Abstract

An integrated optical polarization splitter has been fabricated by utilizing the photobleaching-induced birefringence in an azo dye polymer. It consists of a Y-branch waveguide formed by the reactive ion etching with one of the two arms photobleached. The refractive index of the photobleached arm is decreased for the TE mode and increased for the TM mode. The performance of the splitter was measured as a function of the energy of the photobleaching beam and compared to a wave propagation simulation of the device. The measured cross talks are less than -28 dB for the TM mode and -24 dB for the TE mode at a wavelength of 1310 nm. The measured excess losses for the TE and TM modes, which measure the effect of the Y branch and the photobleaching, are 0.3 and 0.4 dB, respectively. The insertion loss was 5 dB, which includes the input fiber to waveguide coupling loss.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Glance, “Polarization-independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274–276 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P.-K. Wei, W.-S. Wang, “Novel TE-TM mode splitter on lithium niobate using nickel indiffusion and proton exchange technique,” Electron. Lett. 30, 35–37 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713–1724 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “Integrated optical waveguide polarizer based on photobleaching-induced birefringence in an electrooptic polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1125–1127 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “Integrated optical waveguide polarizer based on photobleaching-induced birefringence in an electrooptic polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1125–1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713–1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P.-K. Wei, W.-S. Wang, “Novel TE-TM mode splitter on lithium niobate using nickel indiffusion and proton exchange technique,” Electron. Lett. 30, 35–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

B. Glance, “Polarization-independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274–276 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.-W.

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “Integrated optical waveguide polarizer based on photobleaching-induced birefringence in an electrooptic polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1125–1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aust, E. F.

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chuyanov, V.

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glance, B.

B. Glance, “Polarization-independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274–276 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.-Y.

M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

Lee, S.-S.

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “Integrated optical waveguide polarizer based on photobleaching-induced birefringence in an electrooptic polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1125–1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metaal, E. G.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

Milton, A. F.

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pederson, J. W.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

Shin, S.-Y.

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “Integrated optical waveguide polarizer based on photobleaching-induced birefringence in an electrooptic polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1125–1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Brug, H.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Der Tol, J. J. G. M.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

Wang, W.-S.

P.-K. Wei, W.-S. Wang, “Novel TE-TM mode splitter on lithium niobate using nickel indiffusion and proton exchange technique,” Electron. Lett. 30, 35–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P.-K.

P.-K. Wei, W.-S. Wang, “Novel TE-TM mode splitter on lithium niobate using nickel indiffusion and proton exchange technique,” Electron. Lett. 30, 35–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

Electron. Lett. (2)

P.-K. Wei, W.-S. Wang, “Novel TE-TM mode splitter on lithium niobate using nickel indiffusion and proton exchange technique,” Electron. Lett. 30, 35–37 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Oh, S.-S. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter based on poling-induced birefringence,” Electron. Lett. 32, 324–325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “Integrated optical waveguide polarizer based on photobleaching-induced birefringence in an electrooptic polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1125–1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lee, S. Garner, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, S.-W. Ahn, S.-Y. Shin, “TM-pass polarizer based on a photobleaching-induced waveguide in polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 836–838 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, J. W. Pederson, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, H. Van Brug, I. Moerman, “Mode evolution type polarization splitter on InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. Glance, “Polarization-independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274–276 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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