical stress stimulates aortic endothelial cells to proliferate,” J. Vasc. Surg. 6, 252–256 (1987).
[PubMed]

Sutton, D.

W. F. Larabee, G. A. Holloway, D. Sutton, “Wound tension and blood flow in skin flaps,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 93, 112–115 (1984).

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, “Lasers and fiber optics in biomedicine,” Laser Phys. 3, 767–820 (1993).

Uts, S. P.

Y. P. Sinichkin, S. P. Uts, E. A. Pilipenko, “Spectroscopy of human skin in vivo: 1. Reflection spectra,” Phys. Opt. 80, 228–234 (1996).

Van Gemert, M. J. C.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Windmann, M.

B. Sumpio, M. Windmann, “Enhanced production of an endothelium derived contracting factor by endothelial cells subject to pulsative stretch,” Surgery 108, 277–282 (1990).

Yannas, I. V.

A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahidi, M.

M. Assoul, M. Zahidi, P. Corcuff, J. Mignot, “Three-dimensional measurements of skin surface topography by triangulation with a new laser profilometer,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 18, 11–21 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, C. MacAulay, B. Palcic, D. I. McLean, “A computerized autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroanalyser system for in vivo skin studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 231–240 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. (1)

W. F. Larabee, G. A. Holloway, D. Sutton, “Wound tension and blood flow in skin flaps,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 93, 112–115 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

M. U. Nollert, E. R. Hall, S. G. Eskin, L. V. McIntire, “Effect of flow on arachidonic acid metabolism in human endothelial cells,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 72–78 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

B. D. Bucalo, M. Iriondo, “Photoelastic models of wound closure stress,” Dermatol. Surg. 21, 210–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson, S. L. Jacques, “Optical reflectance and transmittance of tissues: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2186–2199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, “Skin optics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146–1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. (1)

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukiet, M. Siegel, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, N. Guzelsu, “Optimal patterns for suturing wounds,” J. Biomech. 31, 653–662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (2)

A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Med. Eng. Technol. (1)

M. Assoul, M. Zahidi, P. Corcuff, J. Mignot, “Three-dimensional measurements of skin surface topography by triangulation with a new laser profilometer,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 18, 11–21 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Coll. Surg. Edinburgh (1)

C. Cacou, I. F. K. Muir, “Effects of plane mechanical forces in wound healing in humans,” J. R. Coll. Surg. Edinburgh 40, 38–41 (1995).

J. Theor. Biol. (1)

H. R. Chaudhry, B. Bukeit, T. Findley, A. B. Ritter, “Evaluation of residual stress in rabbit skin and the relevant material constants,” J. Theor. Biol. 192, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Surg. (1)

B. Sumpio, A. Banes, L. Levin, “Mechanical stress stimulates aortic endothelial cells to proliferate,” J. Vasc. Surg. 6, 252–256 (1987).
[PubMed]

Laser Phys. (1)

V. V. Tuchin, “Lasers and fiber optics in biomedicine,” Laser Phys. 3, 767–820 (1993).

Med. Biolog. Eng. Comput. (1)

C. Cacou, J. M. Anderson, I. F. K. Muir, “Measurement of closing force of surgical wounds and relation to the appearances of resultant scars,” Med. Biolog. Eng. Comput. 32, 638–642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. (2)

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Spectral reflectance of human skin in vivo,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 5–12 (1990).
[PubMed]

P. H. Andersen, P. Bjerring, “Noninvasive computerized analysis of skin chromophores in vivo by reflectance spectroscopy,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 7, 249–257 (1990).
[PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J. A. Cotterill, G. W. Fisher, J. W. Feather, “A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 25, 695–709 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, C. MacAulay, B. Palcic, D. I. McLean, “A computerized autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroanalyser system for in vivo skin studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 231–240 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Opt. (1)

Y. P. Sinichkin, S. P. Uts, E. A. Pilipenko, “Spectroscopy of human skin in vivo: 1. Reflection spectra,” Phys. Opt. 80, 228–234 (1996).

Spectrophotom. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. (1)

P. Bjerring, P. H. Andersen, “Skin reflectance,” Spectrophotom. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 4, 167–171 (1987).

Surgery (1)

B. Sumpio, M. Windmann, “Enhanced production of an endothelium derived contracting factor by endothelial cells subject to pulsative stretch,” Surgery 108, 277–282 (1990).

