Abstract

A previously published radiance model inversion theory has been field tested by using airborne water-leaving radiances to retrieve the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and detritus absorption coefficient, the phytoplankton absorption coefficient, and the total backscattering coefficient. The radiance model inversion theory was tested for potential satellite use by comparing two of the retrieved inherent optical properties with concurrent airborne laser-derived truth data. It was found that (1) matrix inversion of water-leaving radiances is well conditioned even in the presence of instrument-induced noise, (2) retrieved CDOM and detritus and phytoplankton absorption coefficients are both in reasonable agreement with absorption coefficients derived from airborne laser-induced fluorescence spectral emissions, (3) the total backscattering retrieval magnitude and variability are consistent with expected values for the Middle Atlantic Bight, and (4) the algorithm performs reasonably well in Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, slope, and shelf waters but is less consistent in coastal waters.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24,847–24,854 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil film thickness measurement using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269–3281 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778–3786 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Port Chester, N.Y., 1992).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  39. N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,789–22,803 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1997

1996

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, M. D. Dowell, S. Grossi, C. Targa, “Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region,” Mar. Chem. 55, 299–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active-passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24,847–24,854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Weideman, R. H. Stavn, J. R. V. Zanefeld, M. R. Wilcox, “Error in predicting hydrosol backscattering form remotely sensed reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,163–13,177 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,779–22,787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the north Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,789–22,803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “On the accuracy of determining light absorption by ‘yellow substance’ through measurements of induced fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 777–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1981

1980

Aiken, J.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 29.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, R. E.

Blough, N. V.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, M. P. F.

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Bundy, D.

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Basis for spectral curvature algorithms in remote sensing of chlorophyll,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1084–1093 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carder, K. L.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 29.

Dana, D. R.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, R. C. Honey, “Instrument for underwater measurement of optical backscatter,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 173–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, J. M. Voss, “Spectral dependence of optical backscattering in the ocean,” presented at OSA Annual Meeting, Portland, Ore., 10–15 September 1995, Paper MDD4, p. 57.

Davis, C. O.

Dowell, M. D.

G. M. Ferrari, M. D. Dowell, S. Grossi, C. Targa, “Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region,” Mar. Chem. 55, 299–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

Evans, R. H.

Ferrari, G. M.

G. M. Ferrari, M. D. Dowell, S. Grossi, C. Targa, “Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region,” Mar. Chem. 55, 299–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “On the accuracy of determining light absorption by ‘yellow substance’ through measurements of induced fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 777–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Port Chester, N.Y., 1992).

Furtek, F.

Gordon, H. R.

Grossi, S.

G. M. Ferrari, M. D. Dowell, S. Grossi, C. Targa, “Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region,” Mar. Chem. 55, 299–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

Hoepffner, N.

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,789–22,803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active-passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24,847–24,854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,779–22,787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the north Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778–3786 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil film thickness measurement using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269–3281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honey, R. C.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, R. C. Honey, “Instrument for underwater measurement of optical backscatter,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 173–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 29.

Hovis, W. A.

Knoll, J. S.

Lazzara, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R. A.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, R. C. Honey, “Instrument for underwater measurement of optical backscatter,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 173–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, J. M. Voss, “Spectral dependence of optical backscattering in the ocean,” presented at OSA Annual Meeting, Portland, Ore., 10–15 September 1995, Paper MDD4, p. 57.

Martin, J.

J. Martin et al., “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).

Moore, G. F.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 29.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, “The second SeaWiFS intercalibration round-robin experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 16.

Nielsen, D.

Peacock, T. G.

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pietrafesa, L. J.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Port Chester, N.Y., 1992).

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,789–22,803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. H.

J. H. Smart, “Empirical relationships between optical properties in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 276–298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stavn, R. H.

A. D. Weideman, R. H. Stavn, J. R. V. Zanefeld, M. R. Wilcox, “Error in predicting hydrosol backscattering form remotely sensed reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,163–13,177 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24,847–24,854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active-passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,779–22,787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the north Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778–3786 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil film thickness measurement using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269–3281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targa, C.

