Abstract

The extinction spectra of aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols fully covering the mid-IR to visible regions from 750 to 23,000 cm-1 (13.9–0.4 µm) have been measured in the laboratory with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. Both large and small aerosol particles with compositions of approximately 60–70-wt. % H2SO4 were generated and their spectra recorded at 230 and 294 K. The spectra were fitted to a model incorporating room-temperature refractive-index data [Appl. Opt. 14, 208 (1975)] and Mie theory calculations to characterize the composition and size distributions of the aerosol samples.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1997 (6)

S. Borrmann, S. Solomon, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, “Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric background aerosols, volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, and type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: effects of temperature fluctuations and differences in particle phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3639–3648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, S. L. Clegg, P. Hamill, “A new parameterization of H2SO4/H2O aerosol composition: atmospheric implications,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1931–1934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4°N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. F. Niedziela, L. J. Richwine, T. Dransfield, R. E. Miller, “Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: freezing characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8899–8907 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Imre, J. Xu, A. C. Tridico, “Phase transformations in sulfuric acid aerosols: implications for stratospheric ozone depletion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 69–72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. K. Bertram, D. D. Patterson, J. J. Sloan, “Mechanisms and temperatures of the freezing of sulfuric acid aerosols measured by FTIR extinction spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 2376–2383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Coffey, “Observations of the impact of volcanic activity on stratospheric chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6767–6780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, “Measurement of the kinetics of the reactive uptake by submicron sulfuric acid particles,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2080–2087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Anthony, R. T. Tisdale, R. S. Disselkamp, M. A. Tolbert, J. C. Wilson, “FTIR studies of low temperature sulfuric acid aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1105–1108 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Newnham, J. Ballard, M. Page, “Doppler-limited spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures: application of collision cooling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4475–4481 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tolbert, “Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Science 264, 527–528 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (5)

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. P. D. Abbat, M. J. Molina, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/H2O binary system at low temperatures: stratospheric implications,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7351–7358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloon-borne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20805–20823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Lacis, J. Hansen, M. Sato, “Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1607–1610 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. M. Rodriguez, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, “Role of heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 on sulphate aerosols in global ozone losses,” Nature (London) 352, 134–137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, “Stratospheric aerosols: observation and theory,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233–279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric-acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur optik truber medien speziell kolloidaler metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Abbat, J. P. D.

R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. P. D. Abbat, M. J. Molina, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/H2O binary system at low temperatures: stratospheric implications,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7351–7358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. E.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4°N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, S. E.

S. E. Anthony, R. T. Tisdale, R. S. Disselkamp, M. A. Tolbert, J. C. Wilson, “FTIR studies of low temperature sulfuric acid aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1105–1108 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Avallone, L. M.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, J.

D. Newnham, J. Ballard, M. Page, “Doppler-limited spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures: application of collision cooling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4475–4481 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baumgardner, D.

S. Borrmann, S. Solomon, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, “Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric background aerosols, volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, and type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: effects of temperature fluctuations and differences in particle phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3639–3648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, A. K.

A. K. Bertram, D. D. Patterson, J. J. Sloan, “Mechanisms and temperatures of the freezing of sulfuric acid aerosols measured by FTIR extinction spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 2376–2383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borrmann, S.

S. Borrmann, S. Solomon, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, “Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric background aerosols, volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, and type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: effects of temperature fluctuations and differences in particle phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3639–3648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloon-borne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20805–20823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. R.

S. Borrmann, S. Solomon, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, “Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric background aerosols, volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, and type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: effects of temperature fluctuations and differences in particle phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3639–3648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, M. L.

M. L. Clapp, R. F. Niedziela, L. J. Richwine, T. Dransfield, R. E. Miller, “Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: freezing characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8899–8907 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clegg, S. L.

A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, S. L. Clegg, P. Hamill, “A new parameterization of H2SO4/H2O aerosol composition: atmospheric implications,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1931–1934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, M. T.

M. T. Coffey, “Observations of the impact of volcanic activity on stratospheric chemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6767–6780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corney, M.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4°N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diallo, B. S.

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloon-borne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20805–20823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Disselkamp, R. S.

