Abstract

We investigate possible performance improvements of coherent optical correlators by using an appropriate filter design. Multidecision strategies are often required in high-level image-processing tasks. For an optical system characterized by a given space–bandwidth product we show that the filter design plays a crucial role in satisfying both system and processing requirements, with respect to the optimization of the encoding capacity. This leads us to the definition of segmented composite filtering, which is discussed in terms of processing performance. This filtering is assessed experimentally in the case of a face-recognition problem.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1997

1996

Y. Pétillot, L. Guibert, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “Fingerprint recognition using a partially rotation invariant composite filter in a FLC joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 126, 213–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Yocky, “Image merging and data fusion by means of the discrete two-dimensional wavelet transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1834–1840 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. V. Goncharsky, I. V. Kochikov, V. B. Shikalov, “Optical correlators in pattern recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 1, 440–449 (1991).

1990

G. Gheen, “Design considerations for low-clutter, distorsion invariant correlation filters,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1029–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Hassebrook, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, “Performance measures for correlation filters,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2997–3006 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1984

1980

1969

1966

Al Falou, A.

Arsenault, H. H.

H. H. Arsenault, “Pattern recognition, similarity, neural nets and optics,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, G. Wiegelt, eds., Proc. SPIE1319, 380–384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Attia, M.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

Chellappa, R.

H. Li, Y. T. Zhou, R. Chellappa, “SAR/IR sensor image fusion and real-time implementation,” in Proceedings of the 29th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 1121–1125.

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, L. Dupont, “Complex amplitude modulation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1730–1741 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, E. Quéméner, Y. Pétillot, “Composite versus multichannel binary phase only filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6646–6653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Keryer, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, A. Al Falou, “Performance comparison of ferroelectric liquid-crystal-technology-based coherent optical multichannel correlators,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3043–3055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pétillot, L. Guibert, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “Fingerprint recognition using a partially rotation invariant composite filter in a FLC joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 126, 213–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, L.

Ferreira, C.

R. A. Maestre, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Pattern recognition using sequential matched filtering of wavelet coefficients,” Opt. Commun. 133, 401–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

García, J.

R. A. Maestre, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Pattern recognition using sequential matched filtering of wavelet coefficients,” Opt. Commun. 133, 401–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gheen, G.

G. Gheen, “Design considerations for low-clutter, distorsion invariant correlation filters,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1029–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gianino, P. D.

Goncharsky, A. V.

A. V. Goncharsky, I. V. Kochikov, V. B. Shikalov, “Optical correlators in pattern recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 1, 440–449 (1991).

Goodman, J. W.

Guibert, L.

Y. Pétillot, L. Guibert, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “Fingerprint recognition using a partially rotation invariant composite filter in a FLC joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 126, 213–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haimes, R.

Harney, R. C.

R. C. Harney, “Information-based approach to performance estimation and requirements allocation in multisensor fusion for target recognition,” Opt. Eng. 36, 789–798 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hassebrook, L.

Horner, J. L.

Keryer, G.

G. Keryer, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, A. Al Falou, “Performance comparison of ferroelectric liquid-crystal-technology-based coherent optical multichannel correlators,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3043–3055 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kochikov, I. V.

A. V. Goncharsky, I. V. Kochikov, V. B. Shikalov, “Optical correlators in pattern recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 1, 440–449 (1991).

Li, H.

H. Li, Y. T. Zhou, R. Chellappa, “SAR/IR sensor image fusion and real-time implementation,” in Proceedings of the 29th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 1121–1125.

MacKenzie, H. S.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maestre, R. A.

R. A. Maestre, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Pattern recognition using sequential matched filtering of wavelet coefficients,” Opt. Commun. 133, 401–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mahalanobis, A.

A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, “Distance classifier correlation filters using multiple eigenvectors for enhanced class separation,” in Optical Implementation of Information Processing, B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, eds., Proc. SPIE2565, 50–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, W. T.

Pellat-Finet, P.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pétillot, Y.

