Abstract

A measurement scheme and an algorithm have been developed to retrieve global irradiance ultraviolet solar spectra (290–400 nm) at a sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The algorithm combines spectral irradiance measurements performed with a slow (a few minutes) scanning spectroradiometer (Optronic Model OL752) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer (Biospherical ground-based ultraviolet radiometer Model 541). The filter radiometer instrument allows for continuous observations of global UV radiation at five channels (approximately 10-nm bandwidth), performed simultaneously with spectral measurements. Information about changing cloud conditions during a spectral scan was retrieved from filter measurements and applied to spectral data, hence estimated spectra without cloud variations could be constructed. The quality of the estimated spectra depends on data quality from both instruments. The method works well in all kinds of weather conditions, as long as the Sun is above the horizon and none of the instruments are hampered by measurement errors.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, V. E. Fioletov, “Total ozone trends from quality-controlled ground-based data (1964–1994),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,867–25,876 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. A. P. Josefsson, “Monitoring ultraviolet radiation,” in Environmental UV Photobiology, A. R. Young, L. O. Bjrn, J. Moan, W. Nultsch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1993), pp. 73–88.
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, “The Nordic intercomparison of ultraviolet and total ozone instruments at Izaña, October 1996,” (Finnish Metereological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997).
  6. T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, C. Jensen, “Effect of temperature on biological dose rates derived from spectral solar UV irradiance measurements,” in Proceedings, First Internet Conference on Photochemistry and Photobiology. 17 November–19 December1997, P. Heelis, ed. http://www.photobiology.com/v1/default.htm ; contributed paper C35.
  7. C. R. Booth, T. Mestechkina, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers: an experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, “Comparison of solar ultraviolet measurements performed with spectroradiometer and moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer for different cloud conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
  9. J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. R. Webb, “Solar ultraviolet radiation in southeast England: the case for spectral measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 54, 789–794 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Seckmeyer, R. Erb, A. Albold, “Transmittance of clouds are wavelength dependent in the UV-range,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2753–2755 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D23), 31,241–31,254 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Kylling, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Transmittance of a cloud is wavelength-dependent in the UV-range: physical interpretation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 397–400 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Q. Min, L. C. Harrison, “Synthetic spectra for terrestrial ultraviolet from discrete measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,033–17,039 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, “The 1997 status of solar UV spectroradiometry in Germany: results from the national intercomparison of UV spectroradiometers Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany,” (Shaker, Aachen, Germany, 1998).

1998 (2)

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D23), 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Min, L. C. Harrison, “Synthetic spectra for terrestrial ultraviolet from discrete measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,033–17,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Kylling, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Transmittance of a cloud is wavelength-dependent in the UV-range: physical interpretation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 397–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Seckmeyer, R. Erb, A. Albold, “Transmittance of clouds are wavelength dependent in the UV-range,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2753–2755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, V. E. Fioletov, “Total ozone trends from quality-controlled ground-based data (1964–1994),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,867–25,876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. R. Webb, “Solar ultraviolet radiation in southeast England: the case for spectral measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 54, 789–794 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Albold, A.

A. Kylling, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Transmittance of a cloud is wavelength-dependent in the UV-range: physical interpretation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 397–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, R. Erb, A. Albold, “Transmittance of clouds are wavelength dependent in the UV-range,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2753–2755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnhard, W. F.

J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, “The 1997 status of solar UV spectroradiometry in Germany: results from the national intercomparison of UV spectroradiometers Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany,” (Shaker, Aachen, Germany, 1998).

Bishop, L.

R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, V. E. Fioletov, “Total ozone trends from quality-controlled ground-based data (1964–1994),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,867–25,876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bojkov, R. D.

R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, V. E. Fioletov, “Total ozone trends from quality-controlled ground-based data (1964–1994),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,867–25,876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, C. R.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechkina, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers: an experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crescenti, G. H.

J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahlback, A.

Diaz, S. D.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erb, R.

G. Seckmeyer, R. Erb, A. Albold, “Transmittance of clouds are wavelength dependent in the UV-range,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2753–2755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Estupiñan, J. G.

