Abstract

We deposited high-quality TiO2 films by an oxygen-radical beam–assisted evaporation (RBE) method at a lower substrate temperature (Ts) than that for a TiO2 film deposited by conventional thermal evaporation (TE) with neutral-oxygen gas. The films were then evaluated in terms of refractive index, shift of wavelength of a peak in the reflection curve, and absorption coefficient. The TiO2 films deposited by RBE at Ts < 473 K showed higher refractive indices, were more compact, and had lower absorption coefficients than the film deposited by TE at Ts = 473 K.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Fernandéz, A. Caballero, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Size and support effects in the photoelectron spectra of small TiO2 particles,” Surf. Interface Anal. 18, 392–396 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Leinen, J. P. Espinos, A. Fernandéz, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition procedure for the preparation of oxide thin films. I. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2728–2732 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Balasubramanian, X. F. Han, K. H. Guenther, “Comparative study of titanium dioxide thin films produced by electron-beam evaporation and by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5594–5600 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass, 4th ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 359–395.
  8. P. J. Martin, “Review of ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Narasimha, S. Mohan, M. S. Hegde, T. V. Balasubramanian, “Chemical composition of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and Their Antireflection Coatings (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), pp. 123–127.
  11. J. D. Wolfe, “DC-sputtered anti-reflection coatings for plastics webs based on TiOX and NbOX,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1997), pp. 377–381.
  12. M. Saif, H. Memarian, “New generation of AR films and associated coating techniques,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating, R. Bakish, ed. (Bakish Materials Corporation, N.J., 1997), pp. 255–269.
  13. D. E. Morton, R. Danielsen, “Ion assisted deposition of TiO2, Al2O3 and MgF2 thin films using a high current/low energy ion source,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1997), pp. 203–209.
  14. J. C. Hsu, C. C. Lee, “Single and dual ion beam sputter deposition of titanium oxide films,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1171–1176 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Lechner, G. N. Strauss, H. K. Pulker, “Correlation between optical and mechanical properties of ion plated Ta2O5 films,” in Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1998), pp. 218–225.
  16. C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Development and characterization of a radical beam source for the synthesis of ceramic thin films,” J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 15, 664–667 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Performance characteristics of an oxygen radical beam radio-frequency source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2508–2512 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Watanabe, H. Nozoye, “Determination of nitrogen-radical flux by nitridation of Al,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 113/114, 618–621 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. V. Tsu, G. N. Parsons, G. Lucovsky, “Spectroscopic emission studies of O2/He and N2/He plasmas in remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1849–1854 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), pp. 370–373.
  22. R. Jacobson, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous semiconductors,” Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. V, p. 249.

1998

1997

S. Watanabe, H. Nozoye, “Determination of nitrogen-radical flux by nitridation of Al,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 113/114, 618–621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Performance characteristics of an oxygen radical beam radio-frequency source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2508–2512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Development and characterization of a radical beam source for the synthesis of ceramic thin films,” J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 15, 664–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Leinen, J. P. Espinos, A. Fernandéz, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition procedure for the preparation of oxide thin films. I. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2728–2732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Narasimha, S. Mohan, M. S. Hegde, T. V. Balasubramanian, “Chemical composition of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Balasubramanian, X. F. Han, K. H. Guenther, “Comparative study of titanium dioxide thin films produced by electron-beam evaporation and by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5594–5600 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Fernandéz, A. Caballero, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Size and support effects in the photoelectron spectra of small TiO2 particles,” Surf. Interface Anal. 18, 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. V. Tsu, G. N. Parsons, G. Lucovsky, “Spectroscopic emission studies of O2/He and N2/He plasmas in remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1849–1854 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. J. Martin, “Review of ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976

Atanassov, G.

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

Balasubramanian, T. V.

K. Narasimha, S. Mohan, M. S. Hegde, T. V. Balasubramanian, “Chemical composition of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boswell, R. W.

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, A.

