Abstract

The application of excimer lasers in ablation, cleaning, and restoration for the recovery of paper and parchment manuscripts is a recently implemented technique. A report of the use of excimer lasers in a cleaning process by which mud was removed from Islamic papers and parchments is presented. It was found that, because of the close proximity of the binding energies of paper to paper and of paper to mud, it was difficult to maintain control of the ablation process. However, the substrate was not affected. Spectrocolorimetry was used as a technique to detect the effects of ablation on cleaned areas of the manuscripts in terms of change in color appearance and severity of aging postablation. The analysis was performed by comparison of treated and untreated areas. Mathematical modeling was developed to define a representative original color and a color-distribution parameter. Improvements in the measuring method were made to yield the required precision for evaluating differences in color produced by laser ablation and to follow the color evolution after ablation. Results show that the effects of restoration, aging, and the environmental conditions can be individually identified under certain conditions. The method has applications in other domains.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Bell, “Q-switched laser place stone carving at risk,” Opt. Lasers19–20 (April1997);C. Fotakis, “Lasers for Art’s Sake,” Opt. Photon. News 6, (5)30–35 (1995).
  2. E. I. Hontzopoulos, C. Fotakis, M. Doulgeridis, “Excimer laser art restoration,” in 9th International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers, C. Fotakis, C. Kalpouzos, T. G. Papazoglou, eds., Proc. SPIE1810, 749–751 (1992).
  3. W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, J. Kruger, E. Konig, “Laser cleaning of antique parchments and papers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 69–78; W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, E. König, “Interaction with coated collagen and cellusose fibre composite: fundamentals of laser cleaning of ancient parchments manuscripts and paper,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,746–754 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Duarte, V. Milheirão, P. Pelas, R. M. Miranda, “Excimer laser cleaning of paper and parchment with mud,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks, (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 203–205.
  5. R. Srinivasan, “Ablative photodecomposition action of far-ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Commission International de l’Eclairage, Colorimetry 15.2 (Commission International de l’Eclairage, Vienna, 1986).
  8. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, International Electrotechnical Commission, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, International Organisation for Standardisation, International Union for Pure and Applied Physics, and Organisation International de Métrologie Legal, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, ISBN 92-67-10188-9 (International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva, 1993).
  9. R. M. Miranda, O. D. D. Soares, “Relatório final de projecto: Limpeza de pigmentos com laser de excímeros e avaliação espectrocolorimétrica de documentação pós-processamento ablativo por laser” (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, 1998), pp. 1–80.
  10. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  11. O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Spectrophotometers intercomparison for spectrocolorimetric scale harmonization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).
  12. O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Calibration and uncertainties in spectrocolorimetry,” presented at Métrologie 99, Collége Métrologie, Nantere, France, 18–19 October 1999.

1998

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Bell, “Q-switched laser place stone carving at risk,” Opt. Lasers19–20 (April1997);C. Fotakis, “Lasers for Art’s Sake,” Opt. Photon. News 6, (5)30–35 (1995).

1982

R. Srinivasan, “Ablative photodecomposition action of far-ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balas, C.

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bell, J.

J. Bell, “Q-switched laser place stone carving at risk,” Opt. Lasers19–20 (April1997);C. Fotakis, “Lasers for Art’s Sake,” Opt. Photon. News 6, (5)30–35 (1995).

Costa, J. L. C.

O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Calibration and uncertainties in spectrocolorimetry,” presented at Métrologie 99, Collége Métrologie, Nantere, France, 18–19 October 1999.

O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Spectrophotometers intercomparison for spectrocolorimetric scale harmonization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Doulgeridis, M.

E. I. Hontzopoulos, C. Fotakis, M. Doulgeridis, “Excimer laser art restoration,” in 9th International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers, C. Fotakis, C. Kalpouzos, T. G. Papazoglou, eds., Proc. SPIE1810, 749–751 (1992).

Duarte, J. P.

J. P. Duarte, V. Milheirão, P. Pelas, R. M. Miranda, “Excimer laser cleaning of paper and parchment with mud,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks, (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 203–205.

