Abstract

The experimental optical interconnection module of the Free-Space Accelerator for Switching Terabit Networks (FAST-Net) project is described and characterized. Four two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL’s) and photodetectors (PD’s) were designed, fabricated, and incorporated into a folded optical system that links a 10 cm × 10 cm multichip smart pixel plane to itself in a global point-to-point pattern. The optical system effects a fully connected network in which each chip is connected to all others with a multichannel bidirectional data path. VCSEL’s and detectors are arranged in clusters on the chips with an interelement spacing of 140 µm. Calculations based on measurements of resolution and registration tolerances showed that the square 50-µm detector in a typical interchip link captures approximately 85% of incident light from its associated VCSEL. The measured optical transmission efficiency was 38%, with the losses primarily due to reflections at the surfaces of the multielement lenses, which were not antireflection coated for the VCSEL wavelength. The overall efficiency for this demonstration is therefore 32%. With the measured optical confinement, an optical system that is optimized for transmission at the VCSEL wavelength will achieve an overall efficiency of greater than 80%. These results suggest that, as high-density VCSEL-based smart pixel technology matures, the FAST-Net optical interconnection concept will provide a low-loss, compact, global interconnection approach for high bisection-bandwidth multiprocessor applications in switching, signal processing, and image processing.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes (Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), Chap. 1, p. 21.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Two-bounce optical arbitrary permutation network,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2879–2885 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.
  9. M. W. Haney, “Self-similar grid patterns in free-space shuffle–exchange networks,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2047–2049 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.
  12. M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

1998 (2)

1996 (2)

T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (2)

1971 (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bounnak, S.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Carlson, D.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Chandramani, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Christensen, M. P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Performance scaling comparison for free-space optical and electrical interconnection approaches,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2886–2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Two-bounce optical arbitrary permutation network,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2879–2885 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.

Drabik, T. J.

Ekman, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Esener, S. C.

Feldman, M. R.

Fokken, G.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Fukushima, S.

Gilbert, B.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Guest, C. C.

Haney, M. W.

M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Two-bounce optical arbitrary permutation network,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2879–2885 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Performance scaling comparison for free-space optical and electrical interconnection approaches,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2886–2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, “Self-similar grid patterns in free-space shuffle–exchange networks,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2047–2049 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.

Hibbs-Brenner, M.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Kalweit, E.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Kiamilev, F.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Kurokawa, T.

Lehman, J.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Leighton, F. T.

F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes (Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), Chap. 1, p. 21.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Marta, T.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Matsuo, S.

Michael, R. R.

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Milojkovic, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Morgan, R. A.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Nakahara, T.

Nohava, J.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Rieve, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Vickberg, M.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Walterson, B.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Wilson, M.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes (Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), Chap. 1, p. 21.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.

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