Abstract

Diffuse reflectance spectra were collected from adenomatous colon polyps (cancer precursors) and normal colonic mucosa of patients undergoing colonoscopy. We analyzed the data by using an analytical light diffusion model, which was tested and validated on a physical tissue model composed of polystyrene beads and hemoglobin. Four parameters were obtained: hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, effective scatterer density, and effective scatterer size. Normal and adenomatous tissue sites exhibited differences in hemoglobin concentration and, on average, in effective scatterer size, which were in general agreement with other studies that employ standard methods. These results suggest that diffuse reflectance can be used to obtain tissue information about tissue structure and composition in vivo.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Manoharan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Spectral pathology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 108–115 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ge, K. T. Schomacker, N. S. Nishioka, “Identification of colonic dysplasia and neoplasia by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 833–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (7)

R. A. Zangaro, L. Silveira, R. Manoharan, G. Zonios, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Rapid multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy system for in vivo tissue diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5211–5219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. Boyer, A. H. Hielscher, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations,” Opt. Lett. 21, 546–548 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vaupel, “Oxygen transport in tumors: characteristics and clinical implications,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 388, 341–351 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2304–2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 192–199 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (6)

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Tipoe, F. H. White, “Blood vessel morphometry in human colorectal lesions,” Histol. Histopathol. 10, 589–596 (1995).
[PubMed]

S. A. Skinner, G. M. Frydman, P. E. O’Brien, “Microvascular structure of benign and malignant tumors of the colon in humans,” Digestive Diseases Sci. 40, 373–384 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7410–7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartments of the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727–2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Takatani, J. Ling, “Optical oximetry sensors for whole blood and tissue,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 3, 347–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence studies,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 2081–2086 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, “Simple photon diffusion analysis of the effects of multiple scattering on pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 1194–1203 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. S. Robey-Cafferty, A. K. el-Naggar, D. J. Grignon, K. R. Cleary, J. Y. Ro, “Histologic parameters and DNA ploidy as predictors of survival in stage B adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum,” Mod. Pathol. 3, 261–266 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

R. K. Jain, “Determinants of tumor blood flow: a review,” Cancer Res. 48, 2641–2658 (1988).
[PubMed]

M. R. Arnfield, J. Tulip, M. S. McPhee, “Optical propagation in tissue with anisotropic scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 372–381 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (4)

T. J. Eide, “A morphometric analysis of dysplasia in small adenomas of the large intestine,” Virchows Arch. A 410, 119–124 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Carr, B. R. Pullan, P. F. Schofield, “Microvascular studies in non-specific inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27, 542–549 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, G. B. Hayes, J. R. Kramer, B. A. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A multifiber catheter with an optical shield for laser angiosurgery,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 1–12 (1986).

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, N. A. Smith, R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96, 22–30 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

E. Marx, G. W. Mulholland, “Size and refractive index determination of single polystyrene spheres,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 88, 321–338 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, “Reflectance of rat brain structures mapped by an optical fiber technique,” J. Neurosci. Methods 2, 9–17 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

N. Sato, K. Takenobu, S. Motoaki, K. Sunao, A. Hiroshi, B. Hagihara, “Measurement of hemoperfusion and oxygen sufficiency in gastric mucosa in vivo,” Gastroenterology 76, 814–819 (1979).
[PubMed]

S. Takatani, M. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656–664 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnfield, M. R.

M. R. Arnfield, J. Tulip, M. S. McPhee, “Optical propagation in tissue with anisotropic scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 372–381 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beauvoit, B.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartments of the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

J. R. Mourant, J. Boyer, A. H. Hielscher, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations,” Opt. Lett. 21, 546–548 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 192–199 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolin, F. P.

Bottiroli, G.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.

J. R. Mourant, J. Boyer, A. H. Hielscher, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations,” Opt. Lett. 21, 546–548 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 192–199 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, M.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, J. F.

Busuttil, A.

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, N. A. Smith, R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96, 22–30 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, N. D.