Other (10)

T. Gibson, “Physical properties of skin,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 207–220.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parish, “Optical properties of human skin,” in The Science of Photomedicine, J. D. Regan, J. A. Parrish, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 147–194.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, “The role of skin optics diagnostic and therapeutic uses of lasers,” in Lasers in Dermatology, R. Steiner, R. Kaufmann, M. Landthaler, O. Braun-Falco, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 1–21.
[CrossRef]

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1997).

N. Guzelsu, T. W. Findley, J. F. Federici, H. R. Chaudhry, A. B. Ritter, “Apparatus and method for noninvasive measurement of stretch,” U.S. patent pending, application 27October1998.

P. L. Williams, R. Warwick, eds., Gray’s Anatomy, 36th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1980), pp. 1216–1226.

J. Ferguson, J. C. Barbenel, “Skin surface patterns and the directional mechanical properties of the dermis,” in Bioengineering and the Skin, R. Marks, P. A. Payne, eds. (MTP, Lancaster, Pa., 1981), pp. 83–92.
[CrossRef]

E. E. Peacock, I. K. Cohen, “Wound healing,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 161–181.

R. K. Daniel, C. L. Kerrigan, “Principles and physiology of skin flap surgery,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 275–328.

L. C. Argenta, E. D. Austad, “Principles and techniques of tissue expansion,” in Plastic Surgery Volume 1: General Principles, J. G. McCarthy, ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1990), pp. 475–507.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup: Laser light is reflected from the middle portion of the skin sample where the stress should be uniform. P1 and P2 are polarizing filters for the incident and the reflected light, respectively. (b) Skin holder: Samples were clamped onto the Plexiglas holder by two stationary clamps and stretched through moving clamps. Moving clamps were pulled away from the Plexiglas holder by means of infinite screws.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized reflectivity (reflected light intensity polarized parallel to the incident-light polarization minus the reflected light intensity polarized perpendicular to the incident-light polarization) plotted as a function of the stretch of skin taken parallel to the spine of the guinea pig. The reflectivity increases almost linearly with the applied stretch parallel to the spine. The four curves represent four skin samples. The dashed curve (offset for clarity) is the average of the four samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflectivity from a piece of stretched latex examination glove (unstretched length, 45 mm). The geometry of the stretch and the light polarization is the same as is shown for Fig. 2. Shown is the reflected light that is polarized parallel (filled diamonds) and perpendicular (filled squares) to the polarization of the incident light. The maximum change in reflectivity caused by stretching is approximately 35%. The maximum stretch is approximately 8.4%. The solid curves represent least-squares linear fits to the data for stretches of less than 1 mm (slopes of 1.37 ± 0.04 and 1.19 ± 0.04 for parallel and perpendicular polarization, respectively) and stretches of more than 1 mm (slopes of 0.065 ± 0.018 and 0.028 ± 0.013, respectively). (b) Normalized reflectivity obtained by use of the least-squares fit results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized reflectivity from a polyvinyl chloride examination glove (unstretched length of 45 mm). The geometry of the stretch and the light polarization are the same as were given for Fig. 2. The line is a fit to the data with a slope of 0.644 ± 0.018. No saturation in reflectivity is observed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Flat surface: macroscopic definitions of the angles of incidence, specular reflection, and ϕref relative to the macroscopic orientation. (b) Rough surface: microscopic definitions of the angles of incidence and reflection for a rough interface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagrams of the optical pathways and the structure of the skin.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z=A singx,
Pϕi=-Sangles I0kˆ · dSrθiδθi=ϕi+ϕref/2dϕref.
nˆ=z-singx|z-singx|=zˆ-xˆAg cosgx1+Ag cosgx21/2.
nˆ=zˆ cosϕref/2+xˆ sinϕref/2.
tanϕref/2=-Ag cosgx,
kˆ · dS=kˆ · nˆdS,
Pϕi=- dxdyI0kˆ · z-A singx×rθi=ϕi+ϕref/2,
kˆ=-zˆ cos ϕi+xˆ sin ϕi
Pϕi=NI0Lyrϕi  dxcos ϕi+Ag sin ϕi cosgx.
Pϕi=NI0πLyrϕicos ϕ/gi=I0LxLyrϕicos ϕi=P0rϕi,
Pϕi=NI0Lyrϕi2 cos ϕiΔx,
Pϕi=P0rϕiΔϕrefπAg.
L= |z-A singx|1/2dx=M 02π/g1+A2g2 cos2gx1/2dx,
LM 02π/g Ag|cosgx|dx=4MAg.
L=M8πA/s,  Ag1.
Pϕi=I0LyrϕiΔϕrefπs2πcos ϕi4ML,  Ag1.

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