Fotakis, C.

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Hontzopoulos, C. Fotakis, M. Doulgeridis, “Excimer laser art restoration,” in 9th International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers, C. Fotakis, C. Kalpouzos, T. G. Papazoglou, eds., Proc. SPIE1810, 749–751 (1992).

Georgiou, S.

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hontzopoulos, E. I.

E. I. Hontzopoulos, C. Fotakis, M. Doulgeridis, “Excimer laser art restoration,” in 9th International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers, C. Fotakis, C. Kalpouzos, T. G. Papazoglou, eds., Proc. SPIE1810, 749–751 (1992).

Kautek, W.

W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, J. Kruger, E. Konig, “Laser cleaning of antique parchments and papers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 69–78; W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, E. König, “Interaction with coated collagen and cellusose fibre composite: fundamentals of laser cleaning of ancient parchments manuscripts and paper,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,746–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konig, E.

W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, J. Kruger, E. Konig, “Laser cleaning of antique parchments and papers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 69–78; W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, E. König, “Interaction with coated collagen and cellusose fibre composite: fundamentals of laser cleaning of ancient parchments manuscripts and paper,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,746–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, J. Kruger, E. Konig, “Laser cleaning of antique parchments and papers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 69–78; W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, E. König, “Interaction with coated collagen and cellusose fibre composite: fundamentals of laser cleaning of ancient parchments manuscripts and paper,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,746–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milheirão, V.

J. P. Duarte, V. Milheirão, P. Pelas, R. M. Miranda, “Excimer laser cleaning of paper and parchment with mud,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks, (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 203–205.

Miranda, R. M.

J. P. Duarte, V. Milheirão, P. Pelas, R. M. Miranda, “Excimer laser cleaning of paper and parchment with mud,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks, (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 203–205.

R. M. Miranda, O. D. D. Soares, “Relatório final de projecto: Limpeza de pigmentos com laser de excímeros e avaliação espectrocolorimétrica de documentação pós-processamento ablativo por laser” (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, 1998), pp. 1–80.

Pelas, P.

J. P. Duarte, V. Milheirão, P. Pelas, R. M. Miranda, “Excimer laser cleaning of paper and parchment with mud,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks, (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 203–205.

Pentzien, S.

W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, J. Kruger, E. Konig, “Laser cleaning of antique parchments and papers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 69–78; W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, E. König, “Interaction with coated collagen and cellusose fibre composite: fundamentals of laser cleaning of ancient parchments manuscripts and paper,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,746–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soares, O. D. D.

R. M. Miranda, O. D. D. Soares, “Relatório final de projecto: Limpeza de pigmentos com laser de excímeros e avaliação espectrocolorimétrica de documentação pós-processamento ablativo por laser” (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, 1998), pp. 1–80.

O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Spectrophotometers intercomparison for spectrocolorimetric scale harmonization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Calibration and uncertainties in spectrocolorimetry,” presented at Métrologie 99, Collége Métrologie, Nantere, France, 18–19 October 1999.

Srinivasan, R.

R. Srinivasan, “Ablative photodecomposition action of far-ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Tornari, V.

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Zafiropulos, V.

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

S. Georgiou, V. Zafiropulos, D. Anglos, C. Balas, V. Tornari, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser restoration of painted artworks: procedures, mechanisms and effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,738–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

R. Srinivasan, “Ablative photodecomposition action of far-ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 6784–6785 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers

J. Bell, “Q-switched laser place stone carving at risk,” Opt. Lasers19–20 (April1997);C. Fotakis, “Lasers for Art’s Sake,” Opt. Photon. News 6, (5)30–35 (1995).

Other

E. I. Hontzopoulos, C. Fotakis, M. Doulgeridis, “Excimer laser art restoration,” in 9th International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers, C. Fotakis, C. Kalpouzos, T. G. Papazoglou, eds., Proc. SPIE1810, 749–751 (1992).