N. D. Carr, B. R. Pullan, P. F. Schofield, “Microvascular studies in non-specific inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27, 542–549 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cascinelli, N.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartments of the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleary, K. R.

S. S. Robey-Cafferty, A. K. el-Naggar, D. J. Grignon, K. R. Cleary, J. Y. Ro, “Histologic parameters and DNA ploidy as predictors of survival in stage B adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum,” Mod. Pathol. 3, 261–266 (1990).
[PubMed]

Clemente, C.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conn, R. L.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Manoharan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Spectral pathology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 108–115 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
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L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
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R. M. Cothren, G. B. Hayes, J. R. Kramer, B. A. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A multifiber catheter with an optical shield for laser angiosurgery,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 1–12 (1986).

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Hielscher, A. H.

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N. Sato, K. Takenobu, S. Motoaki, K. Sunao, A. Hiroshi, B. Hagihara, “Measurement of hemoperfusion and oxygen sufficiency in gastric mucosa in vivo,” Gastroenterology 76, 814–819 (1979).
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R. A. Zangaro, L. Silveira, R. Manoharan, G. Zonios, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Rapid multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy system for in vivo tissue diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5211–5219 (1996).
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W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116–123 (1996).
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M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
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W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116–123 (1996).
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R. M. Cothren, G. B. Hayes, J. R. Kramer, B. A. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A multifiber catheter with an optical shield for laser angiosurgery,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 1–12 (1986).

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J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 192–199 (1996).
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Lima, C.

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G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Manoharan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Spectral pathology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 108–115 (1998).
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R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
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R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
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Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998).
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J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 192–199 (1996).
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J. R. Mourant, J. Boyer, A. H. Hielscher, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations,” Opt. Lett. 21, 546–548 (1996).
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E. Marx, G. W. Mulholland, “Size and refractive index determination of single polystyrene spheres,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 88, 321–338 (1983).
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M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
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L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
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S. A. Skinner, G. M. Frydman, P. E. O’Brien, “Microvascular structure of benign and malignant tumors of the colon in humans,” Digestive Diseases Sci. 40, 373–384 (1995).
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Ogihara, T.

M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
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A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2304–2314 (1996).
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L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
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R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
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W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992), pp. 681–699.

Preuss, L. E.

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W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116–123 (1996).
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Ro, J. Y.

S. S. Robey-Cafferty, A. K. el-Naggar, D. J. Grignon, K. R. Cleary, J. Y. Ro, “Histologic parameters and DNA ploidy as predictors of survival in stage B adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum,” Mod. Pathol. 3, 261–266 (1990).
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S. S. Robey-Cafferty, A. K. el-Naggar, D. J. Grignon, K. R. Cleary, J. Y. Ro, “Histologic parameters and DNA ploidy as predictors of survival in stage B adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum,” Mod. Pathol. 3, 261–266 (1990).
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R. M. Cothren, G. B. Hayes, J. R. Kramer, B. A. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A multifiber catheter with an optical shield for laser angiosurgery,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 1–12 (1986).

Saidi, I. S.

Sato, N.

M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
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N. D. Carr, B. R. Pullan, P. F. Schofield, “Microvascular studies in non-specific inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27, 542–549 (1986).
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Schomacker, K. T.

Seiler, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, T.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sichirollo, A. E.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silveira, L.

Skinner, S. A.

S. A. Skinner, G. M. Frydman, P. E. O’Brien, “Microvascular structure of benign and malignant tumors of the colon in humans,” Digestive Diseases Sci. 40, 373–384 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. A.

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, N. A. Smith, R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96, 22–30 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, P.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, R.

Sunao, K.

N. Sato, K. Takenobu, S. Motoaki, K. Sunao, A. Hiroshi, B. Hagihara, “Measurement of hemoperfusion and oxygen sufficiency in gastric mucosa in vivo,” Gastroenterology 76, 814–819 (1979).
[PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

Takatani, S.