G. M. Ferrari, M. D. Dowell, S. Grossi, C. Targa, “Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region,” Mar. Chem. 55, 299–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tassan, S.

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “On the accuracy of determining light absorption by ‘yellow substance’ through measurements of induced fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 777–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Port Chester, N.Y., 1992).

Trees, C. C.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 29.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Port Chester, N.Y., 1992).

Vodacek, A.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24,847–24,854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,779–22,787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Voss, J. M.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, J. M. Voss, “Spectral dependence of optical backscattering in the ocean,” presented at OSA Annual Meeting, Portland, Ore., 10–15 September 1995, Paper MDD4, p. 57.

Walsh, J. J.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weideman, A. D.

A. D. Weideman, R. H. Stavn, J. R. V. Zanefeld, M. R. Wilcox, “Error in predicting hydrosol backscattering form remotely sensed reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,163–13,177 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitledge, T. E.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, M. R.

A. D. Weideman, R. H. Stavn, J. R. V. Zanefeld, M. R. Wilcox, “Error in predicting hydrosol backscattering form remotely sensed reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,163–13,177 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. E.

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24,847–24,854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wirick, C. D.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

Zanefeld, J. R. V.

A. D. Weideman, R. H. Stavn, J. R. V. Zanefeld, M. R. Wilcox, “Error in predicting hydrosol backscattering form remotely sensed reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,163–13,177 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and the coastal zone color scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Oceanic radiance model development and validation: application of airborne active-passive ocean color spectral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3468–3476 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, F. Furtek, “Use of water-Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, O. B. Brown, F. E. Hoge, K. S. Baker, R. H. Evans, R. N. Swift, W. E. Esaias, “Multiplatform sampling (ship, aircraft, and satellite) of a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2068–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Basis for spectral curvature algorithms in remote sensing of chlorophyll,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1084–1093 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, “Characteristics of an internally illuminated calibration sphere,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4004–4007 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil film thickness measurement using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269–3281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne dual laser excitation and mapping of phytoplankton photopigments in a Gulf Stream warm core ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272–2281 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778–3786 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48–57 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active-passive correlation spectroscopy: a new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571–2583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cont. Shelf Res.

J. J. Walsh, C. D. Wirick, L. J. Pietrafesa, T. E. Whitledge, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “High-frequency sampling of the 1984 spring bloom within the Mid-Atlantic Bight: synoptic shipboard, aircraft, and in situ perspectives of the SEEP-I Experiment,” Cont. Shelf Res. 8, 529–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “The influence of chlorophyll pigment upon upwelling spectral radiances from the north Atlantic Ocean: an active-passive correlation spectroscopy study,” Deep Sea Res. 40, 265–277 (1993).

J. Geophys. Res.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: a comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,779–22,787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Weideman, R. H. Stavn, J. R. V. Zanefeld, M. R. Wilcox, “Error in predicting hydrosol backscattering form remotely sensed reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,163–13,177 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,789–22,803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, M. E. Williams, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in continental margins,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24,847–24,854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Spatial patterns in temperature and chlorophyll on Nantucket Shoals from airborne remote sensing data, May 7–9, 1981,” J. Mar. Res. 43, 139–161 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, S. Tassan, “On the accuracy of determining light absorption by ‘yellow substance’ through measurements of induced fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 777–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 403–415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Chem.

G. M. Ferrari, M. D. Dowell, S. Grossi, C. Targa, “Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region,” Mar. Chem. 55, 299–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

J. Martin et al., “Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature (London) 371, 123–129 (1994).

Remote Sensing Environ.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Phytoplankton accessory pigments: evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field,” Remote Sensing Environ. 34, 19–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Port Chester, N.Y., 1992).

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. C. Trees, S. B. Hooker, D. K. Clark, “The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 29.

