Abstract

The ocean color and temperature scanner (OCTS) collected global ocean color data from November 1996 to June 1997. Analyses of OCTS imagery indicate three features that impair scientific research uses: (1) band misalignments, (2) image striping, and (3) image noise. These are due to (1) band offsets in the sensor design, (2) detector radiometric response variability, and (3) primarily cloud contamination, respectively. Methods are analyzed to ameliorate the effects of each that facilitate use of OCTS ocean color data for quantitative scientific analyses.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, A. Mukaida, “OCTS program report: OCTS Cal/Val,” presented at the Second ADEOS Symposium Workshop, Yokohama, Japan, 10–14 March 1997.
  2. NASDA, ADEOS to Ground Station Interface Document, Version 1.3.2 (NASDA Earth Observation Research Center, Tokyo, Japan, 1997).
  3. F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact, closed form geolocation algorithm for Earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. R. Gordon, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124 (personal communication, 1997).
  6. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, M. Kishino, “Development of bio-optical algorithm for ocean color remote sensing in the sub-arctic North Pacific,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 766–771 (1997).
  8. H. Fukushima, Tokai University, Shizuoka 410-03, Japan (personal communication, 1998).

1994 (2)

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact, closed form geolocation algorithm for Earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Clark, D. K.

Evans, R. H.

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, Tokai University, Shizuoka 410-03, Japan (personal communication, 1998).

Gordon, H. R.

Gregg, W. W.

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact, closed form geolocation algorithm for Earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, M. Kishino, “Development of bio-optical algorithm for ocean color remote sensing in the sub-arctic North Pacific,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 766–771 (1997).

Mitomi, Y.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, A. Mukaida, “OCTS program report: OCTS Cal/Val,” presented at the Second ADEOS Symposium Workshop, Yokohama, Japan, 10–14 March 1997.

Miyoi, T.

S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, M. Kishino, “Development of bio-optical algorithm for ocean color remote sensing in the sub-arctic North Pacific,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 766–771 (1997).

Mukaida, A.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, A. Mukaida, “OCTS program report: OCTS Cal/Val,” presented at the Second ADEOS Symposium Workshop, Yokohama, Japan, 10–14 March 1997.

Oaku, H.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, A. Mukaida, “OCTS program report: OCTS Cal/Val,” presented at the Second ADEOS Symposium Workshop, Yokohama, Japan, 10–14 March 1997.

Patt, F. S.

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact, closed form geolocation algorithm for Earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, S.

S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, M. Kishino, “Development of bio-optical algorithm for ocean color remote sensing in the sub-arctic North Pacific,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 766–771 (1997).

Shimada, M.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, A. Mukaida, “OCTS program report: OCTS Cal/Val,” presented at the Second ADEOS Symposium Workshop, Yokohama, Japan, 10–14 March 1997.

Wang, M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact, closed form geolocation algorithm for Earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, M. Kishino, “Development of bio-optical algorithm for ocean color remote sensing in the sub-arctic North Pacific,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 766–771 (1997).

H. Fukushima, Tokai University, Shizuoka 410-03, Japan (personal communication, 1998).

H. R. Gordon, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124 (personal communication, 1997).

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, A. Mukaida, “OCTS program report: OCTS Cal/Val,” presented at the Second ADEOS Symposium Workshop, Yokohama, Japan, 10–14 March 1997.

NASDA, ADEOS to Ground Station Interface Document, Version 1.3.2 (NASDA Earth Observation Research Center, Tokyo, Japan, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometrical overview of the band offset design of the OCTS. This illustrates a single scan containing 10 detectors aligned along track and 2222 pixels aligned across track. Spectral bands are offset from one another in the focal plane, but successive observations (t 0, t 1, etc.) produce near overlap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of successive image-striping methods on a transect in the northern Gulf of Mexico from 8 May 1997. The striping correction with a median filter substantially reduces detector variability.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCTS chlorophyll image of 5 May 1997 in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight, showing the reduction in image-striping effects from uncorrected (above) to full striping corrections (facing page) with a median filter applied. The reduction in image striping is dramatic, and the reduction in spatial resolution is small. Chlorophyll is logarithmically scaled for display, according to C (scaled) = 4{[log10(C) + 2]/0.012}. Thus 128 scaled chlorophyll counts equal 0.024 mg m-3, 256 counts equal 0.059 mg m-3, 384 counts equal 0.14 mg m-3, 512 counts equal 0.34 mg m-3, 640 counts equal 0.83 mg m-3, 768 counts equal 2.0 mg m-3, and 896 counts equal 4.9 mg m-3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image noise in the OCTS is apparent in this 10 April 1997 image of chlorophyll near Florida. The noise appears as speckles (top), which are anomalous high-chlorophyll observations in a field of generally low chlorophyll. These features are commonly associated with clouds. Reduction in this noise (bottom) is achieved by multistep cloud filtering methods. The same chlorophyll scaling as in Fig. 3 is used.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 OCTS Ocean Color Spectral Characteristics, Along with the CZCS and SeaWiFS for Comparisona

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Table 2 Mission Summary for ADEOS–OCTS, Along with the CZCS and SeaWiFS (LAC Only) for Comparison

Tables Icon

Table 3 Gain [Gs(λ)] Corrections for Image Striping for Gain 1 (Normal Ocean Gain)

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Table 4 Offset [Os (λ)] Corrections for Image Striping for Gain 1 (Normal Ocean Gain)

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ltλ=Dλ-OTλ/GTλ,
Lwλ=Ltλ-Lrλ-Laλ-Lfλ/tλ,
t=exp-τr/2+τoz/cos θ
LwN=Lw/to cos θo,
C=0.2818Lw520N+Lw565NLw490N3.497.
F=G412-Gλ2,
OT=Oo+Os,
GT=GofgGs,
Os=O+O,
Gs=GG.
Lwλ=Ltλ-Lrλ-SLa670,
S=Foλ/Fo670,
C=Lw520+Lw565/Lw490.
D=Lt443N+6Lt865N-0.2Lt670N,
Ltλ, maximum/Ltλ, minimum<1.1.
C/Cmean<1.5.

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