Abstract

A standoff method of detecting liquids on terrestrial and synthetic landscapes is presented. The interstitial liquid layers are identified through their unique molecular vibration modes in the 7.14–14.29-µm middle infrared (fingerprint) region of liberated thermal luminescence. Several seconds of 2.45-GHz beam exposure at 1.5 W cm-1 is sufficient for detecting polydimethyl siloxane lightly wetting the soil through its fundamental Si–CH3 and Si–O–Si stretching modes in the fingerprint region. A detection window of thermal opportunity opens as the surface attains maximum thermal gradient following irradiation by the microwave beam. The contaminant is revealed inside this window by means of a simple difference-spectrum measurement. Our goal is to reduce the time needed for optimum detection of the contaminant’s thermal spectrum to a subsecond exposure from a limited intensity beam.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Verstraete, R. E. Dickinson, “A physical model of the bidirectional reflectance of vegetation canopies. 2. Inversion and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11,767–11,775 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. Narayanan, S. E. Green, D. R. Alexander, “Midinfrared laser reflectance of moist soils,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6043–6052 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. C. Snyder, W. Zhengming, “Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2216–2220 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. L. Thomson, J. W. Salisbury, “Midinfrared reflectance of mineral mixtures (7–14 µm),” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(1), 1–13 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. N. Pearson, M. Harris, D. V. Willetts, P. R. Tapster, P. J. Roberts, “Differential laser absorption and thermal emission for remote identification of opaque surface coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2713–2720 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. L. Lee, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVRR data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 43(1), 67–85 (1993).
  9. A. Hayden, “Determination of trace-gas amounts in plumes by the use of orthogonal digital filtering of thermal-emission spectra,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2802–2809 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. P. Gaikovich, “Stochastic theory of temperature distribution and thermal emission of half-space with random time-dependent surface temperature,” IEEE Trans. Geosc. Remote Sens. 34, 582–587 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. G. Bulatov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. G. Pungin, E. I. Skvortsov, “Effect of rainfall on sea-surface microwave thermal emission,” Waves Random Media 8(1), 103–109 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Courtois, C. Thiebeaux, A. Delahaigue, J. C. Mouanda, “Thermal emission detection by laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22(2), 131–135 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. H. Carrieri, “Infrared detection of liquids on terrestrial surfaces by CO2 laser heating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4907–4913 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. M. Haugland, E. Z. Bahar, A. H. Carrieri, “Identification of contaminant coatings over rough surfaces using polarized infrared scattering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3847–3852 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. H. Carrieri, J. R. Bottiger, D. J. Owens, E. S. Roese, “Differential absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and the infrared detection of crystalline organics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6550–6557 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. H. Carrieri, “Neural network pattern recognition by means of differential absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3759–3766 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. H. Carrieri, P. I. Lim, “Neural network pattern recognition of thermal-signature spectra for chemical defense,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2623–2635 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

A. H. Carrieri, J. R. Bottiger, D. J. Owens, E. S. Roese, “Differential absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and the infrared detection of crystalline organics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6550–6557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Bulatov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. G. Pungin, E. I. Skvortsov, “Effect of rainfall on sea-surface microwave thermal emission,” Waves Random Media 8(1), 103–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

1993 (3)

R. M. Narayanan, S. E. Green, D. R. Alexander, “Midinfrared laser reflectance of moist soils,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6043–6052 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Thomson, J. W. Salisbury, “Midinfrared reflectance of mineral mixtures (7–14 µm),” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(1), 1–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Lee, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVRR data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 43(1), 67–85 (1993).

1992 (2)

T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Haugland, E. Z. Bahar, A. H. Carrieri, “Identification of contaminant coatings over rough surfaces using polarized infrared scattering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3847–3852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

M. M. Verstraete, R. E. Dickinson, “A physical model of the bidirectional reflectance of vegetation canopies. 2. Inversion and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11,767–11,775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Courtois, C. Thiebeaux, A. Delahaigue, J. C. Mouanda, “Thermal emission detection by laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22(2), 131–135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Carrieri, “Infrared detection of liquids on terrestrial surfaces by CO2 laser heating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4907–4913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, D. R.

Bahar, E. Z.

Baumgardner, M. F.

T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Becker, F.

Z. L. Lee, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVRR data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 43(1), 67–85 (1993).

Bothwell, G.

A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bottiger, J. R.

Bulatov, M. G.

M. G. Bulatov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. G. Pungin, E. I. Skvortsov, “Effect of rainfall on sea-surface microwave thermal emission,” Waves Random Media 8(1), 103–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrieri, A. H.

Coster, D. C.

T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, D.

D. Courtois, C. Thiebeaux, A. Delahaigue, J. C. Mouanda, “Thermal emission detection by laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22(2), 131–135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Delahaigue, A.