J. L. Mueller, “The second SeaWiFS intercalibration round-robin experiment, SIRREX-2, June 1993,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 16.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, R. C. Honey, “Instrument for underwater measurement of optical backscatter,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 173–184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Smart, “Empirical relationships between optical properties in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 276–298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, J. M. Voss, “Spectral dependence of optical backscattering in the ocean,” presented at OSA Annual Meeting, Portland, Ore., 10–15 September 1995, Paper MDD4, p. 57.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flight location of the AOL system and spectroradiometers aboard the NASA P-3B aircraft during the afternoon of 3 April 1995 is shown by the outbound southeast ground track line. This flight traversed five water masses: coastal, shelf, slope, Gulf Stream, and Sargasso Sea. Flight of the AOL system and spectroradiometers aboard the NASA P-3B aircraft on 20 April 1995 is shown by the outbound (toward the northeast) and inbound (toward the southwest) ground track lines. These latter track lines traversed only shelf and coastal water types.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Along-track profile of phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 412 nm, a ph(412), retrieved from airborne water-leaving radiances plotted with chlorophyll absorption derived from concurrent airborne laser-induced F/R measurements obtained on the outbound portion of a flight to the Sargasso Sea during the afternoon of 3 April 1995. These parameters are also graphed as a scatterplot immediately to the right of the profile presentation. Limited absorption values derived from the supporting ship chlorophyll measurements are shown plotted as open circles. (b) Along-track profile of the CDOM and deritus absorption coefficient at 412 nm, a d (412), retrieved from the airborne water-leaving radiances plotted along with CDOM absorption measurements derived from airborne laser-induced CDOM F/R. These parameters are also graphed in the form of a scatterplot immediately to the right of the profile presentation. A limited number of supporting ship-derived CDOM absorption measurements are shown as open circles. (c) Along-track profile of the TCB coefficient, b bt(412), retrieved from the airborne water-leaving radiances. No truth data were available to validate the retrieved TCB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Along-track profile of phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 412 nm retrieved from airborne water-leaving radiances plotted with chlorophyll absorption derived from concurrent airborne laser-induced F/R measurements obtained on the outbound portion of a flight flown between Wallops Island, Virginia, and Block Island, Rhode Island, on 20 April 1995. These parameters are also graphed in the form of a scatterplot immediately to the right of the profile presentation. (b) Along-track profile of the CDOM and detritus absorption coefficient at 412 nm concurrently retrieved from the airborne water-leaving radiances is plotted along with CDOM absorption measurements derived from airborne laser-induced CDOM F/R. (c) Along-track profile of the TCB coefficient retrieved from the airborne water-leaving radiances. No truth data were available to validate the retrieved TCB. Note that the vertical scale for b bt in (c) is different from (a) and (b). The blank portions of the track line at ∼72.3 °W longitude and ∼72.1 °W longitude denote lost data because of cloud contamination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Along-track profile of phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 412 nm retrieved from airborne water-leaving radiances plotted with chlorophyll absorption derived from concurrent airborne laser-induced F/R measurements obtained on the inbound portion of a flight flown between Wallops Island, Virginia, and Block Island, Rhode Island, on 20 April 1995. These parameters are also graphed in the form of a scatterplot immediately to the right of the profile presentation. (b) Along-track profile of the CDOM and detritus absorption coefficient at 412 nm concurrently retrieved from the airborne water-leaving radiances plotted along with CDOM absorption measurements derived from airborne laser-induced CDOM F/R. (c) Along-track profile of the TCB coefficient retrieved from the airborne water-leaving radiances. No truth data were available to validate the retrieved TCB. Note that the vertical scale for b bt in (c) is different from (a) and (b). The portions of the track line at ∼72.3 °W longitude and ∼72.1 °W longitude denote lost data because of cloud contamination.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

aphλgexp-λi-λg2/2g2+adλdexp-Sλi-λd+bbtλbλb/λinvλi=hλi,
n=a1L1/L3+a2.

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