A. Fernandéz, A. Caballero, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Size and support effects in the photoelectron spectra of small TiO2 particles,” Surf. Interface Anal. 18, 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardinaud, C.

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Charles, C.

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Danielsen, R.

D. E. Morton, R. Danielsen, “Ion assisted deposition of TiO2, Al2O3 and MgF2 thin films using a high current/low energy ion source,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1997), pp. 203–209.

Espinos, J. P.

D. Leinen, J. P. Espinos, A. Fernandéz, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition procedure for the preparation of oxide thin films. I. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2728–2732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fernandéz, A.

D. Leinen, J. P. Espinos, A. Fernandéz, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition procedure for the preparation of oxide thin films. I. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2728–2732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Fernandéz, A. Caballero, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Size and support effects in the photoelectron spectra of small TiO2 particles,” Surf. Interface Anal. 18, 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Giroult-Matlakowski, G.

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gonzaléz-Elipe, A. R.

D. Leinen, J. P. Espinos, A. Fernandéz, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition procedure for the preparation of oxide thin films. I. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2728–2732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Fernandéz, A. Caballero, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Size and support effects in the photoelectron spectra of small TiO2 particles,” Surf. Interface Anal. 18, 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goullet, A.

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Han, X. F.

Hegde, M. S.

K. Narasimha, S. Mohan, M. S. Hegde, T. V. Balasubramanian, “Chemical composition of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

Imai, F.

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Performance characteristics of an oxygen radical beam radio-frequency source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2508–2512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Development and characterization of a radical beam source for the synthesis of ceramic thin films,” J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 15, 664–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, R.

R. Jacobson, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous semiconductors,” Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. V, p. 249.

Kunimori, K.

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Performance characteristics of an oxygen radical beam radio-frequency source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2508–2512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Development and characterization of a radical beam source for the synthesis of ceramic thin films,” J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 15, 664–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lechner, W.

W. Lechner, G. N. Strauss, H. K. Pulker, “Correlation between optical and mechanical properties of ion plated Ta2O5 films,” in Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1998), pp. 218–225.

Lee, C. C.

Leinen, D.

D. Leinen, J. P. Espinos, A. Fernandéz, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition procedure for the preparation of oxide thin films. I. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2728–2732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

D. V. Tsu, G. N. Parsons, G. Lucovsky, “Spectroscopic emission studies of O2/He and N2/He plasmas in remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1849–1854 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), pp. 370–373.

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, “Review of ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Memarian, H.

M. Saif, H. Memarian, “New generation of AR films and associated coating techniques,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating, R. Bakish, ed. (Bakish Materials Corporation, N.J., 1997), pp. 255–269.

Mohan, S.

K. Narasimha, S. Mohan, M. S. Hegde, T. V. Balasubramanian, “Chemical composition of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D. E.

D. E. Morton, R. Danielsen, “Ion assisted deposition of TiO2, Al2O3 and MgF2 thin films using a high current/low energy ion source,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1997), pp. 203–209.

Narasimha, K.

K. Narasimha, S. Mohan, M. S. Hegde, T. V. Balasubramanian, “Chemical composition of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nozoye, H.

S. Watanabe, H. Nozoye, “Determination of nitrogen-radical flux by nitridation of Al,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 113/114, 618–621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Performance characteristics of an oxygen radical beam radio-frequency source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2508–2512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Development and characterization of a radical beam source for the synthesis of ceramic thin films,” J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 15, 664–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paesold, G.

Parsons, G. N.

D. V. Tsu, G. N. Parsons, G. Lucovsky, “Spectroscopic emission studies of O2/He and N2/He plasmas in remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1849–1854 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pongratz, S.

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Popov, D.

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive indices of TiO2 films produced by reactive evaporation of various titanium-oxygen phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986–2991 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass, 4th ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 359–395.

W. Lechner, G. N. Strauss, H. K. Pulker, “Correlation between optical and mechanical properties of ion plated Ta2O5 films,” in Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1998), pp. 218–225.

Ritter, E.

Saif, M.

