Abstract

We propose to model hybrid optical systems (i.e., lenses with conventional and diffractive optical elements) as multiaperture systems in which the images formed by each zone of the diffractive optical element should be summed up coherently. This new zone decomposition concept is explained and compared with the standard diffraction-order expansion with the help of a hybrid triplet example.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Stone, N. George, “Hybrid diffractive-refractive lenses and achromats,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2960–2971 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. J. Riedl, J. T. McCann, “Analysis and performance limits of diamond-turned diffractive lenses for the 3-5 and 8-12 micrometer regions,” in Infrared Optical Design and Fabrication, R. Hartmann, M. Marietta, W. J. Smith, eds., Vol. CR38 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1991), pp. 153–163.
  3. M. D. Missig, G. M. Morris, “Diffractive optics applied to eyepiece design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2452–2461 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, “Effects of diffraction efficiency on the modulation transfer function of diffractive lenses,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4389–4396 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).
  6. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
  7. G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Mass., 1989).
  8. H. Sauer, G. Narcy, P. Chavel, “Kinoform modeling for hybrid optical system design,” Diffractive Optics 97, Vol. 12 of Topical Meetings Digests Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1997), communication D19, pp. 174–175.
  9. This is a pure academic exercise, and this layout has been developed independently of the layout of the Melles Griot APO014 Dapromat commercial product that happens to have fairly similar external characteristics.

1995

1992

1988

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).

Buralli, D. A.

Chavel, P.

H. Sauer, G. Narcy, P. Chavel, “Kinoform modeling for hybrid optical system design,” Diffractive Optics 97, Vol. 12 of Topical Meetings Digests Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1997), communication D19, pp. 174–175.

George, N.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

McCann, J. T.

M. J. Riedl, J. T. McCann, “Analysis and performance limits of diamond-turned diffractive lenses for the 3-5 and 8-12 micrometer regions,” in Infrared Optical Design and Fabrication, R. Hartmann, M. Marietta, W. J. Smith, eds., Vol. CR38 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1991), pp. 153–163.

Missig, M. D.

Morris, G. M.

Narcy, G.

H. Sauer, G. Narcy, P. Chavel, “Kinoform modeling for hybrid optical system design,” Diffractive Optics 97, Vol. 12 of Topical Meetings Digests Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1997), communication D19, pp. 174–175.

Riedl, M. J.

M. J. Riedl, J. T. McCann, “Analysis and performance limits of diamond-turned diffractive lenses for the 3-5 and 8-12 micrometer regions,” in Infrared Optical Design and Fabrication, R. Hartmann, M. Marietta, W. J. Smith, eds., Vol. CR38 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1991), pp. 153–163.

Sauer, H.

H. Sauer, G. Narcy, P. Chavel, “Kinoform modeling for hybrid optical system design,” Diffractive Optics 97, Vol. 12 of Topical Meetings Digests Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1997), communication D19, pp. 174–175.

Stone, T.

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Mass., 1989).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).

Appl. Opt.

Other

M. J. Riedl, J. T. McCann, “Analysis and performance limits of diamond-turned diffractive lenses for the 3-5 and 8-12 micrometer regions,” in Infrared Optical Design and Fabrication, R. Hartmann, M. Marietta, W. J. Smith, eds., Vol. CR38 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1991), pp. 153–163.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Mass., 1989).

H. Sauer, G. Narcy, P. Chavel, “Kinoform modeling for hybrid optical system design,” Diffractive Optics 97, Vol. 12 of Topical Meetings Digests Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1997), communication D19, pp. 174–175.

This is a pure academic exercise, and this layout has been developed independently of the layout of the Melles Griot APO014 Dapromat commercial product that happens to have fairly similar external characteristics.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the hybrid triplet. This system is an f/1.7, 21.1-mm focal length lens intended to work in the visible and the NIR band (0.48–0.78 µm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristic function and etching profile of the hybrid triplet DOE. Note the unusual shape of the characteristic function curve that is mainly intended to correct for spherical aberration (mostly like a Schmidt plate) rather than for pure axial chromatism. λNominal = 594 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

On-axis polychromatic PSF of the hybrid triplet (central region). Thin line: +1 diffraction-order computation (100% efficiency assumed for all wavelengths). Thick line: zone-decomposition computation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

On-axis polychromatic PSF of the hybrid triplet (wide region). Thin line: +1 diffraction-order computation (100% efficiency assumed for all wavelengths). Thick line: zone-decomposition computation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

On-axis polychromatic MTF of the hybrid triplet. Dashed line: diffraction limit. Thin solid line: +1 diffraction-order computation (100% efficiency assumed for all wavelengths). Thick solid line: zone-decomposition computation. The inset is a magnified view of the low spatial frequency region indicated by the dashed rectangle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

On-axis polychromatic MTF of an optimized conventional cemented doublet. Dashed line: diffraction limit. Solid line: MTF of a conventional cemented doublet of same focal length and aperture as the hybrid triplet and optimized for polychromatic operation over the same wavelength range (0.48–0.78 µm). The inset is a magnified view of the low spatial frequency region indicated by the dashed rectangle. Note that it has a different vertical scale than the one of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

On-axis polychromatic MTF of the hybrid triplet for low spatial frequencies. (1): diffraction limit. (2): +1 diffraction order (100% efficiency assumed for all wavelengths). (3): zone decomposition. (4): +1 diffraction order with stray light from nonnominal orders taken into account as a uniform background. (5): incoherent summation of 5 diffraction orders (-1 … +3). (6): incoherent summation of 19 diffraction orders (-8 … +10). See Table 2 for precise definitions of the curves.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Detailed Layout of the Hybrid Triplet

Tables Icon

Table 2 Precise Definitions of the Polychromatic MTF Curves of Fig. 7 and Their Components

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