J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fioletov, V. E.

R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, V. E. Fioletov, “Total ozone trends from quality-controlled ground-based data (1964–1994),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,867–25,876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L. C.

Q. Min, L. C. Harrison, “Synthetic spectra for terrestrial ultraviolet from discrete measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,033–17,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. X.

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, B.

B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, “The Nordic intercomparison of ultraviolet and total ozone instruments at Izaña, October 1996,” (Finnish Metereological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, “Comparison of solar ultraviolet measurements performed with spectroradiometer and moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer for different cloud conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Josefsson, W. A. P.

W. A. P. Josefsson, “Monitoring ultraviolet radiation,” in Environmental UV Photobiology, A. R. Young, L. O. Bjrn, J. Moan, W. Nultsch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1993), pp. 73–88.
[CrossRef]

Kjeldstad, B.

B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, “The Nordic intercomparison of ultraviolet and total ozone instruments at Izaña, October 1996,” (Finnish Metereological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, “Comparison of solar ultraviolet measurements performed with spectroradiometer and moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer for different cloud conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Koskela, T.

B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, “The Nordic intercomparison of ultraviolet and total ozone instruments at Izaña, October 1996,” (Finnish Metereological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Kylling, A.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D23), 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Transmittance of a cloud is wavelength-dependent in the UV-range: physical interpretation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 397–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, T.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Madronich, S.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D23), 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D23), 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, “The 1997 status of solar UV spectroradiometry in Germany: results from the national intercomparison of UV spectroradiometers Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany,” (Shaker, Aachen, Germany, 1998).

Mestechkina, T.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechkina, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers: an experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Min, Q.

Q. Min, L. C. Harrison, “Synthetic spectra for terrestrial ultraviolet from discrete measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,033–17,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, J. H.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechkina, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers: an experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neuschuler, D.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raman, S.

J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D23), 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Transmittance of a cloud is wavelength-dependent in the UV-range: physical interpretation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 397–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, R. Erb, A. Albold, “Transmittance of clouds are wavelength dependent in the UV-range,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2753–2755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, “The 1997 status of solar UV spectroradiometry in Germany: results from the national intercomparison of UV spectroradiometers Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany,” (Shaker, Aachen, Germany, 1998).

Smolskaia, I.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soulen, P. F.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Staehelin, J.

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamnes, K.

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stolarski, R.

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streicher, J. J.

J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thorseth, T. M.

T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, “Comparison of solar ultraviolet measurements performed with spectroradiometer and moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer for different cloud conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Webb, A. R.

A. R. Webb, “Solar ultraviolet radiation in southeast England: the case for spectral measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 54, 789–794 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zawodny, J.

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zerefos, C.

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

G. Seckmeyer, R. Erb, A. Albold, “Transmittance of clouds are wavelength dependent in the UV-range,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2753–2755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. Albold, G. Seckmeyer, “Transmittance of a cloud is wavelength-dependent in the UV-range: physical interpretation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 397–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. (1)

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. D. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D5), 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, V. E. Fioletov, “Total ozone trends from quality-controlled ground-based data (1964–1994),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,867–25,876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Estupiñan, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, W. F. Barnhard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,807–16,816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer, A. Kylling, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Enhanced absorption of UV radiation due to multiple scattering in clouds: experimental evidence and theoretical explanation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(D23), 31,241–31,254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Min, L. C. Harrison, “Synthetic spectra for terrestrial ultraviolet from discrete measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,033–17,039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

A. R. Webb, “Solar ultraviolet radiation in southeast England: the case for spectral measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 54, 789–794 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Stolarski, R. D. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehelin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

W. A. P. Josefsson, “Monitoring ultraviolet radiation,” in Environmental UV Photobiology, A. R. Young, L. O. Bjrn, J. Moan, W. Nultsch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1993), pp. 73–88.
[CrossRef]