D. Courtois, C. Thiebeaux, A. Delahaigue, J. C. Mouanda, “Thermal emission detection by laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22(2), 131–135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, R. E.

M. M. Verstraete, R. E. Dickinson, “A physical model of the bidirectional reflectance of vegetation canopies. 2. Inversion and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11,767–11,775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Franzmeier, D. P.

T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gaikovich, K. P.

K. P. Gaikovich, “Stochastic theory of temperature distribution and thermal emission of half-space with random time-dependent surface temperature,” IEEE Trans. Geosc. Remote Sens. 34, 582–587 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Green, S. E.

Harris, M.

Haugland, S. M.

Hayden, A.

Henderson, T. L.

T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hook, S. J.

A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, A. B.

A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kravtsov, Yu. A.

M. G. Bulatov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. G. Pungin, E. I. Skvortsov, “Effect of rainfall on sea-surface microwave thermal emission,” Waves Random Media 8(1), 103–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. L.

Z. L. Lee, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVRR data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 43(1), 67–85 (1993).

Lim, P. I.

Mouanda, J. C.

D. Courtois, C. Thiebeaux, A. Delahaigue, J. C. Mouanda, “Thermal emission detection by laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22(2), 131–135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, R. M.

Owens, D. J.

Palluconi, F. D.

A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, G. N.

Pungin, V. G.

M. G. Bulatov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. G. Pungin, E. I. Skvortsov, “Effect of rainfall on sea-surface microwave thermal emission,” Waves Random Media 8(1), 103–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Realmuto, J.

A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

Roese, E. S.

Salisbury, J. W.

J. L. Thomson, J. W. Salisbury, “Midinfrared reflectance of mineral mixtures (7–14 µm),” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(1), 1–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, E. I.

M. G. Bulatov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. G. Pungin, E. I. Skvortsov, “Effect of rainfall on sea-surface microwave thermal emission,” Waves Random Media 8(1), 103–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W. C.

Stott, D. E.

T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

Thiebeaux, C.

D. Courtois, C. Thiebeaux, A. Delahaigue, J. C. Mouanda, “Thermal emission detection by laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22(2), 131–135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, J. L.

J. L. Thomson, J. W. Salisbury, “Midinfrared reflectance of mineral mixtures (7–14 µm),” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(1), 1–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M. M.

M. M. Verstraete, R. E. Dickinson, “A physical model of the bidirectional reflectance of vegetation canopies. 2. Inversion and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11,767–11,775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Willetts, D. V.

Zhengming, W.

Appl. Opt. (9)

R. M. Narayanan, S. E. Green, D. R. Alexander, “Midinfrared laser reflectance of moist soils,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6043–6052 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Snyder, W. Zhengming, “Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2216–2220 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Pearson, M. Harris, D. V. Willetts, P. R. Tapster, P. J. Roberts, “Differential laser absorption and thermal emission for remote identification of opaque surface coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2713–2720 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hayden, “Determination of trace-gas amounts in plumes by the use of orthogonal digital filtering of thermal-emission spectra,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2802–2809 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Carrieri, “Infrared detection of liquids on terrestrial surfaces by CO2 laser heating,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4907–4913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Haugland, E. Z. Bahar, A. H. Carrieri, “Identification of contaminant coatings over rough surfaces using polarized infrared scattering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3847–3852 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Carrieri, J. R. Bottiger, D. J. Owens, E. S. Roese, “Differential absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and the infrared detection of crystalline organics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6550–6557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Carrieri, “Neural network pattern recognition by means of differential absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3759–3766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Carrieri, P. I. Lim, “Neural network pattern recognition of thermal-signature spectra for chemical defense,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2623–2635 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Geosc. Remote Sens. (1)

K. P. Gaikovich, “Stochastic theory of temperature distribution and thermal emission of half-space with random time-dependent surface temperature,” IEEE Trans. Geosc. Remote Sens. 34, 582–587 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. (1)

A. B. Kahle, F. D. Palluconi, S. J. Hook, J. Realmuto, G. Bothwell, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER),” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3(2), 144–156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

M. M. Verstraete, R. E. Dickinson, “A physical model of the bidirectional reflectance of vegetation canopies. 2. Inversion and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11,767–11,775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

D. Courtois, C. Thiebeaux, A. Delahaigue, J. C. Mouanda, “Thermal emission detection by laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22(2), 131–135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

J. L. Thomson, J. W. Salisbury, “Midinfrared reflectance of mineral mixtures (7–14 µm),” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(1), 1–13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Lee, F. Becker, “Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVRR data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 43(1), 67–85 (1993).

Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. (1)

T. L. Henderson, M. F. Baumgardner, D. P. Franzmeier, D. E. Stott, D. C. Coster, “High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 865–872 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

M. G. Bulatov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. G. Pungin, E. I. Skvortsov, “Effect of rainfall on sea-surface microwave thermal emission,” Waves Random Media 8(1), 103–109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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