M. Saif, H. Memarian, “New generation of AR films and associated coating techniques,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating, R. Bakish, ed. (Bakish Materials Corporation, N.J., 1997), pp. 255–269.

Savage, J. A.

J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and Their Antireflection Coatings (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), pp. 123–127.

Strauss, G. N.

W. Lechner, G. N. Strauss, H. K. Pulker, “Correlation between optical and mechanical properties of ion plated Ta2O5 films,” in Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1998), pp. 218–225.

Thielsch, R.

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsu, D. V.

D. V. Tsu, G. N. Parsons, G. Lucovsky, “Spectroscopic emission studies of O2/He and N2/He plasmas in remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1849–1854 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Turban, G.

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, H. Nozoye, “Determination of nitrogen-radical flux by nitridation of Al,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 113/114, 618–621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, J. D.

J. D. Wolfe, “DC-sputtered anti-reflection coatings for plastics webs based on TiOX and NbOX,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1997), pp. 377–381.

Zöller, A.

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

S. Watanabe, H. Nozoye, “Determination of nitrogen-radical flux by nitridation of Al,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 113/114, 618–621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

P. J. Martin, “Review of ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn.

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Development and characterization of a radical beam source for the synthesis of ceramic thin films,” J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 15, 664–667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

F. Imai, K. Kunimori, H. Nozoye, “Performance characteristics of an oxygen radical beam radio-frequency source,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2508–2512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Charles, G. Giroult-Matlakowski, R. W. Boswell, A. Goullet, G. Turban, C. Cardinaud, “Characterization of silicon dioxide films deposited at low pressure and temperature in a helicon diffusion reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2954–2963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Narasimha, S. Mohan, M. S. Hegde, T. V. Balasubramanian, “Chemical composition of electron-beam evaporated TiO2 films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 394–397 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Leinen, J. P. Espinos, A. Fernandéz, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition procedure for the preparation of oxide thin films. I. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2728–2732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Tsu, G. N. Parsons, G. Lucovsky, “Spectroscopic emission studies of O2/He and N2/He plasmas in remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1849–1854 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Pongratz, A. Zöller, “Plasma ion-assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Interface Anal.

A. Fernandéz, A. Caballero, A. R. Gonzaléz-Elipe, “Size and support effects in the photoelectron spectra of small TiO2 particles,” Surf. Interface Anal. 18, 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

G. Atanassov, R. Thielsch, D. Popov, “Optical properties of TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 223, 288–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and Their Antireflection Coatings (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), pp. 123–127.

J. D. Wolfe, “DC-sputtered anti-reflection coatings for plastics webs based on TiOX and NbOX,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1997), pp. 377–381.

M. Saif, H. Memarian, “New generation of AR films and associated coating techniques,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Vacuum Web Coating, R. Bakish, ed. (Bakish Materials Corporation, N.J., 1997), pp. 255–269.

D. E. Morton, R. Danielsen, “Ion assisted deposition of TiO2, Al2O3 and MgF2 thin films using a high current/low energy ion source,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1997), pp. 203–209.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass, 4th ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 359–395.

W. Lechner, G. N. Strauss, H. K. Pulker, “Correlation between optical and mechanical properties of ion plated Ta2O5 films,” in Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, V. H. Mattox, ed. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, N.M., 1998), pp. 218–225.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), pp. 370–373.

R. Jacobson, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous semiconductors,” Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. V, p. 249.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used for RBE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices of TiO2 films deposited by RBE at (○) 473, (□) 373, and (△) 300 K and by TE at (●) 473 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength shifts in the reflection peaks of TiO2 films deposited by RBE at (○) 473, (□) 373, and (△) 300 K and by TE at (●) 473 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption coefficients of TiO2 films deposited by RBE at (○) 473, (□) 373, and (△) 300 K and by TE at (●) 473 K.

Equations (2)

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nλ2=nS1+Rλ1/21-Rλ1/2,
kλ=2nλ3nS1-Tλ-RλπnS2+nλ,

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