S. Takatani, J. Ling, “Optical oximetry sensors for whole blood and tissue,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 3, 347–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Takatani, M. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656–664 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takei, Y.

M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takenobu, K.

N. Sato, K. Takenobu, S. Motoaki, K. Sunao, A. Hiroshi, B. Hagihara, “Measurement of hemoperfusion and oxygen sufficiency in gastric mucosa in vivo,” Gastroenterology 76, 814–819 (1979).
[PubMed]

Taylor, C. R.

Testori, A.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992), pp. 681–699.

Thomson, H. J.

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, N. A. Smith, R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96, 22–30 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. L. Tipoe, F. H. White, “Blood vessel morphometry in human colorectal lesions,” Histol. Histopathol. 10, 589–596 (1995).
[PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

Tomatis, S.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T.

Tsuji, S.

M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsujii, M.

M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulip, J.

M. R. Arnfield, J. Tulip, M. S. McPhee, “Optical propagation in tissue with anisotropic scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 372–381 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Assendelft, O. W.

O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1970), pp. 355–359.

Van Dam, J.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Manoharan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Spectral pathology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 108–115 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Zangaro, L. Silveira, R. Manoharan, G. Zonios, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Rapid multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy system for in vivo tissue diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5211–5219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaupel, P.

P. Vaupel, “Oxygen transport in tumors: characteristics and clinical implications,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 388, 341–351 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venturoli, D. R.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992), pp. 681–699.

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. D.

Warshaw, A. L.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

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G. L. Tipoe, F. H. White, “Blood vessel morphometry in human colorectal lesions,” Histol. Histopathol. 10, 589–596 (1995).
[PubMed]

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A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2304–2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiscombe, W. J.

W. J. Wiscombe, “NCAR technical note,” (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1979).

Wu, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yannas, I. V.

A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangaro, R. A.

Zhang, Y.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Manoharan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Spectral pathology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 108–115 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Zangaro, L. Silveira, R. Manoharan, G. Zonios, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Rapid multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy system for in vivo tissue diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5211–5219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human colon tissue,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1998).

Zonios, G. I.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence studies,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 2081–2086 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

P. Vaupel, “Oxygen transport in tumors: characteristics and clinical implications,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 388, 341–351 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Manoharan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Spectral pathology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 108–115 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartments of the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
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Cancer Res. (1)

R. K. Jain, “Determinants of tumor blood flow: a review,” Cancer Res. 48, 2641–2658 (1988).
[PubMed]

Digestive Diseases Sci. (1)

S. A. Skinner, G. M. Frydman, P. E. O’Brien, “Microvascular structure of benign and malignant tumors of the colon in humans,” Digestive Diseases Sci. 40, 373–384 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology (1)

N. Sato, K. Takenobu, S. Motoaki, K. Sunao, A. Hiroshi, B. Hagihara, “Measurement of hemoperfusion and oxygen sufficiency in gastric mucosa in vivo,” Gastroenterology 76, 814–819 (1979).
[PubMed]

Gut (1)

N. D. Carr, B. R. Pullan, P. F. Schofield, “Microvascular studies in non-specific inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27, 542–549 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Histol. Histopathol. (1)

G. L. Tipoe, F. H. White, “Blood vessel morphometry in human colorectal lesions,” Histol. Histopathol. 10, 589–596 (1995).
[PubMed]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

S. Takatani, J. Ling, “Optical oximetry sensors for whole blood and tissue,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 3, 347–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (4)

M. R. Arnfield, J. Tulip, M. S. McPhee, “Optical propagation in tissue with anisotropic scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 372–381 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Simple photon diffusion analysis of the effects of multiple scattering on pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 1194–1203 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takatani, M. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656–664 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116–123 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 192–199 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gastroenterol. (1)

M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

M. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, “Reflectance of rat brain structures mapped by an optical fiber technique,” J. Neurosci. Methods 2, 9–17 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

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E. Marx, G. W. Mulholland, “Size and refractive index determination of single polystyrene spheres,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 88, 321–338 (1983).
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J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. (1)

H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, N. A. Smith, R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96, 22–30 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Life Sci. (1)

R. M. Cothren, G. B. Hayes, J. R. Kramer, B. A. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A multifiber catheter with an optical shield for laser angiosurgery,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 1–12 (1986).