S. E. Anthony, R. T. Tisdale, R. S. Disselkamp, M. A. Tolbert, J. C. Wilson, “FTIR studies of low temperature sulfuric acid aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1105–1108 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dransfield, T.

M. L. Clapp, R. F. Niedziela, L. J. Richwine, T. Dransfield, R. E. Miller, “Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: freezing characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8899–8907 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dye, J. E.

S. Borrmann, S. Solomon, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, “Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric background aerosols, volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, and type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: effects of temperature fluctuations and differences in particle phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3639–3648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, D. W.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, L.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleason, J. F.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grainger, R. G.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, S. L. Clegg, P. Hamill, “A new parameterization of H2SO4/H2O aerosol composition: atmospheric implications,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1931–1934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric-acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J.

A. Lacis, J. Hansen, M. Sato, “Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1607–1610 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, “Measurement of the kinetics of the reactive uptake by submicron sulfuric acid particles,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2080–2087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, M.

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloon-borne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20805–20823 (1992).
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D. G. Imre, J. Xu, A. C. Tridico, “Phase transformations in sulfuric acid aerosols: implications for stratospheric ozone depletion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 69–72 (1997).
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A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloon-borne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20805–20823 (1992).
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D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. K.

S. Borrmann, S. Solomon, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, “Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric background aerosols, volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, and type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: effects of temperature fluctuations and differences in particle phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3639–3648 (1997).
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R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodriguez, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, “Role of heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 on sulphate aerosols in global ozone losses,” Nature (London) 352, 134–137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, B. G.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Komhyr, W. D.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumer, J. B.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Labow, G.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacis, A.

A. Lacis, J. Hansen, M. Sato, “Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1607–1610 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, A.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Larko, D.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenoble, J.

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloon-borne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20805–20823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, M.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lovejoy, E. R.

E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, “Measurement of the kinetics of the reactive uptake by submicron sulfuric acid particles,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2080–2087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margitan, J.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4°N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McNeill, L. S.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrook, A. M.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
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G. Mie, “Beitrage zur optik truber medien speziell kolloidaler metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377 (1908).
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J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, R. E.

M. L. Clapp, R. F. Niedziela, L. J. Richwine, T. Dransfield, R. E. Miller, “Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: freezing characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8899–8907 (1997).
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R. Zhang, P. J. Wooldridge, J. P. D. Abbat, M. J. Molina, “Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/H2O binary system at low temperatures: stratospheric implications,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7351–7358 (1993).
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J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
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D. Newnham, J. Ballard, M. Page, “Doppler-limited spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures: application of collision cooling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4475–4481 (1995).
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Niedziela, R. F.

M. L. Clapp, R. F. Niedziela, L. J. Richwine, T. Dransfield, R. E. Miller, “Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: freezing characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8899–8907 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Page, M.

D. Newnham, J. Ballard, M. Page, “Doppler-limited spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures: application of collision cooling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4475–4481 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K. F.

Patterson, D. D.

A. K. Bertram, D. D. Patterson, J. J. Sloan, “Mechanisms and temperatures of the freezing of sulfuric acid aerosols measured by FTIR extinction spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 2376–2383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pinkley, L. W.

Planet, W.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolske, J. R.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, M. H.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ravishankara, A. R.

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, J.

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4°N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Richwine, L. J.

M. L. Clapp, R. F. Niedziela, L. J. Richwine, T. Dransfield, R. E. Miller, “Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: freezing characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8899–8907 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J. M.

J. M. Rodriguez, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, “Role of heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 on sulphate aerosols in global ozone losses,” Nature (London) 352, 134–137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Saastad, O. W.

A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

C. Brogniez, R. Santer, B. S. Diallo, M. Herman, J. Lenoble, H. Jäger, “Comparative observations of stratospheric aerosols by ground-based lidar, balloon-borne polarimeter and satellite solar occultation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20805–20823 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

A. Lacis, J. Hansen, M. Sato, “Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1607–1610 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schoeberl, M. R.

D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seftor, C.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, J. J.