B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, “The Nordic intercomparison of ultraviolet and total ozone instruments at Izaña, October 1996,” (Finnish Metereological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, C. Jensen, “Effect of temperature on biological dose rates derived from spectral solar UV irradiance measurements,” in Proceedings, First Internet Conference on Photochemistry and Photobiology. 17 November–19 December1997, P. Heelis, ed. http://www.photobiology.com/v1/default.htm ; contributed paper C35.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechkina, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers: an experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 654–663 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Thorseth, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, “Comparison of solar ultraviolet measurements performed with spectroradiometer and moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer for different cloud conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, “The 1997 status of solar UV spectroradiometry in Germany: results from the national intercomparison of UV spectroradiometers Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany,” (Shaker, Aachen, Germany, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral global irradiance measured with the Optronic OL752 spectroradiometer from 280 to 400 nm in 0.5-nm steps for 420-s duration (thick curve) simultaneously with a moderate (∼10-nm) bandwidth Biospherical GUV 541 filter radiometer at five UV channels, 305, 313, 320, 340, and 380 nm, at the same cite (dots). Circles mark the time t j when measurements were directly comparable and relative adjustments were made.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative irradiance variations from a mean level D GUV c , t j ) for five UV channels, 305 nm (-●-), 313 nm (-+-), 320 nm (-□-), 340 nm (-◇-), and 380 nm (-○-) during the spectral scan shown in Fig. 1. The inset shows an enlargement of the time scale around case 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative irradiance deviation from a scan mean D GUV c , t j ) (□) at five UV regions, 305, 313, 320, 340, and 380 nm, measured with a filter radiometer at three different times during the spectral scan shown in Fig. 1, referred to as cases 1, 2, and 3 in Fig. 2. The linear fit, i , t j ) is represented by the solid lines and the 95% confidence limits on the estimates are represented by dotted lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Set of estimate spectra (gray curves) obtained during a spectral scan (solid black curve) on a logarithmic scale and a linear scale. Maximum and minimum estimated spectra are represented by solid gray curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Upper solid line represents the maximum irradiance achieved at 340 nm within each scan for 31 May 1998. The lower line represents minimum values. The shaded area shows the irradiance variability within each spectral scan. The ratio between the measured spectral irradiance and the maximum estimated spectrum for each scan R max, shown as dots, range between 0.8 and 1.15. The ratios retrieved from spectra measured with solar zenith angles greater than 90° are marked by circles. Crossed dots are situations for which the amplification level in one of the GUV radiometer channels changed during the scan. The # represents scans for which one instrument was not able to measure direct radiation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Upper solid line represents the maximum irradiance achieved at 340 nm within each scan for 19 May 1998. The lower line represents minimum values. The shaded area shows the irradiance variability within each spectral scan. The ratio between the measured spectral irradiance and the maximum estimated spectrum for each scan R max, shown as dots, range between 0.8 and 1.15. The ratios retrieved from spectra measured with solar zenith angles greater than 90° are marked by circles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio between the respective measured spectral irradiance and maximum estimated spectrum for each scan, denoted maximum error R max, shown as dots, range from 0.9 to 1.1. The ratios retrieved from spectra measured with solar zenith angles greater than 90° are marked by circles. Crossed dots represent the situations for which the amplification level in one of the two GUV radiometer channels, 313 and 380 nm, changed during the scan. The + marks ratios for which the discrepancy was found below 300 nm. The □ represents the data that indicate that the GUV radiometer had an obvious failure, e.g. gave negative values from one GUV channel.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DGUVλc, tj=EGUVλc, tjEGUV¯λc,
EGUV¯λc=1221j=1221 EGUVλc, tj.
Dˆλ, tj=aˆj+bˆjλ.
Eopt¯λj=Eoptλi, tjDˆλi, tj δi,j,
Eˆλi, tj = Eopt¯λiDˆλi, tj.
EˆminλiEoptλiEˆmax(λi.
rmaxλi=EoptλiEˆmaxλi1, rminλi=EoptλiEˆminλi1.
Rmax=maxEoptλiEˆmaxλi=EoptλiEˆmaxλmax.
Rmax±ΔR=EoptλiEˆmaxλmax±ΔEλmax.

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