Abstract

Previous modeling of the performance of spaceborne direct-detection Doppler lidar systems assumed extremely idealized atmospheric models. Here we develop a technique for modeling the performance of these systems in a more realistic atmosphere, based on actual airborne lidar observations. The resulting atmospheric model contains cloud and aerosol variability that is absent in other simulations of spaceborne Doppler lidar instruments. To produce a realistic simulation of daytime performance, we include solar radiance values that are based on actual measurements and are allowed to vary as the viewing scene changes. Simulations are performed for two types of direct-detection Doppler lidar system: the double-edge and the multichannel techniques. Both systems were optimized to measure winds from Rayleigh backscatter at 355 nm. Simulations show that the measurement uncertainty during daytime is degraded by only approximately 10–20% compared with nighttime performance, provided that a proper solar filter is included in the instrument design.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1999

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Flesia, C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 38, 432–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. I. The edge technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6480–6486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. II. The fringe imaging technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6487–6493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, C. Flesia, “Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3097–3104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. M. Atlas, “Atmospheric observations and experiments to assess their usefulness in data assimilation,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 75, 111–130 (1997).

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye, “Comparative precision of distributed-backscatter Doppler lidars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8341–8344 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exhange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. Boers, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Lidar observations of the fine-scale variability of marine stratocumulus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 797–810 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

1983

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1564–1571 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

Abreu, V. J.

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Optimization of a triple etalon interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2817–2827 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, “Wind measurements from an orbital platform using a lidar system with incoherent detection: an analysis,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2992–2997 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackermann, J.

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. R.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, R. M.

R. M. Atlas, “Atmospheric observations and experiments to assess their usefulness in data assimilation,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 75, 111–130 (1997).

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, W. E.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Banta, R. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. E.

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boers, R.

R. Boers, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Lidar observations of the fine-scale variability of marine stratocumulus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 797–810 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bowdle, D. A.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bramstedt, K.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. A.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buchwitz, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caudill, L. O.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1564–1571 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M. L.

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exhange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cutten, D. R.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeBeek, R.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eichmann, K.-U.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisinger, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Emmitt, G. D.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere (revised),” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Fischer, K. W.

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flesia, C.

Fricke, K.-H.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere (revised),” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Garnier, A.

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exhange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gell, D. A.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, B. M.

Grandy, W. T.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2344–2355 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hall, L. A.

L. A. Hall, L. J. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. NTIS-ADA-167000 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1985).

Ham, C.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. Z.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1564–1571 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hart, W. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Boers, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Lidar observations of the fine-scale variability of marine stratocumulus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 797–810 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exhange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Optimization of a triple etalon interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2817–2827 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, “A comparative study of coherent and incoherent Doppler lidar techniques,” to Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., (June1994).

Herman, B. M.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometers, Vol. 3 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Physics (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1986).

Heroux, L. J.

L. A. Hall, L. J. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. NTIS-ADA-167000 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1985).

Hinteregger, H. E.

L. A. Hall, L. J. Heroux, H. E. Hinteregger, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. NTIS-ADA-167000 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1985).

Hlavka, D. L.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoogen, R.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J. N.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Irgang, T. D.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, S. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. C.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

Krishnamurti, T. N.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. X.

Lloyd, N. D.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lorenc, A. C.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere (revised),” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

McDermid, I. S.

McElroy, J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M. J.

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McKay, J. A.

Menzies, R. T.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors: a comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546–2552 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molinari, J. E.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, D.

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exhange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nelke, G.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, L. D.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paegle, J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, A.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, F.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rothermel, J.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, V.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rye, B. J.

Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere (revised),” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

Singer, W.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,713–10,723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Optimization of a triple etalon interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2817–2827 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, “A comparative study of coherent and incoherent Doppler lidar techniques,” to Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., (June1994).

Spinhirne, J. D.

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Boers, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Lidar observations of the fine-scale variability of marine stratocumulus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 797–810 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1564–1571 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tratt, D. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere (revised),” (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1971).

von Cossart, G.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Zahn, U.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1564–1571 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Abreu, “Wind measurements from an orbital platform using a lidar system with incoherent detection: an analysis,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2992–2997 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors: a comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546–2552 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Skinner, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Optimization of a triple etalon interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2817–2827 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, J. E. Barnes, P. B. Hays, “Observations of winds with an incoherent lidar detector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4509–4514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Analysis techniques for the recovery of winds and backscatter coefficients from a multiple channel incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1253–1268 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. I. The edge technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6480–6486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. II. The fringe imaging technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6487–6493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye, “Comparative precision of distributed-backscatter Doppler lidars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8341–8344 (1995).
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C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, C. Flesia, “Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3097–3104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Flesia, C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 38, 432–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

W. E. Baker, G. D. Emmitt, F. Robertson, R. M. Atlas, J. E. Molinari, D. A. Bowdle, J. Paegle, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Brown, M. J. Post, J. R. Anderson, A. C. Lorenc, J. McElroy, “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

R. Boers, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Lidar observations of the fine-scale variability of marine stratocumulus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 797–810 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, “Vertical distribution of aerosol extinction cross section and inference of aerosol imaginary index in the troposphere by lidar technique,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 426–438 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
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J. Atmos. Sci.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstattler-Weissenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, W. Singer, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedeljkovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere-troposphere exhange,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profiles of 1064-nm attenuated backscatter obtained by the Cloud Lidar System over the equatorial Pacific Ocean on 7 January 1993. CLS resolution is 7.5 m vertical by 200 m horizontal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Molecular backscatter coefficients at 355 nm (solid curve) and 1064 nm (dashed curve). The molecular backscatter is assumed constant over all CLS profiles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profiles of 355-nm aerosol backscatter coefficient derived from the 1064-nm attenuated backscatter profiles of Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wind profile used for the simulation. For simplicity, the wind profile was assumed constant over all CLS profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated spaceborne wind measurement accuracy for the MC system. (a) Nighttime system performance, (b) daytime system performance. Resolution of each profile is 1 km vertical by 26 km horizontal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated spaceborne wind measurement accuracy for the DE system. (a) Nighttime system performance, (b) daytime system performance. Resolution of each profile is 1 km vertical by 26 km horizontal.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Spectral Radiance Values for Several Cloud Conditions, Assuming a 30° Instrument Viewing Angle

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Table 2 Parameters for the Spacecraft System

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Table 3 Parameters for MC and DE Rayleigh Receivers

Equations (9)

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σUH=c24λ2 sin2 ϕ j=1ncSNR2j1NjNjλ21/2,
NSj=κQEjn=0 An sincn/A×exp-π2n2ΔλL2/ΔλFSR2α+ω×exp-π2n2ΔλM2/ΔλFSR2×cos2πnξ-2UHλL sin ϕcΔλFSR,
An=1-1-21-1+,  n=0, An=21-1-21-1+n×exp-4π2n2ΔdD2/λ02,  n>0,
=1/nCMCTBSDE,
ξ=λL-λCΔλFSR-jNFSRMC±δ2EFFDE,
α=PAπβA exp-2 0rβA+βMdr,
ω=PMπβM exp-2 0rβA+βMdr,
κ=ETλhcAT4πΔrr2 T0OAr,
NBj=QEjATT0Rλλhcπ4 Θ22ΔrcFW,

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