Abstract

We have fabricated the four flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer using a holographic ion-etching technique. The gratings are spherical (4000-mm radius of curvature), large (160 mm × 90 mm), and have a laminar groove profile of high density (3600 grooves/mm). They have been coated with a high-reflectance multilayer of Mo/Si. Using an atomic force microscope, we examined the surface characteristics of the first grating before and after multilayer coating. The average roughness is approximately 3 Å rms after coating. Using synchrotron radiation, we completed an efficiency calibration map over the wavelength range 225–245 Å. At an angle of incidence of 5° and a wavelength of 234 Å, the average efficiency in the first inside order is 10.4 ± 0.5%, and the derived groove efficiency is 34.8 ± 1.6%. These values exceed all previously published results for a high-density grating.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.
  10. R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.
  11. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

1997 (2)

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Bannister, N. P.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Barbee, T. W.

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Barstow, M. A.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

Boyer, C. N.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Doschek, G. A.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eby, R.

Feldman, U.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

Fritz, G. G.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Goldstein, W. H.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

Gursky, H.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Heidemann, K. F.

Heinzmann, U.

Hellwege, K. H.

K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G. E.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Kleineberg, U.

Kordas, J. F.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

Kowalski, M. P.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

Lapington, J. S.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Menke, D.

Osterried, K.

Rife, J. C.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Sadeghi, H. R.

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sanderson, B.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Seely, J. F.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Stolt, K. G.

Tandy, J. A.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

Williams, R. T.

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yentis, D. J.

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (2)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, “Features and initial performance tests of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 252–255 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Scr. (1)

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “J-PEX: the joint astrophysical plasmadynamic experiment,” presented at the 11th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, 29 June–3 July 1998.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, “High resolution astrophysical spectroscopy,” presented at the Workshop on Small Missions for Energetic Astrophysics: Ultraviolet Through Gamma Ray, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 22–26 February 1999.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, C. M. Brown, G. A. Doschek, U. Feldman, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, “High-resolution EUV spectroscopy: performance of spherical multilayer-coated gratings operated at near normal incidence,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bély, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 164–175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Truncated-sinusoidal grooves after holographic recording and photoresist development, as measured by an AFM at the center of grating 1. The image size is 2 µm square, and the vertical scale is exaggerated for clarity. The average groove depth is approximately 1000 Å.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Map of measurement locations on grating 1. Open diamonds are AFM measurements prior to multilayer coating. Open triangles are AFM measurements after multilayer coating. Crosses are efficiency measurements at 5° angle of incidence. Filled circles are efficiency measurements at 15° angle of incidence. The grating holder restricted 5° measurements to the rectangular and circular regions outlined by the dashed lines. The reflectometer restricted 15° measurements to the region outlined by the dashed/double-dotted line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laminar grooves after ion-beam etching and photoresist removal, as measured by an AFM at the center of grating 1. The image size is 2 µm square, and the vertical scale is exaggerated for clarity. The average groove depth is 62 Å.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laminar grooves after cleaning and multilayer coating, as measured by an AFM near the center of grating 1. The image size is 2 µm square, and the vertical scale is exaggerated for clarity. The average groove depth is 73 Å.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance profile of the multilayer-coated witness flat for grating 1, measured at an angle of incidence of 5°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured efficiency of grating 1 in the first inside order at an angle of incidence of 5°. The results from locations close to the alignment rulings, (-30,0), (-20,0), (-20,60), are asterisks, and the results from all other locations are open squares. The solid curve is the average from all 17 locations and the dot–dashed curves show the standard deviation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured efficiency of grating 1 in the first inside order at an angle of 5° and at a wavelength of 234 Å. The values are in percent.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured efficiency of grating 1 in the first inside order at an angle of incidence of 5°. The profiles were normalized to the value of the measured efficiency at 234 Å. The results from the Y = 60 meridian are asterisks, and the results from all other locations are open squares. The solid curve is the normalized average from all 17 locations, and the dot–dashed curves are the normalized standard deviations. The normalized reflectance data from the witness flat are crosses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured efficiency of grating 1 at an angle of incidence of 15°, a wavelength of 223 Å, and at the center location (0,0). The inside (+) and outside (-) order are indicated.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured efficiency of grating 1 at an angle of incidence of 15°, a wavelength of 223 Å, and at the location (40,30). The inside (+) and outside (-) orders are indicated.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AFM Results for Grating 1 before Multilayer Coating

Tables Icon

Table 2 AFM Results for Grating 1 after Cleaning and Coating

Metrics