Abstract

The proportion of power carried in the superstrate medium by the guided modes of integrated optical waveguides can be increased by the addition of a thin high-index film. Enhanced refractive-index sensing is demonstrated with channel waveguide Mach–Zehnder interferometers with Ta2O5 overlays. Sensitivity increases by a factor greater than 50, and a detection limit better than 5 × 10-7 is obtained. This approach is broadly applicable to sensing at waveguide surfaces where the strength of evanescent fields dictates performance.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Stamm, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical difference interferometer as refractometer and chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 177–181 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Optical waveguide modelling and design for evanescent field chemical sensors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S249–S259 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. R. Quigley, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, “Sensitivity enhancement of integrated optical sensors by thin high index films,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 326–329.
  6. A. K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Numerical analysis of planar optical waveguides using matrix approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660–667 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kuck, R. Gottfried-Gottfried, “Refractive index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sens. Actuators A 60, 108–112 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kuck, R. Gottfried-Gottfried, “Refractive index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sens. Actuators A 60, 108–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Optical waveguide modelling and design for evanescent field chemical sensors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S249–S259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. Stamm, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical difference interferometer as refractometer and chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 177–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Numerical analysis of planar optical waveguides using matrix approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660–667 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Optical waveguide modelling and design for evanescent field chemical sensors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S249–S259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, N.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

A. K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Numerical analysis of planar optical waveguides using matrix approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660–667 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried-Gottfried, R.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kuck, R. Gottfried-Gottfried, “Refractive index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sens. Actuators A 60, 108–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haase, N.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kuck, R. Gottfried-Gottfried, “Refractive index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sens. Actuators A 60, 108–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

G. R. Quigley, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, “Sensitivity enhancement of integrated optical sensors by thin high index films,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 326–329.

Hollenbach, U.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuck, H.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kuck, R. Gottfried-Gottfried, “Refractive index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sens. Actuators A 60, 108–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

C. Stamm, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical difference interferometer as refractometer and chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 177–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Piehler, J.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quigley, G. R.

G. R. Quigley, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, “Sensitivity enhancement of integrated optical sensors by thin high index films,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 326–329.

Schubert, Th.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kuck, R. Gottfried-Gottfried, “Refractive index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sens. Actuators A 60, 108–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shenoy, M. R.

A. K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Numerical analysis of planar optical waveguides using matrix approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660–667 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stamm, C.

C. Stamm, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical difference interferometer as refractometer and chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 177–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Optical waveguide modelling and design for evanescent field chemical sensors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S249–S259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

A. K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Numerical analysis of planar optical waveguides using matrix approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660–667 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Quigley, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, “Sensitivity enhancement of integrated optical sensors by thin high index films,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 326–329.

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Numerical analysis of planar optical waveguides using matrix approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 660–667 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Optical waveguide modelling and design for evanescent field chemical sensors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, S249–S259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kuck, R. Gottfried-Gottfried, “Refractive index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sens. Actuators A 60, 108–112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Stamm, W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical difference interferometer as refractometer and chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 177–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. R. Quigley, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, “Sensitivity enhancement of integrated optical sensors by thin high index films,” in Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 326–329.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Power enhancement factor against high-index overlay thickness: (a) TE polarization and (b) TM polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of experimental integrated optical device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal response of interferometer to a pulse of sucrose solution of n = 1.342.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in phase of MZI output with sucrose solution index.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sensitivities and Detection Limits for MZI’s with Teflon FEP Isolation Layers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sensitivities and Detection Limits for MZI’s without Isolation Layers

Metrics