A. K. Bertram, D. D. Patterson, J. J. Sloan, “Mechanisms and temperatures of the freezing of sulfuric acid aerosols measured by FTIR extinction spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 2376–2383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Borrmann, S. Solomon, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, “Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric background aerosols, volcanic sulfuric acid droplets, and type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: effects of temperature fluctuations and differences in particle phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3639–3648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hanson, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Heterogeneous reactions in sulfuric acid aerosols: a framework for model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3615–3629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric-acid-water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stolarski, R. S.

J. F. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, R. McPeters, P. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, L. Flynn, G. Labow, D. Larko, C. Seftor, C. Wellemeyer, W. D. Komhyr, A. J. Miller, W. Planet, “Record low ozone in 1992,” Science 260, 523–526 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sze, N. D.

J. M. Rodriguez, M. K. W. Ko, N. D. Sze, “Role of heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 on sulphate aerosols in global ozone losses,” Nature (London) 352, 134–137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabazadeh, A.

A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, S. L. Clegg, P. Hamill, “A new parameterization of H2SO4/H2O aerosol composition: atmospheric implications,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1931–1934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1283–1286 (1993).
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A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, S. L. Clegg, P. Hamill, “A new parameterization of H2SO4/H2O aerosol composition: atmospheric implications,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1931–1934 (1997).
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A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4°N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
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S. E. Anthony, R. T. Tisdale, R. S. Disselkamp, M. A. Tolbert, J. C. Wilson, “FTIR studies of low temperature sulfuric acid aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1105–1108 (1995).
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A. M. Middlebrook, L. T. Iraci, L. S. McNeill, B. G. Koehler, M. A. Wilson, O. W. Saastad, M. A. Tolbert, D. R. Hanson, “Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20,473–20,481 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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D. W. Fahey, S. R. Kawa, E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Dye, D. Baumgardner, S. Borrmann, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, J. Margitan, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, R. J. Salawitch, S. C. Wofsy, M. K. W. Ko, D. E. Anderson, M. R. Schoeberl, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements constraining the role of sulphate aerosols in mid-latitude ozone depletion,” Nature (London) 363, 509–514 (1993).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aerosol generation system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectroscopic gas cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction spectra recorded at the start (lower curve, no water vapor or CO2 bands) and the end (upper curve, water vapor and CO2 bands present in the air in the spectrometer) for room-temperature, large-particle aerosol measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum and minimum values of optical depth in the repeat measurements for the large-particle spectrum at room temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extinction spectra of sulfuric acid aerosols recorded at 294 K. The large-particle spectrum (top) has been offset by four units of optical depth for clarity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction spectra of sulfuric acid aerosols recorded at 230 K. The large-particle spectrum (top) has been offset by four units of optical depth for clarity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results of fitting (a) the 294-K, small-particle measured spectrum to model: 72-wt.% H2SO4, single-mode, log-normal distribution (r m = 0.08 µm, σ g = 1.75, N = 44.4 × 107 cm-3); (b) the 294-K, large-particle measured spectrum to model: 72-wt.% H2SO4, single-mode, log-normal distribution (r m = 0.28 µm, σ g = 1.40, N = 2.15 × 107 cm-3); (c) the 230-K, small-particle, measured spectrum to model: 61-wt.% H2SO4, single-mode, log-normal distribution (r m = 0.11 µm, σ g = 1.60, N = 35.2 × 107 cm-3); (d) the 230-K, large-particle, measured spectrum to model: 61-wt.% H2SO4, single-mode, log-normal distribution (r m = 0.32 µm, σ g = 1.35, N = 1.59 × 107 cm-3).

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Components used for the Four Sections of the Aerosol Spectral Measurements Fully Covering the Range between 720 and 23,000 cm-1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectrometer Configurations for Separate Aerosol Measurements between 750 and 23,000 cm-1

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Temperatures for Uncorrected PRT’s, Corrected PRT’s, and Thermistors for the Two Low-Temperature Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 4 Composition of Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Samples Calculated from Mid-IR Extinction Spectra

Tables Icon

Table 5 Determined Values of the Parameters for the Best-Fit Single-Mode Log-Normal Size Distribution for the Broadband Spectra

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dNrdr=N0r ln σ2πexp-ln2r/rg2 ln2 σ,
optical depth=-lnItrν˜I0ν˜,

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