W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, J. Kruger, E. Konig, “Laser cleaning of antique parchments and papers,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 69–78; W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, E. König, “Interaction with coated collagen and cellusose fibre composite: fundamentals of laser cleaning of ancient parchments manuscripts and paper,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129,746–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Duarte, V. Milheirão, P. Pelas, R. M. Miranda, “Excimer laser cleaning of paper and parchment with mud,” in Proceedings of Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks, (Verlag Mayer, Vienna, 1997), pp. 203–205.

Commission International de l’Eclairage, Colorimetry 15.2 (Commission International de l’Eclairage, Vienna, 1986).

Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, International Electrotechnical Commission, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, International Organisation for Standardisation, International Union for Pure and Applied Physics, and Organisation International de Métrologie Legal, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, ISBN 92-67-10188-9 (International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva, 1993).

R. M. Miranda, O. D. D. Soares, “Relatório final de projecto: Limpeza de pigmentos com laser de excímeros e avaliação espectrocolorimétrica de documentação pós-processamento ablativo por laser” (Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, 1998), pp. 1–80.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods (Wiley, New York, 1982).

O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Spectrophotometers intercomparison for spectrocolorimetric scale harmonization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

O. D. D. Soares, J. L. C. Costa, “Calibration and uncertainties in spectrocolorimetry,” presented at Métrologie 99, Collége Métrologie, Nantere, France, 18–19 October 1999.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Parchment from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, referenced LA 143, page 102 verso. Zones are marked by superimposed black frames to identify them in relation to descriptions in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Islamic paper from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, with areas of spectrocolorimetric measurements marked by circles and locating reference numbers superimposed: (a) recto, (b) verso.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Islamic paper from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation collection, Lisbon, used for testing of environmental conditions. Circles outline the areas of measurement: (a) recto, (b) verso.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of experimental arrangement for laser ablation: 1, mirror; 2, laser beam; 3, mask; 4, focusing lens; 5, sample, 6, XY table.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Islamic paper structure seen through a scanning-electron microscope (a) without laser ablation and traditionally cleaned, (b) after laser ablation (4,623 pulses). Magnification, 50×.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrocolorimetric measurement setup with the Minolta CM 2002 spectrocolorimeter, showing the solution for separating reflection measurements from retroreflection from the document support. (a) Experimental arrangement: 1, measurement port; 2, integrating sphere; 3, document; 4, supporting base to cut the retroreflection; 5, rigid base. (b) Spectral reflectance of the supporting base of the document. Color coordinates: x 10 = 1.03, y 10 = 1.07, z 10 = 1.32, L* = 9.57, a* = 1.07, b* = -2.05.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral reflectance of Islamic paper at 30% and 80% humidity and 23 °C. I, black paper substrate; II, mirror substrate; (a) recto, (b) verso. RH, relative humidity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Localization of measurement spot centers for area B of the parchment.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evolution of areal average spectral reflectance in Zone B of the parchment from October 1996 (ablation date) to October 1998.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Evolution of color values of the color solid space in Zone B of the parchment from October 1996 (ablation date) to October 1998.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Evolution of color values in Zone B of the parchment after subtraction of time evolution on the reference area.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Evolution of areal average spectral reflectance in Zone A of the verso of the Islamic paper from November 1996 to October 1998.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Evolution of color values in the color solid space in Zone A of the verso of the Islamic paper from November 1996 to October 1998.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Evolution of color values in Zone A of the verso of the Islamic paper after deduction of time evolution on the verso reference area.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Parameters Used for Ablation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Color Values and Variations of the Islamic Paper (Fig. 3) at Humidity Values 30% and 80%a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Evolution of Color Values in Zone B from October 1996 (Ablation Date) to October 1998 of the Parchment

Tables Icon

Table 4 Evolution of Color Values in Zone A of the Islamic Paper Verso from November 1996 to October 1998

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔEab*=ΔL*2+Δa*2+Δb*21/2.
R=RSm-R0Rbm-R0 Rbt,
R0=Φ0/ΦL,
σR2=1Rbm-R04Rbt2Rbm-R02σRSm2+Rbt2RSm-Rbm2σR02+Rbt2RSm-R02σbm2+Rbm-R02RSm-R02σRbt2.

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