Abstract

The experimental optical interconnection module of the Free-Space Accelerator for Switching Terabit Networks (FAST-Net) project is described and characterized. Four two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL’s) and photodetectors (PD’s) were designed, fabricated, and incorporated into a folded optical system that links a 10 cm × 10 cm multichip smart pixel plane to itself in a global point-to-point pattern. The optical system effects a fully connected network in which each chip is connected to all others with a multichannel bidirectional data path. VCSEL’s and detectors are arranged in clusters on the chips with an interelement spacing of 140 µm. Calculations based on measurements of resolution and registration tolerances showed that the square 50-µm detector in a typical interchip link captures approximately 85% of incident light from its associated VCSEL. The measured optical transmission efficiency was 38%, with the losses primarily due to reflections at the surfaces of the multielement lenses, which were not antireflection coated for the VCSEL wavelength. The overall efficiency for this demonstration is therefore 32%. With the measured optical confinement, an optical system that is optimized for transmission at the VCSEL wavelength will achieve an overall efficiency of greater than 80%. These results suggest that, as high-density VCSEL-based smart pixel technology matures, the FAST-Net optical interconnection concept will provide a low-loss, compact, global interconnection approach for high bisection-bandwidth multiprocessor applications in switching, signal processing, and image processing.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes (Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), Chap. 1, p. 21.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. M. W. Haney, “Self-similar grid patterns in free-space shuffle–exchange networks,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2047–2049 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.
  12. M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

1998 (2)

1996 (2)

T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (2)

1971 (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bounnak, S.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Carlson, D.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Chandramani, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Christensen, M. P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Performance scaling comparison for free-space optical and electrical interconnection approaches,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2886–2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Two-bounce optical arbitrary permutation network,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2879–2885 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.

Drabik, T. J.

Ekman, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Esener, S. C.

Feldman, M. R.

Fokken, G.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Fukushima, S.

Gilbert, B.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Guest, C. C.

Haney, M. W.

M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Two-bounce optical arbitrary permutation network,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2879–2885 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Performance scaling comparison for free-space optical and electrical interconnection approaches,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2886–2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, “Self-similar grid patterns in free-space shuffle–exchange networks,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2047–2049 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.

Hibbs-Brenner, M.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Kalweit, E.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Kiamilev, F.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Kurokawa, T.

Lehman, J.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Leighton, F. T.

F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes (Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), Chap. 1, p. 21.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Marta, T.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Matsuo, S.

Michael, R. R.

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Milojkovic, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Morgan, R. A.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Nakahara, T.

Nohava, J.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Rieve, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Vickberg, M.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Walterson, B.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Wilson, M.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes (Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), Chap. 1, p. 21.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.

Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the FAST-Net concept. The optical rays represent data paths by which images of clusters of VCSEL’s and detectors are registered onto similar clusters on different chips. Each chip is connected to all chips in this manner. An interface at the edge of the multichip substrate enables high bandwidth into, and out of, the module. The inset depicts a magnified view of the I/O pattern for one of the SPA chips, partitioned into 16 clusters of VCSEL’s (dots) and PD’s (squares).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic depiction of FAST-Net experimental system. Each of four smart pixel emulator cards contains a 2-D array of clustered VCSEL–MSM detector pairs. These arrays are precisely positioned under lenses of the global interconnection optics to emulate the positioning accuracy that is achievable with current chip pick-and-place technology. The emulator cards also contain driver and receiver IC’s and a controller FPGA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

VCSEL driver–test pin-out diagram. Output pads to drive the VCSEL’s are located along the bottom side of the chip. The left- and the right-hand sides of the chip have input pads for CMOS-level input signals (when the chip is operated in asynchronous driver mode) and power supply connections for the VCSEL’s. The top side of the chip contains digital control signals for the self-test mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the VCSEL driver–test IC. Each VCSEL can be driven by one of three inputs: a pseudorandom sequence that repeats after 16 bits, a pseudorandom sequence that repeats after 1024 bits, or the corresponding input pin (typically connected to the CMOS receiver IC).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic device cross section showing a VCSEL–MSM detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microphotograph (left-hand side) and a SEM picture (right-hand side) of a 2-D integrated VCSEL–MSM PD array chip.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FAST-Net prototype evaluation system. Four daughter cards are precisely positioned beneath a 4 × 4 lens array that effects the global shuffle interconnection pattern. A mirror (mounted atop the four vertical rods in the photograph) folds this pattern back onto the array. The positioned daughter cards emulate the chip placement achievable with MCM packaging technology. They contain the VCSEL–PD arrays, drivers, receivers, and control circuitry. A master controller resides on the motherboard, which is positioned to the right-hand side of the optomechanical setup in this figure. Ribbon cables connect the four daughter boards to the motherboard.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cross-sectional view of the FAST-Net module showing the three positions at which optical transmission was measured with a calibrated large-area PD during operation of a single VCSEL without modulation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical transmission and collection efficiencies in the experimental system as a function of VCSEL power.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Plot of calculated normalized cross talk as a function of spacing between square 50-µm detectors; (b) Plot of calculated normalized cross talk as a function of an offset in the position of the image of the VCSEL array. The three curves represent 50-, 100-, and 140-µm detector spacings, respectively.

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