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mod. Pathol. (1)

S. S. Robey-Cafferty, A. K. el-Naggar, D. J. Grignon, K. R. Cleary, J. Y. Ro, “Histologic parameters and DNA ploidy as predictors of survival in stage B adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum,” Mod. Pathol. 3, 261–266 (1990).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
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T. J. Eide, “A morphometric analysis of dysplasia in small adenomas of the large intestine,” Virchows Arch. A 410, 119–124 (1986).
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E. L. Hull, T. H. Foster, “Noninvasive near-infrared hemoglobin spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of tumor oxygenation and response to oxygen modifiers,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model and Human Studies II, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2979, 355–364 (1997).

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue: A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, London, 1990), p. 62.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1978), Chap. 9.

O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1970), pp. 355–359.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992), pp. 681–699.

W. J. Wiscombe, “NCAR technical note,” (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1979).

G. Zonios, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human colon tissue,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1998).

D. F. Horrobin, Medical Physiology and Biochemistry (Arnold, London, 1968), p. 384.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molar extinction coefficient spectra (per heme group) of the oxygenated (thin curve) and the deoxygenated (thick curve) Hb.26 Note the characteristic peaks at 415, 542, and 577 nm [oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)] and at 430 and 555 nm [deoxyhemoglobin (Hb)].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reduced scattering cross-section curves σ′(λ, d s ) calculated by use of Mie theory for four different tissue scatterer diameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffuse reflectance spectra measured on physical tissue models (thick curve) for four different HbO2 concentrations: (a) 0.0 mg/dl, (b) 50 mg/dl, (c) 125 mg/dl, and (d) 250 mg/dl. The analytical model predictions by use of the same optical parameters are also shown (thin curve). As can be seen, the agreement between the analytical and the physical tissue model is good. Polystyrene beads with a 1.07-µm diameter and a density of 1.25 × 109 mm-3 were used, resulting in μ s ′ ≃ 1.7–3.2 mm-1 across the spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical normal and adenomatous polyp spectra (thick curves) and modeled spectra (thin curves). Mie theory was used to approximate the reduced scattering coefficient for the model fits (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattering spectra obtained from the data shown in Fig. 4 (thin curves) and the corresponding Mie theory spectra (thick curves). The effective scatterer sizes are indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Model parameters obtained from tissue data analysis: (a) total Hb concentration c Hb*, (b) Hb oxygen saturation α, (c) effective scatterer density ρ s , and (d) effective scatterer size d s .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Binary plot of total Hb concentration c Hb* versus effective scatterer size d s . Data from normal mucosa tend to form a well-defined cluster, whereas the adenomatous polyp data are marked by wider variation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Parameters used in the Physical Tissue Model with Those Determined from Its Reflectance Spectra by Use of the Analytical Modela

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average Values and Standard Deviations for the Model Parameters Obtained from Tissue Data Analysis

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rλ, r=z04πμsμs+μaμ+1r1exp-μr1r12+1+43 Aμ+1r2exp-μr2r22,
μ=3μaμa+μs1/2, z0=1μs+μa, r1=z02+r21/2, r2=z021+43 A2+r21/2.
Rpλ=1rd20rc rdr 02πdϕ 0rd Rλ, |r-r|rdr,
Rpλ=2π 0rc Rrrdr=μsμs+μaexp-μz0+exp-1+43 Aμz0-z0exp-μr1r1-1+43 Az0exp-μr2r2,
r1=z02+rc21/2, r2=z021+43 A2+rc21/2.
μaλ=loge 10 cHb*αεHbO2λ+1-αεHbλ,
μsλ=ρsσλ,

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