J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, E. Quéméner, Y. Pétillot, “Composite versus multichannel binary phase only filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6646–6653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pétillot, L. Guibert, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “Fingerprint recognition using a partially rotation invariant composite filter in a FLC joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 126, 213–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Quéméner, E.

Schils, G. F.

Servel, A.

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shikalov, V. B.

A. V. Goncharsky, I. V. Kochikov, V. B. Shikalov, “Optical correlators in pattern recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 1, 440–449 (1991).

Sims, S. R. F.

A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, “Distance classifier correlation filters using multiple eigenvectors for enhanced class separation,” in Optical Implementation of Information Processing, B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, eds., Proc. SPIE2565, 50–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

L. Hassebrook, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, “Performance measures for correlation filters,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2997–3006 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, “Distance classifier correlation filters using multiple eigenvectors for enhanced class separation,” in Optical Implementation of Information Processing, B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, eds., Proc. SPIE2565, 50–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, C. S.

Yocky, D. A.

Zhou, Y. T.

Y. T. Zhou, “Multi-sensor image fusion,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 193–197.

H. Li, Y. T. Zhou, R. Chellappa, “SAR/IR sensor image fusion and real-time implementation,” in Proceedings of the 29th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 1121–1125.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

Y. Pétillot, L. Guibert, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “Fingerprint recognition using a partially rotation invariant composite filter in a FLC joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 126, 213–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Maestre, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Pattern recognition using sequential matched filtering of wavelet coefficients,” Opt. Commun. 133, 401–414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. C. Harney, “Information-based approach to performance estimation and requirements allocation in multisensor fusion for target recognition,” Opt. Eng. 36, 789–798 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Guibert, G. Keryer, A. Servel, M. Attia, H. S. MacKenzie, P. Pellat-Finet, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “On-board optical joint transform correlator for real-time road sign recognition,” Opt. Eng. 34, 135–143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Gheen, “Design considerations for low-clutter, distorsion invariant correlation filters,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1029–1032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn.

A. V. Goncharsky, I. V. Kochikov, V. B. Shikalov, “Optical correlators in pattern recognition,” Pattern Recogn. 1, 440–449 (1991).

Other

H. H. Arsenault, “Pattern recognition, similarity, neural nets and optics,” in Optics in Complex Systems, F. Lanzl, G. Wiegelt, eds., Proc. SPIE1319, 380–384 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Zhou, “Multi-sensor image fusion,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 193–197.

A. Mahalanobis, B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, “Distance classifier correlation filters using multiple eigenvectors for enhanced class separation,” in Optical Implementation of Information Processing, B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, eds., Proc. SPIE2565, 50–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Y. T. Zhou, R. Chellappa, “SAR/IR sensor image fusion and real-time implementation,” in Proceedings of the 29th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 1121–1125.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conventional VanderLugt correlator, (b) composite filter correlator, (c) multichannel correlator with single input and replication optics (dotted–dashed line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Composite multichannel correlator, (b) segmented composite correlator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Content of the learning base.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PCE versus number of correlations. (a) Composite filter, (b) multichannel composite filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Segmented composite filter: design principle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Segmented filter (four class).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PCE versus number of correlations with a POF.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PCE versus number of correlations with a BPOF.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Simulations, (b) optical implementations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

PCE versus number of correlations. Experimental results.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical reponses when we present a picture belonging to (a) the learning basis and (b) the test basis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Filter Responses when Picture 1 Is Presented at the Input

Tables Icon

Table 2 PCE versus Number of Correlations

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

reference riTF Riν, μ=|Ri|ν, μexpjϕiν, μ,
references setripopt=i Cp,iopt|Ri|expjϕiexpjψi.
Eik, lm=0Nn=0N Eim, n=MaxEjk, lm=0Nn=0N Ejm, nji,
pBPOF=+1  for ep>0=-1  otherwise, pBPOF,opt  after a coefficient optimization Cp,iopt.

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